The method of producing an alloy on the basis of the transition and rare-earth elements and device for its implementation

 

The invention relates to metallurgy, in particular to methods metallothermic alloys of transition and rare-earth elements doped and can be used to produce alloys and special alloys. The method consists in forming the upper layer of the mixture of the oxide of the transition element and a reducing agent, preferably aluminum, the bottom layer of the rare earth elements, a fiber loading of the charge in the reaction volume, the isolation of the upper layer of the charge from the lower layer. This metallothermic recovery and separation of metal and slag phases carried out only in the upper layer of the mixture, after separation of the phases partially break the isolation between the upper and lower layers, and the slag phase is separated to the interaction of the metal phase of rare earth elements, and crystallization of the alloy. The mass ratio of the upper and lower layers of the charge is not less than 3,05. As the rare earth elements include cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium, or their alloy. The top layer of the mixture may optionally contain a transition element, which is used as iron, Nickel, cobalt, and the lower layer of the alloying additive in the form of calcium, aluminum is e way characterized by the fact that the bottom of the crucible has a mass equal to 0,05-0,20 mass of the metal phase, the resulting recovery, and performed with a number of outlet channels, the diameter D is determined from the relation D=10,5k1where 1 is the thickness of the bottom, and k1the empirical coefficient of 0.64 was 1.04 (m)0,5when this partition is made of fusible or legkousvoyaemogo material. The number of outlet channels define N according to N=Mk2where M is the mass of the metal phase, k2- empirical coefficient, k20,004 kg-1. The bottom of the crucible may be made removable. The body of the crucible and the metal reservoir can be made of oxide or fluoride ceramics, metal or graphite. In the latter case, the bottom of the crucible is connected to the housing and the metal reservoir by means of insulating elements. The number of insulating elements may be one or more. The achieved result is to increase the degree of extraction of rare earth elements in the alloy to almost 100%. The invention allows to obtain alloys of different composition in a wide range of concentrations of redatam is lurgie, in particular to methods metallothermic alloys of transition and rare-earth elements doped, and can be used to produce alloys and special alloys.

Upon receipt of the alloys of transition and rare earth elements metallothermic method using reducing agents, such as aluminium and calcium, slag phase, which comprises the oxides of aluminum and calcium, and calcium fluoride. When you contact this phase to the metal phase, the reverse recovery of aluminum oxide metals with more than aluminum affinity to oxygen, including rare earth, resulting in reduced output of these metals in the metallic phase. This restored the aluminum gets into the metallic phase, where excessive undesirable. The presence of interaction between the metal and slag phases leads to difficulties in their subsequent mechanical separation. On the other hand, any change in the composition of the charge in the smelting of various alloys leads to a change in the melting temperature and viscosity of the metal and slag phases, changing the equilibrium constants metallotrejderskih reactions and reactions obrazovanii due to the competitive nature of the various recovery processes and alloy formation, limited temperature ranges of possible implementation. Even in cases where the receipt of an alloy of a given composition, it is possible that issues the maximum extraction of rare earth elements in the alloy, for a uniform distribution of alloying elements in the alloy, the separation of iron from slag necessary every time to solve it again.

A known method of producing alloys of the transition and rare earth elements (see U.S. patent 4612047, N. CL 420/83, 1986), including the formation of a homogeneous mixture of iron and fluoride fluorides of rare earth elements, which add calcium as a reducing agent, loading the mixture in a closed reaction volume, heating the mixture until the beginning metallotrejderskogo, recovery at temperatures below 1600oWith the separation of metal and slag phases, crystallization of the alloy and separating him from the slag phase. Part of the fluoride iron in the charge may be replaced by metallic iron. The composition of the charge may also be added one or more alloying elements.

The described method is implemented by a device representing a sealed metal container with a refractory-lined or water-cooled, obiles relatively low output of rare earth elements in the alloy and the increased concentration of impurities in the reverse recovery of the metal reductant from its oxide of rare earth elements. Another disadvantage of this method is that for each of the desired composition of the alloy there is a need to adjust the original mix and process conditions. The disadvantages of this method are also used in the blend hygroscopic fluoride iron. Fluorides of transition metals are found in nature in the form of common minerals and their synthetic preparation by fluorination of oxides is rather complicated and expensive operation. The resulting slag is composed of relatively refractory fluoride of calcium, which leads to the necessity of conducting the process at a high temperature (1600oC), and in a confined space due to the fact that the partial vapor pressure of calcium at this temperature exceeds atmospheric.

