A method of manufacturing concrete products in the field
The invention relates to the field of construction, namely the manufacture of precast concrete in the field using a variety of carriers to accelerate the hardening of concrete. Effect: reduce the unit cost of manufactured products. The method involves filled with concrete and rebar forms and curing of concrete with obtaining concrete products. Thermococci tightly interconnected in a production line, within which is mounted a conveyor intended for travel forms. On top of fermoselle installed on electroisolator heating Elements in the lower part of fermoselle installed pipe, designed to circulate hot water or steam. The sides of fermoselle isolated from the environment, and the front side is configured to input and output forms. The internal volume of fermoselle made with the possibility of messages with a source of heated air and/or fuel gas and water, and curing the concrete mixture, the internal volume of fermoselle heated using at least one of the specified fluids. 6 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. Izaberete edocfile for making any concrete products in the field using a variety of carriers to accelerate the hardening of concrete.A known method of manufacturing a flat concrete construction items (US patent 2524683) using a device containing a horizontal frame chassis, the matrix inside the frame for movement in a vertical plane, the loading platform and the guide plane, on which is mounted a hopper.The disadvantage of this method should recognize the lack of heating of the concrete mixture during the molding of concrete products, due to lack of fluids. In addition, the product range is limited only flat structures.Also known is a method of construction, technical repair and/or reconstruction of buildings and structures (RU, patent 2010095). According to a known method (see example 1) tear off the pit for the Foundation, perform macadam preparation, concreted base, install formwork for monolithic foundations concreted Foundation, mount the ceiling over the Foundation and erect the elevated design of reinforced and precast concrete manufactured on the construction site or at the factory, and in the manufacture of precast elements to the construction site of ustanavlivau method should recognize the absence of heating of the concrete mixture in the process of hardening, which leads to an increase of the period of hardening and deterioration of quality in the cold season of concrete products.The technical problem to be solved by the proposed method is to develop ways of creating elements precast concrete under field conditions in the temperature range from -60oC to +30oWith throughout the year.The technical result obtained by the implementation of the proposed method is to reduce the unit cost of fixed assets on a unit of production relative to the unit value of the factory products.To achieve the technical result of the proposed use of the method of manufacturing of concrete products in the field, including filled with concrete and rebar, at least one form and hardening of concrete with obtaining concrete products. According to the proposed method form, filled with rebar and concrete, post, at least one thermococci, consisting of upper and lower parts, between which is placed the form installed in her rebar and filled with concrete. On top of fermoselle installed on electroisolative pair. The sides of fermoselle isolated from the environment, with the face side of fermoselle made with the possibility of input and output forms, and the internal volume of fermoselle made with the possibility of messages with a source of heated air and/or fuel gas and water intended for generation of steam in the amount of fermoselle by burning a combustible gas. In the process of hardening of the concrete mixture, the internal volume of fermoselle heated using at least one of the specified fluids. Preferably the lower part of fermoselle set using jacks using metal and concrete of the footing on a solid substrate, usually with the possibility of regulating the distance of each corner of fermoselle relatively solid Foundation. Mainly footprint of fermoselle is 2.5 m x 8.0 m Preferably thermococci do with the possibility of a tight connection with each other, while when connecting two or more thermococci in a production line (usually, not more than twenty-eight pieces) inside the lines set conveyor designed to move the forms, filled with rebar and concrete. However, option realish from each other, moreover, the volume of each thermococci isolated from the environment. When using steam for technological line for the production of precast concrete products usually additionally establish a system for collection and removal of condensed steam, and mostly above mentioned system of collection and removal of condensed steam connected to the steam generation in termasuklah. In a preferred variant of the method for curing the concrete mixture in the internal volume of fermoselle burn the combustible gas in the atmosphere sprayed water. This results in qualitatively steamed reinforced concrete structures.The drawing shows a cross section of the used thermococci. In the drawing, the following notation is used: top 1, bottom 2, the heating