Method and device analog selection and accumulation of pulse signals

 

The invention relates to the processing of pulse signals generated in the form of a pseudo-random binary sequence (SRP). The technical result is to simplify and improve the efficiency of accumulation of weak signals. For this convolution SRP carry out the measurement of the difference accumulated in the storage device for the time of one bit of the next levels (signal + noise) and (interference) and summarize the obtained every bit of power levels on the analog stick. With this change the parameters of the pre-filter and storage devices depending on the current polarity reference SRP. 2 S. and 3 C.p. f-crystals, 9 Il.

The invention relates to techniques for processing pulsed electric signals generated to study and measure the extent and nature of the attenuation of electromagnetic waves propagating in different environments.

It can find application in radar, exploration, astronomy, communication (control FOCL).

The proposed method is the development of coherent processing methods pseudo-random 5-correlated sequences (SRP), allowing high efficiency to accumulate weak the van the development of this method.

Analogs of the invention are, for example, optimal filters (PF) pulse signals described in [1]. From analogues of the invention uses an integrating element as a functional element, the subtraction signal and the drive pulses in the form of a rebreather. However, the analogue OF [1] suggest the use of delay lines, which in the long SRP results in insurmountable difficulties, especially because of the delay should be changed.

The prototype of the invention taken method (and device) optical time domain reflectometer HP 8145 And Hewlett Packard [2-5], with correlation convolution good Delta - correlated code and digital signal processing immediately from the output of the receiver (Fig.9).

Correlation reception involves the use and accumulation of energy of all bits of the SRP. In the current prototype the parcel is transferred during the first half of the bit, the second half of the bit - pause, space - on the contrary. OTDR other firms working on the bundle only current parcel.

The proposed method and device save energy, do not have limitations in sensitivity to the input signal and perform just.

The invention consists in the following.

The proposed method measure p is irout received every bit of power levels on the analog stick (type recirculator). Because at the same time in the same channel to measure separately the levels (signal + noise) and (interference) is not possible, it is proposed to measure their "turn", in accordance with the current alternating "1" and "0" in the SRP, refresh - if the next bit is not changed by the valence, and be used to obtain the difference (signal - noise) - (interference) on each bit.

The procedure is illustrated in Fig.1. If you count the video impulse signal with amplitude a and durationandnoise - stationary normal noise with correlation function Kr() =2rexp[-||], and as integrators to use chain RC, t2comparing the memorized duringandat time t1signal level averaged overandthe resulting RMS noise level signal/noise in the differential stage is [6]:=1/RiC1, i=1,2 E = A2and(here taken into account that when you subtract acorralada fact, because at the entrance of the entire receiver is acting white noise withand the device is preceded by a low-pass filter-RC, see Fig.2, providing an undistorted reception of the SRP with limiting the total noise power at the input of the drive.

The results of calculationpfor rational values of the parametersandpresented on Fig.3.

But in reality, it is necessary to consider the correlation between noise samples at intervals(and),and+nand). When you subtract the normal noise resulting dispersion is equal to2p=2ξ(t)+2ξ(t+)-2(t)(t-)R() ...(2) the Author obtained the following formula for Kr():

From the formula (1) it is easy to see that any correlation betweenin excess of the values calculated by the formula (1), where we have taken2p= 22. Even more interestingly, when R()>0,52(t2can come very close to the value of
Anyway, when=12,= 0,1 havewhat gives, in comparison with the correlation technique of videokursov comparable result.

But the proposed method can be enhanced.

The idea is that the integrated levels of the current positions of the signal, i.e. the (signal + noise), measured under the same values of the parametersandand the levels of no-current position (interference) - other. The selection criteriaandis to maximizep(,).

The first step in this direction is the narrowing of the band of the input filter on the reception intervals during Inesta signal and heterodyne" of the SRP.

Here is an example calculation with variations.