The disadvantages of the device include the need to use a sealed container with a lining of refractory material or water cooled, and external heating. All these circumstances complicate and more expensive as the way, and realizing it device.

There is also known a method of producing alloys of the transition and rare earth elements (see RF patent 2060290, IPC6With 22 28/00, 22, 5/04, 1996), including the formation of the top is in, transition metal in elemental form, aluminum and alloying elements, and the bottom layer is formed from the products of fluorination of oxides of rare earth metals, calcium or magnesium, layer-by-layer loaded in the reaction volume, implementation metallotrejderskogo recovery in the atmosphere of inert gas produced in the reactor where the reaction volume, alloying of the melt in the process of its receipt, the separation of metal and slag phases, crystallization of the alloy and separating him from the slag phase. In the upper layer there is a recovery of fluoride of a transition metal (iron) aluminum and alloying formed of the metal phase alloying additives, and in the lower layer are recovering rare earth elements from their fluorides, calcium or magnesium. This separation of metal and slag phases occurs both in upper and in the lower layer. As alloying elements include boron, gallium, titanium, uranium, or their compounds. Crystallization of the resulting alloy is directly at the bottom of the reaction space. After cooling, the resulting products are unloaded from the reaction volume and the alloy is separated from the slag.

The known method is characterized not high enough is Stanovlenie part of the aluminum from its oxide of rare earth elements. In the known method esotericist the bottom layer of the charge is not sufficient for effective separation of metal and slag phases. Therefore, in the slag phase delayed wrens alloy. Limited additional supply of heat from the upper layer of the charge makes it impossible to obtain alloys with a high content of rare earth elements. The disadvantages of this method are the use in the blend hygroscopic iron and fluoride fluorides of rare earth metals, which makes necessary the use of additional operations fluoridation oxides.

Known apparatus for producing alloys of the transition and rare earth elements (see RF patent 2113520, IPC622 In 5/04, 22, 34/00, With 22 In 59/00, 1998), including the crucible lined with walls and a bottom and a metal reservoir positioned below the crucible. At the bottom there is an exhaust channel with a partition connecting the crucible and the metal reservoir. Between the crucible and the metal reservoir has additional capacity for receiving slag, reported in the upper part with an outlet channel, and at the bottom with metal reservoir. The metal reservoir has a volume equal to the volume of the obtained ingot, and the septum is made of alloy material or component chitikatest due to incomplete separation of metal and slag phases. The diameter of the outlet is determined by the required rate of release of the molten metal and must be large enough. In this regard, through it may derive not only metal, but also captured convection streams of slag inclusions. A strict correlation between the sizes of the metal reservoir and the amount of the resulting ingot leads to that included in the ingot slag inclusions displace the metal part in additional capacity where it is mixed with the slag.

The present invention is directed to solving the problem of increasing the output of rare earth elements in the alloy due to the exclusion of reverse recovery of the metal reductant from its oxide of rare earth elements as a result of separation of the slag phase from the metal at an early stage of the process. The invention also solves the problem of unification of the way when getting alloys of different composition.

The problem is solved in that in the method of producing an alloy on the basis of the transition and rare earth elements, including the formation of the upper layer of the mixture of compounds of the transition element and the reductant and the lower layer of the mixture of rare earth elements, layer-by-layer loaded in the reaction volume, the implementation of eenie metal and slag phases, crystallization of the alloy and the separation of the slag phase, according to the invention the top layer mixture isolated from the lower layer metallothermic recovery and separation of metal and slag phases carried out only in the upper layer of the mixture, after separation of the phases partially break the isolation between the upper and lower layers, while the slag phase is separated to the interaction of the metal phase of rare earth elements, and crystallization of the alloy.

The problem is solved also by the fact that as a compound of a transition element using its oxide.

The problem is solved also by the fact that in the upper layer of the charge impose additional transition element, which is used as iron, Nickel, cobalt.

The problem is solved and the fact that as a reductant use aluminum.

