Process for the selective recovery of precious metals and platinum group metals from acidic solutions

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of metallurgy, namely the recovery of noble metals and platinum group metals from the poor and ultrametric industrial waste. The technical result of the present invention is to provide opportunities to obtain separate platinum group metals in a single technological cycle of the processing of industrial waste and improving the efficiency of the method for processing industrial wastes with low concentrations of metals. The method of extraction of metals from acidic solutions includes the extraction of metals by passing nitric acid solution through at least one column with a solid extractant. After extraction of metals from extravert and add in the original acid solution, ensuring the concentration of each metal 5-30 g/l, and then produce electrolytic selection of the metal by potentiostatic electrolysis line potentiostatic cells, each of which contains a three-dimensional porous electrode of a carbon material, while the working capacity of each corresponding to a cathode of platinum group metal. 4 C.p. f-crystals.

Oh groups of the poor and ultrametric industrial waste.

Known methods of selective extraction for extraction from low-grade ores of copper, bismuth, cesium, gold, zinc, iron and other elements ("Metals of high purity", Ed. by H. C. kopeckova, Moscow, "Nauka", 1976, S. 217). For each metal used your extractant.

However, used extractants are not applicable for the whole group noble and platinum group metals, which calls for a sequential selective extraction solutions containing large group metals, to extract various metals. When this search and synthesis of highly selective extractants to separate the metals present significant challenges. In addition, known methods of extraction of metals there are significant restrictions on the initial concentration of metals in solution, which makes them not suitable for the extraction of metals from the poor and ultrametric industrial waste metal concentration to 0.02 mg/l

There is a method of processing waste acidic solutions based on the use of solid extractant (Solex), representing a matrix on a polystyrene basis and the active phase of the phosphine oxide (patent RU 2061769, CL 22 In 3/38, 06.10.96).

This method does not allow PR is m this invention is to provide opportunities to obtain separate platinum group metals in a single technological cycle of the processing of industrial waste, as well as increasing the efficiency of the method for processing industrial wastes with low concentrations of metals.

The technical problem is solved in that in the method of extracting platinum group metals from acidic solutions, including extraction of metals by passing an acidic solution through at least one column with a solid extractant and reextraction, extraction was carried out from a solution of nitric acid, after Stripping of the metals they are added in the original acid solution, ensuring the concentration of each metal 5-30 g/l, and then produce electrolytic selection of the metal by potentiostatic electrolysis line potentiostatic cells, each of which contains a three-dimensional porous electrode of a carbon material, while the working capacity of each corresponding to a cathode of platinum group metal.

The solid extractant use a matrix of modified politicalguineapig polymer with the active phase of trialkylphosphates, and/or ammonium bases, and/or phosphine oxides.

Typically, electrolytic selection of the metal produced from 1M-3M nitric acid solutions.

2cathode surface.

In particular, the working capacity of each cathode is determined by preliminary potentiometric measurements for a particular nitric acid solution.

Example.

The method includes two steps: extraction and electrolytic selection of the metal.

At the beginning of the process, the metals are concentrated by the method of joint extraction solid extractants (Taksami) and re-extraction with a return to the original nitric acid solution as the saturation of the column with Solex. The concentration of each of the platinum metal when added to the original solution is 5-30 g/l

The solid extractant use a matrix of modified politicalguineapig polymer with the active phase of trialkylphosphates, and/or ammonium bases, and/or phosphine oxides.

Then for the electrolytic extraction of metals nitrate solution (typically 1M-3M nitric acid solution) by means of a pump pumped through line potentiostatic cell, which is a few tanks (number of allocated metals, for example 8) has a cylindrical shape, connected in series. The speed of electricity is hydrated porous carbon cathode, the current density 1-40/m cathode surface, each cylinder is equipped with a potentiostat that provides controlled, pre-defined potential corresponding to allocate metal and capable of maintaining a constant voltage at the cathode. So, for selection of platinum supported voltage of about 12 V, palladium is about 1 V. the Specific value of the voltage for each metal is determined experimentally, by preliminary potentiometric measurements.

The parameters of the electrolytic extraction of metals selected experimentally, based on the most efficient way.

Each cylindrical vessel is released at the cathode metal, corresponding to the cathode potential.

1. The method of extracting platinum group metals from acidic solutions, including extraction of metals by passing an acidic solution through at least one column with a solid extractant and reextraction, characterized in that the extraction of lead from solution of nitric acid, after Stripping of the metals they are added in the original acid solution, ensuring the concentration of each metal 5-30 g/l, and then produce electrolytic selection of the metal by potencies electrode of a carbon material, in this work the potential of each corresponding to a cathode of platinum group metal.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the solid extractant use a matrix of modified politicalguineapig polymer with the active phase of trialkylphosphates and/or ammonium bases, and/or phosphine oxides.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the electrolytic selection of the metal produced from 1M-3M nitric acid solutions.

4. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that the electrolytic selection of the metal is produced at a rate of electrolyte from 500 to 3500 l/h and a current density of 1 to 40 a/m2cathode surface.

5. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-4, characterized in that the working capacity of each cathode is determined by preliminary potentiometric measurements for a particular nitrate solution.

 

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