The method of conservation of flooded compartments of nuclear power plants for long-term storage
The invention relates to the field of nuclear energy and relates to the conservation of flooded compartments of nuclear power plants for long-term storage. The method of conservation of compartments nuclear power plants includes the filling of the reactor compartment of grout curing substances. In the housing compartment to form at least two openings, one of which is performed in the upper part. The filling of the reactor compartment of grout curing substances is the pipeline through the second hole. This solution is a blend of inorganic binders. The mixture contains a salt solution-electrolyte with a density of 1.2-1.3 g/cm3, magnesium oxide and a substance resistant to leaching by water, for example silicon oxide. Displaced as a result of the compartment fluid through located in the upper part of the hole is directed to a holding tank for liquid radioactive waste for further recycling. As a result of use of the invention solves the problem of conservation of flooded reactor compartments with low-cost natural materials, providing reliable nuclear, radiation and ecological legless storage. 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of nuclear energy and relates to the conservation of dry and flooded compartments of nuclear power plants for long term storage.There is a method of curing radioactive waste by fixing them in the mass of a substance resistant to leaching by water under the patent 1036257 (Sweden), including mixed radioactive waste substances, resistant to leaching, loading the mixture into a capsule made of a rigid material with a high melting point, sealing the capsule and processing isostatic pressing at high pressure. In the specified way capsule filled with a mixture containing 2.5 to 40% of the radioactive waste and 60-97,5% hardening substances selected from the group SiO2In2About3, Al2About3, MgO, TiO2, Zr2O3, Fe2O3, Fe3O4, CR2About3and isostatic pressure is carried out at a temperature of 700-1350oC and a pressure of 50-300 MPa.The disadvantage of this method for the conservation of flooded compartments of nuclear power plants is a technological incompatibility with the terms of the compartments and their physical characteristics.The known is Loka Chernobyl nuclear power plant, consisting in the production block of the sarcophagus around the emergency reactor (C. I. Total, "Object "Shelter": solving problems and prospects". Proceedings of the III International scientific-practical conference "Shelter - 98", Slavutich, 1998, page 3).This method has the disadvantages that, in the case of its use for conservation of flooded compartments of nuclear power plants: production of the sarcophagus in the underwater space requires high material and labor costs, as you first need to create around the flooded compartment caisson, to pump the air out of it and then start work on concrete sarcophagus. The effectiveness of concrete sarcophagus built around the flooded compartment is low, as a result of exposure to sea water for cement is increasing its porosity and, ultimately, destruction. The high porosity of cement (about 20% of the volume) leads to a significant migration of radionuclides through the wall of the sarcophagus, which has a radiation impact on the environment. The construction of a massive concrete sarcophagus around the flooded compartment significantly increases its weight and size characteristics, which creates an additional tehkseven.net equipment and materials inside the compartment, as shown on the "Shelter" around the fourth block of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, leads to nuclear and radiological threat to the external environment.There is also known a method of conservation of emergency nuclear power plants by poured concrete all available volumes of the unit with overall direction from the reactor to the periphery of the block, from the lower grades to the top (C. M. so far, "the Transformation of the Shelter object into an ecologically safe system". Materials 2thscientific and technical conference devoted to the 10ththe anniversary of the completion of the construction of the object "Shelter", Slavutich, 1997, page 142).The known method has drawbacks when it is used for conservation of flooded compartments of nuclear power plants. Thus, the concrete even in the dry state has a sufficiently high (up to 20% of the volume) porosity, which leads to the migration of radionuclides through the concrete layer and in turn does not provide nuclear, radiation and ecological safety. Under the influence of marine water, the porosity of the concrete increases, it facilitates the migration of radionuclides and radiation increases the threat to the environment.In addition, the concrete does not have high projectrole, that does not provide nuclear, radiation and ecological safety during long-term storage canned therefore compartments of nuclear power plants.There is also known a method of conservation of flooded compartments of nuclear power plants for long term storage, described in the patent of the Russian Federation 2081464 and provides isolation of the radioactive object in liquid solution cured substances prototype.The task of the invention is to provide a method of conservation of flooded compartments of nuclear power plants with low-cost natural materials, providing reliable nuclear, radiation and ecological safety locking inside compartment of the equipment at their long-term storage and, if necessary, they rise from the watery depths and transportation in a designated long-term storage.For this purpose, in the known method of conservation of flooded compartments of nuclear power plants by filling liquid solution cured substances in the body compartment to form at least two openings, one of which perform at the top of the compartment, and the filling of the reactor compartment of the liquid, R the solution is a blend of inorganic binders, seizing later in the solid mass containing the salt solution-electrolyte density of 1.2-1.3 g/cm3, magnesium oxide and a substance resistant to leaching by water, for example, silicon oxide. As the salt of the electrolyte can be used a solution of chloride of magnesium, as magnesium oxide - caustic magnesite, as well as substances that are resistant to leaching sea water, you can choose the substance of a number of SiO2In2About3, Al2O3, TiO2, Fe2About3, Fe3O4, TiO. Displaced as a result of filling of the reactor compartment liquid solution of the liquid out of it through the hole located in the upper part thereof, is directed to filling the tank of liquid radioactive waste for further recycling.Performing in the housing compartment of at least two holes, one of which is located in the upper part, ensures the filling of the reactor compartment of grout curing substances, and through the top hole full displacement in the flooded compartment fluid.Filling the reactor compartment blend of inorganic binders containing salt solution-electrolyte density of 1.2-1.3 g/cm3, magnesium oxide e solution with the formation of a dense Campobasso mass with low porosity, high strength and resistance to sea water, which creates a reliable barrier to the migration of radionuclides through the environment that provides reliable nuclear, radiation and ecological safety during prolonged storage compartments nuclear power plants. In addition, it allows, if necessary, to ensure their lifting and transportation.The method of conservation of flooded compartments of nuclear power plants is carried out as follows (see drawing).In the case of compartment 1 form at least two openings 2, 3, one of which 2 is carried out in the upper part. Through the second hole 3 in compartment 1 via line 4 serves a blend of inorganic binders 5 containing salt electrolyte solution density of 1.2-1.3 g/cm3, magnesium oxide and a substance resistant to leaching by water, for example, silicon oxide, which subsequently seizes into a solid mass and resulting americium reactor compartment locking inside it equipment 6. This mixture is served in the reactor compartment until filling is complete. Displaced from compartment 1, the liquid 7 by submission of this mixture 5 in compartment 1 is collected in nakapasok compartment can securely for the environment to be stored for a long time. If necessary, such a reactor compartment can be safely lifted and transported in a designated long-term storage.The proposed method of conservation of flooded compartments nuclear power plants can be used for conservation of dry compartments for long term storage. In this case, the task is simplified because there is no need to collect liquid radioactive waste.