Solving tasks directed that, as rare-earth elements, used elements, selected from the group consisting of cerium, lanthanum, neodymium and praseodymium.

On the solution of the problem is also aimed that as rare earth elements take their alloy.

On the solution of the problem also directed that in the bottom layer of the charge toporowska additives used items selected from the group consisting of calcium, aluminum, silicon, copper and boron.

The task contributes to the fact that the ratio of the weight of the top and bottom layer of the charge is not less than 3,05.

The task also contributes to the fact that the separation of metal and slag phases are within 3-10 C.

The task is helped by the fact that metallothermic recovery and separation of the phases is carried out in a crucible with the bottom with the outlet channels, the mass of the bottom is equal to 0,05-0,20 mass of the metal phase, the resulting recovery.

The solution of the problem is also that the number of outlet channels N is determined according to: N=Mk2where M is the mass of the metal phase, kg; k2- empirical coefficient, k20,004 kg-1.

The task is solved in that the device for producing an alloy on the basis of the transition and rare earth elements, including the crucible body and bottom, made of graphite, which has an outlet and provided with a partition wall, and the metal reservoir positioned below the crucible according to the invention the bottom of the crucible has a number of de l - the thickness of the plate, m; k1- empirical coefficient, k1=0,64 of-1.04 (m)0,5when this partition is made of fusible or legkousvoyaemogo material.

Another distinctive feature of the device is that the bottom of the crucible is made removable.

Another distinctive feature of the device is that the body of the crucible and the metal reservoir is made of an oxide or fluoride ceramics.

A further difference is that the body of the crucible and the metal reservoir is made of metal or graphite.

Distinctive feature of the device is that it contains one or more insulating elements, which are placed between the bottom of the crucible and the metal reservoir.

The formation of the charge in the form of two layers allows you to spatially divide and consistently implement in a single process recovery operation of the transition metal and its interaction with rare-earth and alloying elements to a predetermined concentration. Optimization of each of these operations are performed separately and on its own criteria. This approach facilitates the production of complex alloys predetermined composition.

The formation of the upper layer of the mixture of compounds of the transition element and reductant due to the need perveniat, obtaining slag particular composition having a melting temperature and viscosity required for efficient separation of metal and slag phases. The composition of the top layer of the charge is the same for all possible compositions of the alloys of this transition metal.

As compounds of the transition element using its oxide. This choice is due to the wide spread of the oxides of iron, Nickel and cobalt and their nephroscopes.

The top layer of the mixture may optionally contain a transition element in the form of iron, Nickel or cobalt, which act as thermal ballast and allow to increase the extraction of the transition element in the metallic phase.

Use as a reductant aluminum provides the necessary thermal effect metallothermic reaction and obtaining the metal and slag phases with the desired characteristics.

Forming a lower layer of a mixture of rare earth elements due to the necessity to obtain the desired alloy of the desired composition in their interaction with the metal phase formed during metallothermic the restoration of the upper layer of the charge. As rare earth elements spoliage other elements.

Introduction in the bottom layer of the charge of alloying elements due to the necessity of melting the respective alloys. As alloying additives used elements selected from the group consisting of calcium, aluminum, silicon, copper, and boron. The choice of these rare and alloying components of the bottom layer of the charge is preferred, but it can be extended taking into account the specific characteristics of the resulting alloy.

Isolating the upper layer of the charge from the bottom allows you to separate the slag phase, formed in the upper layer of the rare earth elements, as well as alloying elements in the bottom layer. Isolation is realized by means of an insulating element of special construction.

Because metallothermic recovery of lead in the upper layer of the charge, the slag phase is formed only at the initial stage of the process, which allows at this stage, a complete separation of metal and slag phases and their separation. For a complete separation of metal and slag phases is necessary to extract obtained in the upper layer of the melt within 3-10 C. This allows maximum output transition metal in the metallic phase and contributes besprepjatstvenno and slag phases, and the exposure time of more than 10 leads to premature solidification of the metal phase due to the large heat loss.

Severability isolation between the upper and lower layers after separation of the phases allows for the bypass of a metallic phase in the lower layer, leaving the slag phase in the upper layer. This is possible due to significant differences in viscosity, surface tension and the melting point of the metal and slag phases obtained in metallothermic process.

