The invention relates to tunnelling, more precisely, to construct using tunneling shields tunnels large extent under the sea or river bottom without excavation provided shallow shield from the bottom of the sea or the river to the arch, the height of which varies from 1 to 10 m, depending on soil type and profile of the bottom. The objective of the invention is to improve the functionality and efficiency of the shield. Mechanised shield consists of item destruction of rock, shell shield for safe operations and placement mechanisms of movement imposed on the supporting ring, the sealing device to prevent rocks in the tunnel and contains a blank separating the work area from the face wall, the perimeter of which are mounted the hoses. The element of destruction breeds made in the form of tapered faceplate reversing the rotation elements of the cutting blade and the cells that serves liquefied soil to the vaulted part of the shield and create conditions spreading soil over the tunnel and the water space. The diameter of the tapered faceplate may exceed the diameter of the shield, and in this embodiment, the axis of the shield is shifted by the difference of the diameters. 1 C.p. f-crystals. 6 Il. Known mechanized shield with hydraulic prigruzkoj with cassono and the normal zone and consisting of the cutting body, the faceplate excavation, shell shield for safe operations, support ring with the mechanisms of movement of the main shaft with hydraulic motors, bottom walls, jacks lapping the gateway apparatus, the sealing device to prevent the ingress of soil into the tunnel from the face and other mechanisms /1/.The disadvantages of this device is that when developing a soil cutter body with the content in the rock large fractions of gravel and boulders last broke down, needed replacement, and under certain hydrostatic pressure was the collapse of the face, and also had a leak thixotropic slurry into the soil and groundwater inflow to the pit, which led to stoppage of work and extra work and costs. In addition, when the length of the tunnel more than 1 km has created the need to overload the soil in wagons, construction of additional trunks and caisson. In some cases, has created the need for chemical fixation of the soil, isotropy and slurry additives, the use of additional equipment and materials associated with emergency.The objective of the invention is to improve the functionality and efficiency of the shield.The problem is solved by the fact that mechanized shield composed of an element of destruction rocks, shell shield for safe operations and placement mechanisms of movement imposed on the supporting ring, the sealing device to prevent rocks in the tunnel contains a blank separating the work area from the face wall, the perimeter of which are mounted the hose element and the destruction of the breed made in the form of tapered faceplate reversing the rotation elements of the cutting blade and the cells that serves liquefied soil to the vaulted part of the shield and create conditions spreading soil over the tunnel and the water.In another embodiment, the mechanized shield diameter tapered faceplate greater than the diameter of shita, and the axis of the shield is shifted by the difference of the diameters.Due to the conical design of the faceplate, the use of water supplied under pressure, and the deaf partition changes the technology works, no hydraulicpowered. Reversing the rotation of the faceplate eliminates jamming of the faceplate and its breakdown. Through pipes to the water under pressure around the perimeter of the cutting part of the faceplate, the eroded soil with silt and thanks lobed cells during the rotation of the faceplate rises to the pivot part of the shield, creating conditions for the destruction of the top soil layer and, accordingly, the possibility of moving shield. Through education in the pit cutback ground it spreads over the tunnel and water.When dense solidity of the ground a large extent used the shield with offset axis of the shield to pivot part, with table diameter greater than the diameter of the shield on the offset value to create a downhole space.The proposed device is illustrated graphics.In Fig.1 shows a longitudinal section of the shield. In Fig.2 is a cross section a-a of Fig.3 - cross section b-b of Fig.4 is a variant of the cross-section of the shield with offset axis, Fig.5 is a cross section C-C of Fig.6 is a cross section D-D.Mechanised shield consists of a tapered faceplate 1, which is the cutting body of the shield, with a flow cell 2 and blades 3. The hose 4 is placed around the perimeter of the deaf perehara the AET gear 7, rack and pinion jacks 8 performing reverse rotation, the main shaft 9, jacks feeder 10 of the faceplate 1, the support ring of the shield 11, the water pipeline 12, legs 13 to supply faceplate 1, jacks Prodigy shield 14, the enclosure 15. The shield also comprises a sealing device 16, which prevents the ingress of soil into the tunnel and block covering the lining of the tunnel 17.The device operates as follows. To start work, including the faceplate 1 and the water pipeline 12. Water under pressure from the hoses 4 blurs and part of the shield, freeing space for the promotion of the shield. Jacks feeder 10 feeds the faceplate 1 forward and create conditions for Prodigy shield jacks 14. Given the shallow slope of the tunnel in the soil under the influence of the sea water pressure on the upper arched portion of the shield, the arch collapses, forming a pit cutback primer and it allows for reversing the rotation of the faceplate 1 to avoid jamming and to promote the shield jacks Prodigy 14 forward on the face. Liquefied soil, mixed with mud, spread and compacted over the tunnel space. The sealing device 16, as the cuff pressure together with the ground on the outside of the tubbing or any other lining tunnel is ti use the shield with offset axis of the shield to pivot part.Sources of information 1. RF patent 2151296, CL E 21 D 9/08, publ. 20.06.2000.