Measure the signal atand= 10,and= 0,1:m = 0,086065,21= 0,0163, R1(and) = 0,003622.

Measure noise whenand= 1,and= 0,1:22= 0,006625, R1(and) = 0,0009048.

Then,2p= (cm.f-Lu (2)) = 0,019305.

But in f-Lu (1) it is necessary to substitute half of this value, since deuce left in the numerator.

So,.

The gain in comparison with the prototype 0,877/0,707=1,24 times.

The narrowing of the strip may be provided with a connection capacity C1(see Fig. 2) an additional capacitor.

Interesting convolution of the signal with the search purpose on this method. In Fig.7 shows the mechanism of reception signal sequence shown in Fig.6, but with offsetand.

A in Fig. 8 is the result of convolution for SRP with N=26. When poeticheski destination search and better with increasing delay of the SRP, because the right branch of a convolution of the more favorable (N=26 positive emission is not).

Device analog accumulation pulse signals (ANISE) contains as main and, at the same time, distinctive elements, see Fig.4 and 5, two channels of memory levels: ZU-1 (signal + interferer) and ZU-0 (interferer) and differential cascade P(1-0). The third main element of the device is known analog drive (N), for example recirculator. Other known, but the supporting elements of the device: input (preliminary) low pass filter, generator, pseudorandom binary sequence (SRP) with good Delta autocorrelation, the inverter of the SRP, the discrete scheme (n bits) offset of the SRP, the count of clock pulses of the SRP, the pattern of formation of clock pulses, and pulse record and reset.

Inputs ZU-1 and MP-0 connected respectively through the 1st and 2nd keys to the output of pre-filter, and exits through the keys of the 3rd and 4th respectively for not inverting and inverting inputs P(1-0), the output P(1-0) connected to one of the two summing inputs of the drive and to the second input drive is connected to the output of the integrator in the feedback circuit of the drive output namethatmovie with the generator output of the SRP and inverter SRP, control inputs of the keys To a3and K4connected with the output pulse of the write pattern.

Parallel storage tanks C1and C2storage devices connected to the keys, respectively, To5and K6control inputs are connected to the outputs of keys K7and K8signal inputs are connected to the output pulses of the reset shaping circuit, and control inputs, respectively, with the output of the generator SRP and inverter SRP.

Parallel storage tanks3and C4drive N and integrator feedback connected keys9and K10control inputs are connected to the output of the counter clock pulses of the SRP.

The cumulative input capacity3drive N connected to the input of the drive through key11the control input of which is connected to the output pulses of the write pattern.

The constant charge capacitor C3, capacity4TK4nnwhere n is the number of bits of the SRP. Excitation recirculator excluded due to the pulse mode operation of the feedback circuit.

The connection of the main and auxiliary materials Ista, shown in Fig.6.

The device operates as follows.

At intervals of time equal to the duration of one bit, is an accumulation of energy of the current parcels and smoothing fluctuations of the noise, but always in the differential stage compares the last measured level (+W) and the last measured level (W). The difference in the moments of fixing these levels often equaland(bit time), at least - 2andand so on

In the differential stage is the comparison of these levels by subtracting: (+W) -(W), and in the drive - accumulation levels for the entire sequence of bits SRP (and current and no-current). It is lawful for every bit (and current and no-current) carries information load, reflected in the convolution of the SRP.

Compare the effectiveness of ANISE (and how) with the prototype.

As you can see from the printout of calculationpwide variations in the parametersandhavepmax= 0,95. The win in comparison with the prototype is 0.95/0,707= 1.34 times - of 2.54 dB. As well as in the prototype ADC is used, this gain increases to 3,54 .2(t) is the noise variance.

Fig.2 is an explanatory drawing about the role of prior low-pass filter.

Fig.3 - the results of the calculation of the signal-to-noise ratio P(1-0).

Fig.4 - basic elements of the device, explanations are in the text.

