Deep anode earthing rod (options)
The invention relates to deep anode grounding rod and can be used for protection of underground facilities and pipelines from electrochemical corrosion. The technical result of the invention is to provide a deep anode ground rod design which ensures a steady stream of electric current from the ground into the ground and save at least 25% of the material of the rods. Deep anode ground rod consisting of two concentric steel pipes located, the space between which is filled with coke fines, and to the inner pipe at an angle of at least 35oto the horizon welded from the outside steel rods having a cross-section rounded. Rods having a cross-section in the form of a polygon according to the second variant, welded perpendicular and deployed around its axis so that one of the corners of the polygon, the size of not more than 110otop pointed down vertically, which is the bisector of the marked angle. The length of the rods is such that the gap between the rod and the inner surface of the outer pipe is not less than 7 maximum size of the largest particles of the coke breeze. 2 C. p. F.-ly, 4 and rhymically corrosion.Known for deep anode ground containing two concentrically arranged steel pipe, the space between which is filled with coke fines, and to the inner tube along the entire length of its working parts are outside of the fixed steel wheels, covering pipe (SU/s 852969, 23 F 13/00).Known earthing has several disadvantages: - the Design is not suited to the manufacture, Assembly and installation of earthing industrial way, i.e. from pre-fabricated at the factory Assembly of the pipe sections, inner and outer, mounted on it with disks whose length is comparable with the length supplied by the industry assortment of pipes to collect the ground at the place of installation in the well followed by backfilling the annulus coke is trivial, since in this case the disks are formed cavity is not filled with coke breeze, and under adverse circumstances, it is possible plugging of coke small gap between the edge of the disc and the inner surface of the exterior of the pipe due to the effect of arching (see A. C. Katalyma, C. A. Lubartowicz. Dispensing granular and viscous materials. Leningrad: Khimiya, 1990), leading to the exposure of the working part of the pipe from contact with to the El. This can be avoided only way predetermined by the design of earthing is to produce filling and disks welded to the inner pipe series: pour coke breeze in the annular space to a height equal to the distance between the disks, then weld the disk to fall asleep coke breeze, to weld the disk, and so on, But this method is possible only if the height of the segments of the outer pipe does not exceed the length of the welding electrode is 0.3 m would result, that outer tube will consist of tens welded together lengths of 0.3 m is Similar to the construction of the outer tube with tens of welds may have a negative impact on the reliability of earthing in General, given that the welds are places of intense electrochemical corrosion. In addition, welding of the disk to the inner pipe will be possible only at the top, one-sided welded seam, similar to the mounting of the drive in electrochemical corrosion 4 times less reliable than the fastening disk bilateral seam, because unilateral joint is subjected to corrosion from two sides, and double is a two-sided seam exposed individually to influence the amount of waste when the only reasonable method of manufacturing a disk - cutting them from sheet metal.Closest to the invention to the technical essence and the achieved results is deep anode ground, consisting of two concentrically arranged steel pipe, the annular space which is filled with coke breeze, and on the inner pipe attached to steel rods along the length of the working part (SU: a/C 1514830; C 23 F 13/00).The disadvantages of this ground are: - education under the rods 11(see Fig.1), when the filling of the coke breeze 31annulus cavity 21not filled with coke fines 31and decreasing to25% of the area of contact of the rod 11with coke fines 31. Cavities are formed in the following way: coke breeze 31is incoherent engineering material (see above source "Dosing of bulk materials. . ."), the angle of repose whichequal 25-35o. When the filling of the coke breeze 31annulus on the surface of repose 41there is a natural podsypanina coke breeze 31under the rod 11ub>i- equivalent average particle diameter of one of the factions of the coke breeze 31that may be plugging the gap in due to the arching effect (see source), because the surface of the rod 11on the one hand and of repose 41on the other form total svodoobrazuyuschih holes and, as seen in Fig.1, in this case, the formation of the cavity 21covering at least 25% of the surface of the rod l1; - not regulated by the clearance Y1(see Fig.1) between the end of the rod 11and the inner surface of the outer pipe when the gap size Y157Ximay cause svoeobrazoval