The separation of the slag phase to the interaction of the metal phase of rare earth elements, and crystallization of the alloy allows no contact between the slag phase and the rare earth elements, thereby increasing the extraction of rare earth components in the alloy and to reduce the content of impurities.

When propuskanii metal phase in the lower layer is fusion of the transition element with rare earth, as well as alloying elements due to the heat of the metal phase without additional heat supply from the outside. Melting components of the lower layer is aimed at facilitating melting of the alloy. This is possible provided that the weight of the top layer is greater than the mass of either the transition and rare earth elements, and its doping.

Implementation metallotrejderskogo recovery and separation of the phases is possible in the crucible with a bottom provided with outlet channels. For a complete separation of metal and slag phases of the mass of the bottom must be equal to 0,05-0,20 mass of the metal phase, the resulting recovery. This corresponds to the extract obtained in the upper layer of the melt within 3-10 C. When the weight of the bottom less than 0.05 and more than 0.20 mass of the metal phase obtained in the upper layer of the melt, does not fully separation of metal and slag phases is premature crystallization of the metal phase, respectively.

The choice of the number of outlet channels N according to N=Mk2allows for the bypass of the entire volume of the metal phase from the upper layer at the bottom for a period of time sufficient to save the overheating of the metal phase, which is necessary to melt the components of the bottom layer of the charge in the form of rare earth and alloying elements placed at the bottom layer of the charge. The empirical coefficient k20,004 kg-1depending on the viscosity of the metal phase and determines the speed of its by-passing the in h is raised and will cause excessive heat loss, which is not enough to melt and rare earth alloying components in the lower layer of the charge.

The above significant differences method implemented by a device for producing an alloy based on transition elements and rare earth elements.

The choice of the diameter D of the outlet channels in the bottom of the crucible according to the relation D= l0,5k1allows you to provide free pripuskanie metal phase in the metal reservoir and the delay of the slag phase on the bottom. The empirical coefficient k1depends on the viscosity and surface tension of the slag and metal phases, from their temperature and wetting angle of their graphite and is 0.64-1.04 million (m)0,5. When the value of the coefficient k1<0.64 pripuskanie metal phase in the metal reservoir will be difficult, and if k1>1,04 will be pripuskanie slag phase in the metal reservoir together with the metal phase.

The connection of the bottom of the crucible with its casing and metal reservoir by means of insulating elements caused by the necessity to minimize heat loss to heat the walls of the crucible and the metal reservoir when the warm-up bottoms up to and above the melting temperature of the metal phase that pozvolyaet used ring ceramic or graphite gaskets or insert a limited area of contact with the walls of the crucible and the metal reservoir. The number of insulating elements may be one or more.

Performing a partition of the fusible or legkousvoyaemogo allows the material to prevent the mixture from the crucible in the metal reservoir when loaded and does not prevent pripuskanie metal phase from the crucible in the metal reservoir through the outlet channels in the bottom of the crucible after metallotrejderskogo recovery.

The perform of the bottom of the crucible removable simplifies the extraction from the crucible slag, thereby providing a multiple use device, despite the limited service life of the bottom of the crucible.

The manufacture of the body of the crucible made of ceramics, mainly of an oxide or fluoride, reduces heat loss from the bottom wall of the crucible and to carry out thermal insulation of the bottom of the crucible from its body. In the case of making the body of the crucible made of metal or graphite the bottom of the crucible, it is advisable to connect with body by insulating elements, such as a ceramic. For any variant execution of the body of the crucible it is necessary to provide thermal insulation of the bottom of the crucible.

The above properties and functions of the set of features included in the inventive method and device that allow to increase the output redcat is of different composition, i.e. provide a solution in the invention of the task.

Example 1.