Elements 3, steel pipe 4 for supplying hot water and steam, the tool 5 with hot air tool 6 the supply of combustible gas, means 7 water supply in the amount of fermoselle.The proposed method is suitable for the production of concrete products in the field regardless of weather and temperature conditions and can be used, in particular, in liquidation of consequences of natural disasters (zemletryasene is. Its versatility lies in making possible the manufacture of many types of concrete products in the field conditions at the construction site and to use different carriers to accelerate hardening of the concrete, and as heat transfer fluids can be used with electricity, hot water, steam, hot air, combustible gases or products of combustion of solid or liquid fuels.In a preferred variant of the method used thermococci, preferably having square bases 2.5 m x 8 m, installed in a single process line. The number of thermococci in the specified process line depends on the number of manufactured products and the project construction schedule. Preferably, the line contains 28 thermococci. Design separate thermococci allows you to connect them to virtually isolated from the environment technological line with the gateway that allows you to load the form with rebar and concrete mixture at the inlet of the processing line, as well as with the gateway, allowing you to unload the form with concrete product at the output of the production line. The gateway can be made in the form of a sheet of thick rubber, closely adjacent to the end surface is irowiki forms from the input gateway throughout the process. Each of the used thermococci consists of two parts: lower and upper. The lower part is installed on a solid substrate and exposed on level four jacks. On the inner surface of the upper part of fermoselle mounted heating Elements attached to electroisolator, preferably representing asbestos-cement pipe with a diameter of ~ 150 mm In the lower part of fermoselle mounted steel piping, preferably ~ 159 mm, connected to the distribution piping to connect the hot water or steam. In any case the implementation of the method wall thermococci, preferably the side and bottom, insulated with heat insulator, preferably mineral wool 60 mm thick to reduce heat loss. The upper and lower parts of fermoselle form a common space. The hot air supplied into the space between the upper and lower parts of fermoselle with a temperature of approximately 120oC. For heating air is preferably used furnace aerodynamic heating capacity of about 5000 m3/h each. Heated air serves evenly through insulated duct and regulate its flow inside thermosets the wrapped loop. As the heat can be used hot water, preferably having a temperature of from 70 to 130oC. Mostly hot water supply system is closed in the loop including the hot-water system using any source of heat. As the heat can be used steam supplied on these steel pipes as hot water, and steam pressure is usually 3 ATM. When using steam as the heat production line additionally equip kondensatootvodchiki, condensate gathering tanks and a pumping unit for returning the condensate to warm up in thermostate.It is most preferable to use as the coolant supplied in the amount of fermoselle combustible gas and water, sprayed into the volume thermococci to produce steam. For feed use are installed inside thermococci piping with nozzles feed. Burned in the amount of fermoselle fuel gas moves water sprayed into the vapor state, and the combined effect of the resulting steam and heat from the combustible gas results to obtain the maximum effect of accelerating the hardening of the concrete mix.The method will be further discussed n undomestic blocks of 0.83install the valve, fill the form with concrete mix and in turn put them in a production line, comprising 28 thermococci. Previously on the steel pipe located at the bottom of fermoselle, pumped hot water to the specified temperature, while before the launch of the first completed forms in a production line, the temperature inside line 84oC. Through 5.4 hours from the last thermococci technological lines removed first shape formed with the base block.When used as a carrier of electricity, natural gas, hot water and steam production line capacity from 28 thermococci is approximately 60 m3concrete products per day, and when used as a coolant hot air to 30 m3concrete products per day.The method allows to produce in the field of thin-walled armobeton products retained formworks, ceiling and walls, as well as the construction of exterior panels, balconies, Elevator shafts, etc. that allows you to save the consumption of laminated plywood, used in the manufacture of formwork in the factory. Preferred Varian capacity of up to 16 tones can be assembled in one day with commissioning on the second day. In addition, the application of the method helps to avoid the breakage of the finished structures during transport from the factory to the building site, and also to reduce the use of heat transfer fluids. The specific value of fixed assets per unit of manufactured products against manufacturing plant is reduced by about 19%. Design thermococci allows them to be used for a period of not less than 7 years when the payback period of not more than 2 years.