and the emergence of cavities 21at the ends of the rods 11.Noted deficiencies are the cause of cost overruns at least 25% of the material of the rods, due to the desire to achieve the stated values of the characteristics of the earthing switch and break the uniformity of the flowing electric current from the ground into the ground.The technical result of the invention is to provide a deep anode ground rod design which ensures a uniform runoff elec is at is due to the fact, in deep anode ground rod containing two concentric spaced steel tubes, the space between which is filled with coke fines, and to the inner tube along the entire length of its working parts are welded steel rods, and according to the invention the steel rods have a cross-section of a rounded shape, such as circle or ellipse, welded at an angle of at least 35oto the horizon and have a length that provides a gap between the end of the rod and the inner surface of the outer pipe, equal to not less than 7, the maximum size of the largest particles of the coke breeze.On the second version of the technical result is achieved due to the fact that in deep anode ground rod containing two concentric spaced steel tubes, the space between which is filled with coke fines, and to the inner tube along the entire length of its working parts are welded steel rods, and according to the invention the steel rods have a cross section in the form of a polygon, welded horizontally pivoted around its axis so that one of the corners of the polygon value is not more than 110otop pointed down vertically, which is the bisector e, any largest not less than 7, the maximum size of the largest particles of the coke breeze.The invention is illustrated by drawings: Fig.I - section perpendicular to the rod, illustrating the formation of a cavity under the rod when the coke breeze backfill the annulus; Fig.1 is a cross - section along the axis of the earthing switch in the well; Fig. 2 is a diagram illustrating the process of natural sprinkling coke breeze on the surface of repose under the rod; Fig.3 is a diagram illustrating the process of filling the annulus in the case of rods with a cross section in the form of a polygon with option 2.Deep anode ground rod consists (see Fig.1) of two concentric spaced steel tubes: inner 1 and outer 2, the space between which is filled with coke fines 3. To the inner tube 1 is welded at an angle35ofrom horizon steel rods 4 having a cross section in the form of a circle, ellipse, or similar smoothly contoured shapes. In the outer tube 2 with holes 5 for the gas outlet. Pipes 1 and 2 are interconnected by end washers 6 and 7. Inside the pipe 1 skipped cable 8 for p is th 9. The space 10 between the ground and the borehole wall is filled with gravel, sand, broken bricks, etc., Earthing is assembled as follows: the factory pre-made mounting pipe sections: the outer 2 holes 5 and the inner with 1 welded to the rods 4 at an angle of 90o-=90o- 35o=55oto the axis of the pipe 1 up. The rods 4 are cross-section in the form of a circle, ellipse, or other smoothly contoured shapes.The Assembly of the pipe sections 1, 2, face washers 6, 7, the connection cable 8, the insulation 9 pipe 1 and backfilling the annulus coke fines 3 produce as you descend earthing switch in the hole. The length of the rods 4 is chosen such that the gap Y1between the end of the rod 4 and the inner surface of the outer tube 2 was not less than 7 maximum size of xithe largest of the particles 10 coke breeze 3 to avoid the formation of a set of particles 10 and obstruction clearance Y1(see A. C. Katalyma, C. A. Lubartowicz. Dispensing granular and viscous materials. Leningrad: Khimiya, 1990), contributing to the creation of about the end of the rod 4 cavity-free coke breeze. From the mentioned source it is known that Kosovo detail 3 refers to incoherent, choir 35otherefore , the angle of the rod 4 from the horizon is chosen equal to°1+°1to ensure the natural shedding of the coke breeze 3 rod 4 along its axis on the surface of repose 11. The top and sides of the rod 4 is filled with coke fines 3 freely. From°1depends on the size of the bottom surface of the rod 4, not in contact with coke fines 3-1 = Xi/sin°1on the reliability and completeness of the electric conductivity between1/4the surface of the rod 4 and coke fines 3. Experiments have shown that when the angle°1= 5-15conductivity is present in full.Thus, adherence to the values of the gap Y17Xi, the angle of the rod 4 to the horizon°1)+(10-0)35within the required limits, provides backfilling the annulus coke fines 3 without voids under the rod 4, regardless of the length of the pipes 1, 2, which gives a full guarantee of completeness conductivity between terminals 4 and coke fines 3, which in turn is a guarantee of reliable and long-term operation of earthing for the entire booked period of its operation, even running off the electric current into the ground and save at least 25% of the material of the rods 4 in