Fig.5 - the device in full, distinctive items circled by the dotted line.

Here 1 - pre-filter LF, 2 and 3 channels of memory levels of signal and interference, 4 - differential cascade, 5 - drive differential levels 6 - generator SRP, 7 - inverter SRP, 8 - shaper clock pulses and pulse record and reset, 9 - count clock pulses of the SRP, 10 - diagram of the shift sequence of the SRP.

Fig.6 is a graph of voltages at various points on the device: (a) the SRP, b) is the inverse of the SRP, in) - pulse recording, g) - pulses reset ZU-1, d) - exit ZU-1, e) - exit ZU-0, j) - pulses reset ZU-0, C) - non-inverting input P(1-0), and - the output P(1-0), K) is the voltage on the capacity of the drive, l) - voltage on the capacitance of the integrator in the feedback circuit of the drive.

Fig.7 - mechanism convolution SRP shear= +and.
a) the SRP, b) signal sequence, in) - the work of the cumulative capacity ZU-0, g) - operations cumulative capacity is the type.

The device was tested on the model. As ZU and N were used pair OS (enabled repeaters) with included between chains RC. As keys used chip CR KN. When the capacity of the meter SRP N=50 ratio at the output was improved (compared to the input) ~ 7-8 times,
SRP was formed by adding the output of the 1-, 4-, 5 - and 7-th bits of the 8-bit shift register in the adder, the output of which is connected to the input of the register. When mentioned capacitance meter SRP nearest release convolution of the SRP is
R(= +and) = -6/50 = -0,12,
that is not worse than theoretical.

Sources of information
1. Y. S. Lezin. Optimal filters and the drive pulse signals. M., 1969.

2. Test and Measurement. Catalog Hewlett Packard, 1989.

3. Marht und Technik, 1987, 5, s. 52-54.

4. Fiberoptic Product News, 1987, 2, R. 43.

5. Preliminary project "compass-14". NGO "Dynamics", 1992.

6. C. I. Tikhonov. Statistical radio engineering. M.-L., 1966.


Claims

1. The way analog convolution of a binary pseudo-random sequence (SRP) of the additive mixture with noise, which measure the difference accumulated in the storage devices for the s levels on the analog stick, and narrow band pre-filter at the intervals of reception space parcels and change the parameter storage devices during the transition from the current reception of the parcel to the receiving space and back.

2. Device analog convolution of a binary pseudo-random sequence that contains the binary generator SRP with high Delta-autocorrelation of the input pre-low pass filter (LPF), the inverter binary SRP, the count of clock pulses, a method of forming clock pulses, pulses of record and reset circuit discrete offset binary SRP, the drive of the results of the subtraction levels, characterized in that it contains two parallel channel memory levels: ZU-1 (signal + noise) and ZU-0 (interference) and differential cascade, and inputs ZU-1 and MP-0 connected, respectively, through the keys K1and K2the output of pre-filter, and exits through the keys To a3and K4accordingly, not inverting and inverting inputs of a differential cascade, the output of which is connected to one of the two summing inputs of the drive and to the second input drive is connected to the output of the integrator in the feedback circuit of the drive output of the drive is connected to the input Interwetten, with the generator output binary SRP and inverter binary SRP control inputs of the keys To a3and K4connected with the output pulse of the write pattern.

3. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that parallel to the accumulating capacitors C1and C2a memory device connected to the keys, respectively, To5and K6control inputs are connected to the outputs of the keys To a7and K8signal inputs are connected to the output pulses of the reset shaping circuit, and control inputs, respectively, with the generator output binary SRP and inverter binary SRP.

4. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the parallel storage tanks3and C4drive and integrator in the feedback circuit of the drive connected the keys To the9and K10control inputs are connected to the output of the counter clock pulses.

5. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the inlet of the storage tank With3the drive is connected to a summing input of the drive through key11the control input of which is connected to the output pulse of the recording pattern.

 

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