Claims1. A method of manufacturing concrete products in the field, including filled with concrete and rebar, at least one form, the placement of the specified form in fermoselle, consisting of upper and lower parts and sides isolated from the environment, and the internal volume of fermoselle made with the possibility of messages with a source of heated air, and hardening of concrete with obtaining concrete products, characterized in that thermococci tightly interconnected in a production line, in which is set a conveyor designed to move the forms, filled with rebar and concrete, on top karenanne for swinging hot water or steam, the face side of the line is performed by the input and output forms through the locks, and the internal volume of fermoselle additionally perform with messages with a source of combustible gas and water, and curing the concrete mixture, the internal volume of fermoselle heated using at least one of these carriers.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the lower part of fermoselle set on a solid Foundation.3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the lower part of the section being installed with the possibility of regulating the distance of each of the solid angles relative to the base.4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the base area of fermoselle 2.58,0 m5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that when using a pair on the production line additionally establish a system for collection and removal of condensed steam.6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the above mentioned system of collection and removal of condensed steam connected to the steam generation in termasuklah.7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the curing of the concrete mixture in the internal volume of fermoselle burn fuel
FIELD: building industry branches, namely apparatuses for heat treatment of constructions of reinforced concrete erected in building site with use of automatic control of heat treatment processes.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes concrete form having electric heating units mounted in its boards for convection-irradiation heating of concrete mixture and heating members mounted in bottom of concrete form for convection-irradiation heating; temperature pickups having individual control circuits and connected to inlets of heat regulators. Outlets of heat regulators are connected through switching units having magnetic starters with respective electric heating units. Each control circuit includes at least six temperature pickups placed in monolithic construction and pickup for measuring temperature of environmental air. Said pickups are connected with inlets of respective programmed heat regulator for supplying control signals.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of constructions.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: apparatus or processes for treating or working, namely curing, setting or hardening, the shaped articles.
SUBSTANCE: method for gypsum panel forming involves shaping the panel, hardening and hydrating thereof and drying the panel during panel rotation. Device to realize above method is also disclosed.
EFFECT: increased panel quality, decreased production and maintenance costs and improved operating conditions.
20 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for concreting cast-in-place and precast reinforced concrete structures along with concrete curing temperature regulation.
SUBSTANCE: method involves laying and compacting concrete mix under continuous concrete mix curing temperature control; heating central concrete layers with heating reinforcement when outer concrete layers are in elasto-plastic state. Heating reinforcement is spaced a distance "a" from surface. The heating is carried out simultaneously with surface heat-shielding. Distance "a" is determined as a=δeq(tav-ts)/(ts-ta), m, where δeq - thickness of conditional equivalent concrete layer corresponding to surface thermal resistance, Rs, m; tav - time-average concrete temperature calculated by estimated time of heating directly in heating area, deg; ts - time-average temperature at concrete surface calculated by estimated heating time, deg; δeq is determined as δeq=Rs·λ·F, m, where Rs is heat resistance of rigging with form Rr including thermal resistance Ra of heat transfer from rigging to ambient air, h·deg/kcal; Rs=Rr+Ra=(δr/( λr·F))+(1/(α·F)), h·deg/kcal, where δr is thickness of rigging, m; λr is rigging heat conductivity factor kcal/(m·h·deg), α is rigging surface heat-transfer coefficient kcal/(m2·h·deg), λ is concrete(reinforced concrete) heat conductivity kcal/(m·h·deg); F=1m2 - rigging surface area for thermal resistance calculation, m2. Amount of heat Q used to heat part of member to be heated having length (height) of 1.0 m and cross-sectional width of 1.0 m is determined from Q=(tav-ts)(m+(τ·λ·F/a), where m is constant equal to 60-180 kcal/deg and τ is calculated heating time, hours. The heating reinforcement is heating wires or pipes adapted for hot water circulation.
EFFECT: reduced temperature stresses and prevention of crack formation during structure concreting, as well as possibility to regulate curing temperature.
4 cl, 1 ex, 4 dwg
FIELD: method and equipment for manufacturing gypsum plates.
SUBSTANCE: method involves the following steps: first step includes molding plate; second step includes hardening by hydration process until hydrated article is produced with hydration extent within the range from 33% to 80%; third step includes continuing hydration process in at least one rotating drum by rotating plate around central axis; fourth step includes drying process. Intermediate cutting process may be provided between second and third steps, said cutting process may be effectuated in accordance with wire principle. Apparatus has linear zone for partial hardening and hydration, and at least one hydration drum comprising central axis around which multiplicity of branches are arranged. Each branch in drum may be divided into multiplicity of levers, with surface of said levers making from about 50% to about 99% the surface of respective branch. Drum may have from 10 to 150 branches, preferably from 40 to 120 branches. Hardening and hydration zone and drum may be arranged in two axes extending in parallel with one another.
EFFECT: improved quality of articles, improved maintenance and operating conditions.