comparison with the prototype.If the rods 4 are cross-section in the form of a polygon with option 2 (square, rectangle, triangle, rhombus, parallelogram, etc), you need to tilt the rod 4 to the horizon at an angle°135there is no and can be welded to the pipe 1 perpendicular, which reduces the amount of welding and Assembly works. For this purpose it is necessary to expand terminal 4 around its axis topolnica, value not more than 110owas rotated downwards vertically 12 (see Fig.3), and the bisector of the angleshould coincide with the vertical line 12. In this case, the sides of said anglepolygon will be inclined to the horizon at an angle°135and will condition the natural shedding of the coke breeze 3 on the surface of repose 11 without obstruction and the formation of cavities free from coke breeze 3, under the side faces of the rod 4 with full warranty conductivity between the side faces of the rod 4 and coke fines 3.We offer deep anode ground works as follows.When electric current flows through the inner tube 1 around the earthing electric field is created, causing the electrochemical dissolution of the first outer pipe 2, then the rods 4 and the last of the inner pipe 1. The use of the invention, as shown, will reduce the specific resistivity of 1.1 compared to the prototype. The invention can be used for protection of underground facilities and pipelines from electrochemical corrosion and will allow you to create highly effective grounding with a steady stream of electric current in the ground at a considerable saving of materials.
Claims1. Deep anode ground rod containing two concentric spaced steel tubes, the space between which is filled with coke fines, and to the inner tube along the entire length of its working parts are welded steel rods, characterized in that the steel rods have a cross-section of a rounded shape, for example, in the form of a circle or ellipse, welded at an angle of at least 35oto the horizon and have a length that provides a gap between the end of the rod and the inner surface of the outer pipe, equal to not less than 7 maximum size of the largest particles of the coke breeze.2. Deep anode ground rod containing two concentric spaced steel tubes, the space between which is filled with coke fines, and to the inner tube along the entire length of its working parts are welded steel rods, characterized in that the steel rods is Glov polygon a value of not more than 110otop pointed down vertically, which is the bisector of this angle, and have a length that provides a gap between the end of the rod and the inner surface of the outer pipe, equal to not less than 7 maximum size of the largest particles of the coke breeze.
SUBSTANCE: electrode comprises insulated housing filled with electrolyte, rod mounted inside the housing, potential pickup mounted on the housing and connected with a tip, and ion-exchange diaphragm. The rod is made of silver and represents an electrode. The ion-exchanger diaphragm is pressed to the housing via the sealing spacer by means of clutch provided with perforation. The electrolyte is made of the saturated water solution of a mixture of potassium chloride and ethylene glycol in a ratio of 3:2-2:1.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
3 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to cathode protection of flow strings of oil and gas producing wells from underground corrosion. The anode consists of current conductor in a coating on polymer base; also the anode is located in a well between flow and casing strings along the whole length of protected surface of the flow string; in addition, the anode current conductor corresponds to a flexible steel cable made out of corrosion resistant steel in a perforated coating out of elastic heat resistant isolating material; notably, the coating is perforated on all surface along the length of the anode and degree of coating perforation is 10-90%, and growing in proportion to the length of protected surface of the flow string.
EFFECT: development of inexpensive, simple in fabrication and operation anode facilitating high degree of protection of exterior surface of flow strings of well and gas producing wells from corrosion.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to design of a filter for purifying natural and waste water and can be used in public utilities and on industrial plants. The water filter has a steel housing filled with filter material, a distribution and collecting system for feeding and distributing water, wherein vertical alternating rows are placed inside the steel housing parallel to its walls, said rows being in form of closed loops of electropositive electrodes connected in series by a wire and similarly connected electronegative electrodes, with formation of electrochemical current sources which are provided with voltmeters connected in parallel to load resistors, wherein the first row of electronegative electrodes is connected to the housing of the filter.