Carry out obtaining alloy LaNi5(Ni-32%La) by forming the upper layer of the charge of 3364 g NiO, 811 g Al, and the bottom layer of 1153 g of lanthanum. In the reaction volume sequentially load the bottom layer of the charge and the insulating element, on which is placed the top layer of the charge. The mass ratio of the upper and lower layers is 3,62. Then in the upper layer of the charge place the electric fuse and use it to initiate the reaction of recovery that takes place only in the upper layer. The melt was kept for 5 s until complete separation of metal and slag phases, and then partially break the isolation between the upper and lower layers, perepuskat metallic phase in the amount of 2450 g in the bottom layer, where they perform a fusion of the components of the lower layer due to the heat of the metal phase and its interaction with rare-earth elements, alloying and subsequent crystallization of the alloy. The slag phase at the expense of considerable increase of the viscosity (more than 100 times) compared with the metal phase hold on insulating element in the upper layer. When propuskanii metal phase at the bottom and the bottom layer of the charge, increase more than 7 times. For pressure equalization excess air release within 2-3 with the atmosphere. The mass of the alloy ingot was 3603, the Concentration of lanthanum in the alloy - 32,1%. The degree of extraction of rare earth elements in the alloy is 100%.

Example 2.

Perform receiving an alloy containing 18% of REM and 18% of Al, and the rest iron. Form the top layer of the charge of 4100 g Fe3O4, 1270 g of Al and the lower layer of 700 g mischmetall representing the alloy of cerium, lanthanum, neodymium and praseodymium, and 700 g of Al in the form of granules or wire. The mass ratio of the upper and lower layers is 3.84. The process is conducted in accordance with the conditions of example 1. The difference lies in the fact that the resulting melt was incubated for 5 s until complete separation of metal and slag phases, and the number of the metal phase, return the fulfilled in the bottom layer, is 2,450, the mass of the alloy ingot was 3850, the Concentration of aluminum and the amount of rare earth metals in the alloy was 18.1% and 17.8%, respectively. The degree of extraction of rare earth elements in the alloy is equal to 100%.

Example 3.

Carry out obtaining alloy 70%Co-20%Mo-10%si by forming the upper layer of the charge of 3583 g Co3O4, 1107 g Al, and the bottom with the conditions of example 1. The difference lies in the fact that the resulting melt was incubated for 6 to complete the separation of metal and slag phases, and the number of the metal phase, return the fulfilled in the bottom layer, is 2,450, the Weight of the ingot alloy - 3500, the Concentration of cerium and copper in the alloy is equal to 20.1% and 10.1%, respectively. The degree of extraction of rare earth elements in the alloy is 100%.

Example 4.

Shall receive of Fe-25%Si-10%P3M-l%Ca-2%Al by forming the upper layer of the charge of 4100 g Fe3O4, 1270 g Al, 1110 g Fe, and the lower layer of 1400 g of silicon, 560 g of mischmetall, 56 g of calcium and 112 g of aluminum. The mass ratio of the upper and lower layers is 3,05. The process is conducted in accordance with the conditions of example 1. The difference lies in the fact that the resulting melt was incubated for 3 seconds before full separation of metal and slag phases. The amount of metal phase, return the fulfilled in the bottom layer - 3470, Metallothermic recovery and separation of the phases is carried out in a crucible with a bottom with an outlet channel, which weight is 0.05 mass of the metal phase (173.5 metric g), and the number of outlet channels 14. The mass of the ingot of the alloy - 5598, the Concentration of silicon, the amount of rare-earth metals, calcium and aluminium alloy>Example 5.

Perform receiving Fe-6%Nd-0,002%B by forming the upper layer of the charge of 4100 g Fe3O4, 1270 g Al, and the bottom layer of 520 g of waste alloy of Nd2Fe14B with the concentration of neodymium and boron 34% and 1% respectively. The mass ratio of the upper and lower layers is 10.3. The process is conducted in accordance with the conditions of example 1. The difference lies in the fact that the resulting melt was kept for 10 s to complete the separation of metal and slag phases. The amount of metal phase, return the fulfilled in the bottom layer - 2450, Metallothermic recovery and separation of the phases is carried out in a crucible with a bottom with an outlet channel, which weight is 0.2 mass of the metal phase (490 g), and the number of discharge channels is 10. The mass of the ingot of the alloy - 2970, the Concentration of neodymium and boron in the alloy was 6.1% 0,002%, respectively. The degree of extraction of rare earth elements in the alloy is equal to 100%.