ClaimsThe method of conservation of flooded compartments of nuclear power plants for long term storage, including the isolation of nuclear power plant reactor compartment from the environment by stacking around her liquid solution cured substances, characterized in that the isolation of nuclear power plants is performed by filling the reactor compartment liquid solution composed of a mixture of inorganic binders containing salt solution-electrolyte with a density of 1.2-1.3 g/cm3, magnesium oxide and a substance resistant to leaching by water, for example, silicon oxide, with simultaneous displacement of the compartment fluid, pre-in the case of the reactor compartment is formed by extreme measures is through the second hole in the pipelines carry out the filling of the reactor compartment of grout curing substances, and displaced from the compartment, the liquid is directed into the storage tank of liquid radioactive waste for further recycling.
FIELD: isolation and neutralization of burial of hazardous matters on the bottom of water basins.
SUBSTANCE: method is based upon limiting contact of hazardous matters with water by means of covering them with loose material. Accumulations of hazardous matters washed out at bottom ground from metal tanks are neutralized by means of covering with crushed shale. Preferably the hazardous matters on the bottom which matters accumulate in metal vessels, missiles, bombs and in cases of sunken vessels should be covered with crushed aluminosilicate before being covered with crushed shale.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of neutralization.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: processing of condensed hazardous substances and industrial wastes and safe storage of powdered, granulated or liquid hazardous and toxic substances which are chemical wastes, including pesticides, toxic chemicals, defoliants, dangerous compounds of heavy metals, war toxins etc, which are unfit for further utilization.
SUBSTANCE: method involves treating condensed hazardous substances with protective binding material, followed by hardening and forming; preliminarily preparing liquid solution of protective binding material in the form of aluminosilicate solution of nepheline in 10-20%-solution of sulfuric or hydrochloric acid with acid norm of 1.0-1.15 and pH within the range of 2.8-3.8; processing condensed hazardous substances in dispersed state by mixing with aluminosilicate solution; pouring resulted mixture into reservoir for further hardening and forming by gelling said mixture in the form of mineral-matrix system; adjusting time of gelling said mixture of liquid solution of binding material with hazardous substances in dispersed state by adding alkaline into said aluminosilicate solution or mixture.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in immobilization and safe storage during period of time ranging between several months and dozens of years of gel-like mineral-matrix system of comparatively wide class of hazardous, toxic or other hazardous substances in powdered, granulated or liquid state.
2 cl, 8 ex
FIELD: destruction and preliminary salvaging of armament and military equipment.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in the fact that, prior to destruction of items, they are additionally checked for presence of dangerously explosive, dangerously radiant, biologically dangerous elements, if dangerous elements are present, they are removed or the item is subjected to the respective rendering harmless, after that and up to its disassembly to components, an additionall roentgenofluorescent analysis of distribution of precious metals inside its body is performed, on the basis of the obtained roentgenofluorescentgram of the item the rational layout and cutting of its body at its destruction is determined, destruction of items is conducted by plasma and mechanical cutting of its body, mechanized and/or manual disassembly of the item contents, disassembly of the components into metal and non-metal waste, sorting of metal indivisible waste into non-ferrous, ferrous metal waste and waste containing precious metal is performed at points of dislocation or storage of the items of armament and military equipment, the percentage of precious materials on the surface and in the allays of the metal waste is determined instrumentally by the method of roentgenofluorescent analysis.
EFFECT: expanded range of possible objects of salvaging and depth of preliminary salvaging of objects of armament and military equipment.
7 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of technical equipment objects recycling. Method of recycling includes making diagram of product de-structuring, product de-structuring into components by means of its disassembly and/or cutting, separation of product components into metal and non-metal indivisible wastes, sorting of indivisible mechanical wastes into ferrous, non-ferrous and precious metal containing scrap. Prior to product de-structuring products are checked for availability of explosive, radiation-hazardous, biologically hazardous and chemically dangerous elements, removal of detected hazardous elements and their neutralisation are carried out, and distribution of precious metals inside the product is determined by method of X-ray fluorescence analysis. After the product has been de-structured into components, components are checked for serviceability and/or maintainability, and serviceable and maintainable elements are picked out. Separation of components into indivisible wastes and their sorting into ferrous, non-ferrous and precious metal containing metals is done only in respect to non-maintainable components of product. Method provides reduction of losses in recycling and return of serviceable and maintainable units and parts of recycled products for repeated use.
EFFECT: reduction of losses in recycling and return of serviceable and maintainable units and parts of recycled products for repeated use.
3 cl, 2 dwg