EFFECT: high efficiency of purifying water and protection of the metal housing from internal corrosion, as well as obtaining electric power.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves garland assembly of electrodes by means of connection devices, filling of the space between electrodes; mating surfaces of parts of connection device are fixed on threaded ends of electrodes, coated with a layer of current-conducting paste, joint to a fixed coupling by supply of compressed air to the connection device, the external surfaces of which are coated with mastic layer, adhesive tape is wound in 2-3 layers, and closed with cylindrical form with assembly foam. Ground wire includes a garland of electrodes assembled by means of connection devices; at that, connection device includes a coupling, a collet with an expanding head, which are fixed on threaded ends of mating electrodes, a puncheon with a piston and a cone, which is retained in initial position with a shear membrane in a pneumatic chamber, a threaded lock, and a compressed air or gas source. Electrode includes a central bar, a protective cover concentric to it, side bars welded to the central one; at that, cover is formed with a layer of activating agent of cylindrical shape, and side bars envelope the central bar within angle β of not less than 30°.
EFFECT: simpler assembly; higher labour productivity.
3 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: multi-layered protective coating is formed on metal surface. First layer is formed from material, capable of interaction with water electrolyte and of changing electroconductivity property. Second layer is formed from hydroinsulating current-conducting material. Electrochemically active composite material, capable of interaction with water electrolyte, reduces its electric resistance in case of contact with water electrolyte and is formed by mixing component A and component B. Hydroinsulating low-resistance material for formation of second and the following layers of protective coating is formed by mixing component A1 and component B1. Coating includes first layer, formed from electrochemically active composite material and, at least, one second layer, formed from hydroinsulating low-resistance material.
EFFECT: possibility to prevent or sharply reduce sub-film corrosion by application of cathode protection.
4 cl, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: mineral activating agent contains (% by weight): shungite powder 90-99, water-soluble tertiary amine (pH 8-10) 10-1.
EFFECT: improved electrical performance for protected facilities by stabilising the weight of the activating agent, polarisation potential and transient resistance at the phase boundary of the ground and the activating agent, reduced current-spreading resistance.
3 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrochemical protection of underground metal structures from corrosion. Earthing device comprises a tubular electrode made from material based on magnetite or high-silicon cast iron, current lead and heat shrink sleeve wherein current lead consists of two contact units located at ends of electrode, connected by conductors of current feed cable and consisting of pressed into electrode split bushings with height of 20-40 mm, with outer diameter which is 0.5-2.0 mm smaller than inner diameter of electrode, made with rectangular recesses at diameter with width of 2-4 mm and depth of 1.2 -1.3 times radius of sleeves, wherein at centre of sleeves there are through holes with diameter of 8-12 mm, in which simultaneously with cable conductors are pressed metal inserts of height which is 10-40 mm larger than that of sleeve, diameter of which is less than diameter of opening of sleeve by 0.4-1.5 mm, and on side surfaces of inserts on one side of contact pads in form of flat sections at an angle of 10-12 degrees to central axis, beginning at middle of insert, wherein contact units are filled with fusible solder on tin with thickness up to 12 mm, and cable lead is insulated with silicone sealant.
EFFECT: technical result is longer service life and reduced electric power consumption for cathode protection.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: surface anode earth electrode comprised of a cylindrical body containing a gas outlet pipe and a current lead wire placed in a means of protection against damage during bending. Inside the cylindrical body cavity there is a cast electrode and a supporting frame. At the end faces it is provided with locking and fastening covers, upper and lower. The gas outlet tube contains an off-surface, subsurface areas and an area located inside the cylindrical body. A corrugated pipe of polymeric material with higher moisture resistance and impact resistance is used as a means of protection during bending. It is fixed in a hole on the upper locking and fastening cover and has a length of not less than the length of the off-surface and subsurface areas of the gas outlet pipe. A portion of the gas outlet pipe, located inside the cylindrical body, is spirally disposed around the supporting frame and is corrugated.
EFFECT: prevention of damage to the gas outlet pipe and the current lead wire when laying the anode earth electrode, increased effectiveness of gas removal and increased service life of the anode earth electrode.