12 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building industry; methods of production of the construction products at the building industry works.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of building industry, in particular, to the method of production of the construction products at the building industry works and may be used for manufacture of the reinforced concrete, including the spatial structures with the heat-insulating layer. The technical result of the invention is reduction of the power input, improvement of the quality and expansion of list of products. The method of manufacture of double-layer reinforced concrete products includes the consecutive formation of the constructive and the heat-insulating layers of the reinforced concrete and its thermal treatment. The heat-insulating layer with the average density of 450-500 kg/m3 made out of the vermiculite-concrete mixture with flowability of 3-5 cm is molded by the vibrobeam with the simultaneous its reinforcement by the woven net in top level. After the structure achieves the plastic strength of 0.015-0.025 MPa, then begin the molding the constructive layer and conduct the thermal treatment by the method of the contact heating from the side of the heat-insulating layer.
EFFECT: the invention ensures reduction of the power input, improvement of the quality and expansion of list of products.
FIELD: construction, particularly devices for thermal treatment of reinforced structures during in-situ structure erection with the use of automatic temperature condition control means.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises form, heat-sensing means, heaters and computer. Heat-sensing means are placed in form. Heaters are laid on reinforcing cage of monolithic reinforced concrete structure and fixed thereto. Heat-sensing means are linked to automatic digital power regulator including indication and control unit and digital control unit connected with control computer by means of signal converter. To provide visual control automatic power regulator is provided with concrete temperature display panel, which indicates concrete temperature in each measurement point and volumetrically weighed average concrete temperature.
EFFECT: decreased power inputs and possibility to control thermal field transformation after heater switching-on or switching-off in correspondence with thermal limiters of valid regulation documents.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for strengthening treatment of concrete products includes exposure of alternating rotary magnetic field with specified value of its intensity and frequency at components used in composition of initial concrete mix, when exposure of alternating rotary magnetic field is provided for all components making concrete without exception after their combination into integral volume directly in the product item itself after realisation of initial mixture components curing operation. This exposure is realised in moulded product without its extraction from used curb. The item itself performs function of closing connecting link in magnetic circuit used for generation of field. Treatment is carried out at intensity of alternating magnetic field 1×104-3×106 a/m; range of its frequencies 20-70 Hz for 1.5-4.5 hours. Cycles of treatment are repeated twice: in 160-180 hours with a delay of 0.3-0.7 hr and in 480-500 hours with a delay of 0.1-0.2 hour. Device used to realise the method comprises circuit developing alternating magnetic field and electric windings-coils mounted on it and connected to external source of AC current supply. One of plates making magnetic conducting circuit has through slot, dimensions of which make it possible to install the concrete product itself in it together with curb used for its moulding, and its body when installed in circuit serves as closing connecting link that closes magnetic flow generated in it.
EFFECT: improved strength characteristics used to erect objects of concrete building structures.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and may be used for curing concrete articles. Proposed curing room comprises walls with inner flange, hydraulic gate frame mounted on wall edges, shield with inner surface provided with steam-and-water insulation coating and heat insulation, steam duct, and condensate drain chute. Hydraulic gate frame is made up of horizontal channels arranged horizontally along room walls to house elastic porous material for room sealing by absorbing condensed steam. Aforesaid shield is made up of carcass consisting of weight-reduced channels coated by heat-insulation material with inner cavities. Said shield serves to press elastic porous material against all edges of channel cavity.
EFFECT: high-reliability sealing.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely, to method of controlling concrete thermal treatment. Proposed device comprises heater to heat laid concrete mix by heating wire or electrodes, measure mix temperature by temperature pickups, and system for automatic control over concrete article heating. Said system is composed of nondestructive control electronic transducers and instruments, i.e. USB-1, Pulsar-2 to take readings directly from early concrete, heating transformer KTP, double-ended lamps, multichannel temperature, heating and data reading interval meter, bus line, feed and heating devices, registrator and computer.
EFFECT: higher accuracy of control, stabilised temperature difference and concrete article and ambient medium.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely, to concrete and reinforced concrete article drying chambers. Proposed chamber comprises walls, detachable translucent cover and heat power feed system. Chamber guard structure and said detachable cover are made of combined material including metal, asbestos sheet, foil with heat insulation provided with air layer confined by two layers of foil. Layer of asbestos at chamber inner walls is covered by foil. IR radiators, portable heat sensor are arranged at chamber bottom while water like with sprinklers is laid around the periphery. Electrical protection contact device is arranged ay chamber r top part.
EFFECT: decreased heat losses.