Claims1. Mechanised shield composed of an element of destruction rocks, shell shield for safe operations and placement mechanisms of movement imposed on the supporting ring, the sealing device to prevent rocks in the tunnel, characterized in that it contains a blank separating the work area from the face wall, the perimeter of which are mounted the hose element and the destruction of the breed made in the form of tapered faceplate reversing the rotation elements of the cutting blade and cells.2. Mechanised shield under item 1, characterized in that the diameter of the tapered faceplate greater than the diameter of the shield, and the axis of the shield is shifted by the difference of the diameters.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has frontal, two side and two conical working tools with rock-destroying tools on outer surfaces, drives, rigidly connected to axes of each working tool, and displacement mechanism, connected to guides, placed at angle relatively to each other, which angle is determined from mathematical expression. Frontal and each of side working tools are made in form of two rotation bodies, having arced forming lines with given value of convexity. Axes of frontal working tool and axes of two conical working tools are rigidly connected to guides, axes of upper rotation body of frontal working tool being displaced relatively to axis of its lower rotation body towards pit-face, and axes of each pair of side working tools are jointly connected to each other and to guides. Frontal working tool may be made in form of several modules.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: underground structure building, particularly for forming underground tunnels and collectors.
SUBSTANCE: method involves excavating ground with cutting tool; regulating kentledge pressure in rotor chamber and backfilling annular tubing space. Kentledge pressure is automatically adjusting with that of enclosing ground exerting pressure on shield case by means of membranes. The membranes are installed in shield case and are permanently subjected to actual enclosing ground pressure. Backfilling operation is performed through end part of shield case immediately after shield case movement.
EFFECT: prevention of ground and object deformation in tunnel boring machine movement area, increased backfill layer elasticity and tunnel lining impermeability.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: tunnel construction, particularly devices to construct hydroelectric power plant floodgates and to build motor roads and rail roads in mountains.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating conditions favorable for chemical reaction between chemical element oxides basically constituting rock and graphite for rock fusion. For this rock is heated up to high temperature at face by thermal electric arc energy transmission through metal front tunneling machine wall. Electric arc is generated between electrodes inside discharge chambers arranged on inner surface of front tunneling machine wall. Electric current is supplied to electrodes via graphite mass moving through electrically-insulated pipes. Graphite is forced via electrodes and introduced into face through nozzles connected to front tunneling machine wall.
EFFECT: possibility to regulate electric current power and graphite mass to select necessary excavation regimes.
SUBSTANCE: method of boring hard rock by means of tunnel boring machine equipped with disks of hardened steel projecting from cutting head consists in supply of foamed water liquid to cutting head; this composition corresponds to surface active substance -SAS and lubricating material - polyethylene oxide with molecular wt from 4.500.000 to 8.000.000. The said ingredients are measured separately in a water form, are added into water and are transformed into a foam using anionic or nonionic SAS; the said composition is obtained by dilution of concentrate with water on site.
EFFECT: reduced wear of cutting components; increased boring efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining, in particular to mechanised performance of underground mine tunnels with round shape of cross section. Method for performance of underground mine tunnel of round cross section includes formation of oriented cavity in the Earth bowels, cutting of helical and longitudinal radial channels in edge zone of tunnel in surrounding rock mass, loading and transportation of broken muck, maintenance of stripped area by erection of support and organization of ventilation. Together with cavity formation they cut three longitudinal radial channels, evenly distributing them in plane of tunnel cross section. At the same time one of longitudinal radial channels is oriented along line of most probable largest action of external load from forces of rock pressure. Damaged rock is removed from longitudinal radial channels and loaded in transport vehicle. In longitudinal radial channels they install embedded elements, to which support elements are connected. Besides depth of longitudinal radial channel makes at least half of radius of cross section of produced tunnel.
EFFECT: higher reliability of mine tunnel maintenance in operational period.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to mining industry, in particular to shield driving of tunnels, and may be used in shield driving of through collector tunnels with concrete lining. Method for shield driving of tunnel consists in erection of shield chambers by method of "slurry-type wall" for assembly and turns of shield on track of arranged tunnel. Walls of shield chambers, at least those, where holes are provided for passage of shield, are made of concrete, having compression strength of not more than 11.5-14.5 MPa, are reinforced with glass-plastic reinforcement from rods with diametre from 4 to 10 mm with ultimate strength in case of cutting across fibres of at least 165 MPa and developed by working element of shield. Formation of concrete lining, in process of collector tunnel driving, at least in joint of shield chambers walls and on length of tunnel from two to ten of its diametres, is carried out by at least two concentric layers, between which additional internal hydraulic insulation layer is arranged, and application of hydraulic insulation coating onto inner surface of concrete lining is carried out after complete drying of surface layer of tunnel walls.
EFFECT: improved reliability of tunnel arrangement and its hydraulic insulation, higher speed of underground communications construction.
SUBSTANCE: birotating tunnel shield unit consists of three sections. Two front sections, starting from bottomhole, are mounted on diaphragm by means of ball runnings with toothed collars of conical gear, engaged at diametral opposite sides with master conical gears of section rotation drives arranged on diaphragm, which is mounted at front end of beam with drive by means of Hooke joint and hydraulic cylinders with stems, fixed on beam and diaphragm by means of journals. Beam with drive is mounted in guides of back section, at the same time auger with a separate drive is mounted inside beam. On external surface of back section there are elements of conrotation arranged in the form of plates aligned along longitudinal axis of section, at the same time on external surfaces of front rotary sections there are helical blades arranged with opposite direction of winding. Besides, small actuating elements with individual drives and sleeves with augers are mounted upstream each blade and element of conrotation. Hollow beam is mounted in the centre of diaphragm, inside which there is an auger with drive fixed, at the same time outside - at bottomhole of beam there is a socket and loading rotor with drive mounted, connected to the main actuating element.
EFFECT: unloading of back section from torque and from longitudinal braking force.
SUBSTANCE: tunnelling header unit comprises serially arranged head and tail sections. The head section comprises a helical blade on the external surface, an actuator and an auger mechanism for broken mass discharge, besides, a rotation mechanism is also located in the head section. The tail section comprises longitudinal support elements, aligned along the longitudinal axis of the unit, a drive of the rotation mechanism. The sections are connected to each other with the possibility of the head section rotation relatively to its longitudinal axis. The rotation mechanism is arranged in the form of a hollow shaft, where two wave generators are installed, being arranged with eccentricity relative to the axis of the driving shaft, a geared crown arranged on the inner surface of the head section, a separator connected to the end section and intermediate solids of revolution. Number of teeth in the geared crown is more than the number of intermediate solids of revolution by one. The sections have a rigid kinematic link in the axial direction, which consists of two touching circular ledges, one ledge is located on the separator, the second ledge is arranged on the inner surface of the head section. The driving shaft is installed in rolling bearings, with one bearing installed in the head section, and the other one - in the end section. The driving shaft at the side of the stripped area has a driving gear arranged with the possibility of rotation from motors via a motor gear, and the motors are fixed at the inner surface of the end section.
EFFECT: improved reliability of the unit operation, loading capacity of the unit drive and efficiency of tunnelling, expanded area of the unit application.
SUBSTANCE: tunnelling combine (90) for horizontal mines comprises a rotary cutting head (93), where there are many cutting assemblies (10) installed as capable of rotation. Multiple units of instruments (50) are connected with a rotary cutting head, at the same time each unit of instruments comprises a distal end in contact with the appropriate cutting assembly. Units of instruments comprise multiple sensors, including an accelerometer (32), a magnetometer (33) and a temperature sensor (34) to monitor the appropriate cutting assembly. Sensors are installed at the remote end of units of instruments pressed for contact with a cutting assembly. Units of instruments comprise a wireless transceiver and are connected to each other into a circuit of data transfer or a peer-to-peer network. A source (176) of power supply, such as a battery pack, is provided for each unit of instruments. Sensor data may be used to control operation of a tunnelling combine for horizontal mines and/or for monitoring condition of cutting assemblies.
EFFECT: enhancing effectiveness and reliability of tunnelling operation.
27 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: duplex geovehicle consists of three sections. Two front sections are mounted on load-carrying beams with drives by means of ball races with toothed rims of bevel gear. Section rotation drives are located on diaphragms that are mounted on front ends of load-carrying beams with drives. Each load-carrying beam with a drive is mounted in the guides of rear section with possibility of its retraction. A screw with a separate drive is mounted inside the load-carrying beam. On external surfaces of front rotating sections there located are screw blades with opposite winding direction. Before each blade there mounted are small actuating elements with individual drives and sleeves with screws. In the centre of diaphragms there mounted are hollow beams inside which screws with drives are mounted Flared ends and loading rotors with drives are mounted on the front side of face ends of hollow beams. Drives and actuating elements of rear section are located on its front wall. Outside the front wall: at the top and at the bottom - horizontally, and in the centre - vertically. Drag conveyor, tray and screw with a drive are located behind the front wall inside rear section.
EFFECT: increasing the strength of out-contour layer of rock mass.