In Fig.1 shows a vertical section of a device for producing an alloy on the basis of the transition and rare earth elements with the body of the crucible and the metal reservoir, made of ceramics, and Fig. 2 is a vertical section of the device with the body of the crucible and the metal reservoir, the imp is placed under the crucible 1. The crucible 1 and the metal reservoir 2 has a cylindrical shape outside and tapered from the inside. The crucible 1 includes a housing 3 and a graphite plate 4, which includes a number of discharge channels 5. On the bottom 4 set the partition wall 6 made of legkousvoyaemogo or fusible material, such as Kraft paper or aluminum foil. In aggregate, the bottom 4 and the partition wall 6 performs the function of the insulating element. The bottom 4 of the crucible 1 is installed in the upper part of the metal reservoir 2 and is in contact through the partition 6 with the lower end of the body 3. The mass of the bottom 4 is 0,05-0,20 mass of the metal phase, the resulting recovery of the transition metal in the upper layer 7 of the charge, located on the partition 6. The diameter D of the outlet channel 5 is determined from the relation D=l0,5k1. The number of outlet channels N calculated according to N=Mk2. In the upper part of the metal reservoir 2 includes a number of holes 8, designed to relieve excess air pressure in the metal reservoir 2 when propuskanii from crucible 1 of the metal phase and its interaction with the lower layer 10 of the charge. The bottom 4 of the metal reservoir 2 may be made removable dlali graphite (see Fig.2) the bottom 4 of the crucible 1 is connected to the housing 3 and the metal reservoir 2 through the annular heat-insulating ceramic elements 11, 12 which are placed in the lower part of the housing 3 and in the upper part of the metal reservoir 2 between the bottom 4 of the crucible 1 and the metal reservoir 2.

The device for producing an alloy on the basis of the transition and rare earth elements is as follows.

Prepared components of the lower layer 10 of the charge loaded into the metal reservoir 2 (see Fig.1). In the upper end part of the metal reservoir 2 install the bottom 4 and the partition 6. On top of the partition 6 install the case 3 of the crucible. Prepared components of the upper layer 7 of the charge placed on the partition wall 6 inside the housing 3. Then in the upper layer 7 of the charge place the electric fuse (Fig.1 not shown) and use it to initiate the reaction of the recovery, which occurs only in the upper layer. Partition 6 interacts with formed metal phase and either burned or dissolved in it. The obtained metal phase flowing on the bottom 4 and holes 5, zoologically and crystallizes in the holes and on the surface of the bottom 4 in communication with the lower temperature of the bottom. Upon reaching the bottom of the temperatures of the gases, while remaining impervious to the slag phase due to its significantly greater viscosity (more than 100 times) compared to the viscosity of the metal phase. The duration of the heating plate due to the time of complete separation of metal and slag phases and is 3-10 C. the Obtained metallic phase perepuskat in the metal reservoir 2, where melting components of the lower layer 10 due to the heat of the metal phase from the upper layer 7, its interaction with rare-earth elements, alloying and subsequent crystallization of the alloy. The slag phase remains on the bottom 4. When propuskanii metal phase in the metal reservoir 2 temperature and pressure of the air in the zone of the reaction space located between the bottom 4 and the lower layer 10 of the charge, increase more than 7 times. For pressure equalization excess air release within 2-3 with the atmosphere through the openings 8. After cooling device and the reaction products therein the device apart. First, divide the crucible 1 and the metal reservoir 2. Separate the bottom 4 of the housing 3 of the crucible. The resulting alloy and slag extracted respectively from the metal reservoir 2 and the crucible 1. Reuse of the bottom 4 may for 3-4 heats.

Rabaseda the same way. The difference is that after loading the lower layer of the mixture 10 in the metal reservoir 2 in the upper end part of the metal reservoir 2 sets of annular heat insulating ceramic element 12. In it place the bottom 4 with the partition 6. The top wall 6 has consistently set the annular heat-insulating ceramic element 11 and the housing 3 of the crucible 1. Disassembly of the device after melting alloy is as follows. First, divide the crucible 1 and the metal reservoir 2. This ceramic element 11 and the bottom 4 are separated together with the crucible 1 and the ceramic element 12 remains in the metal reservoir 2. Then the ceramic element 12 is separated from the metal reservoir 2 and the ceramic element 11 and the bottom 4 of the housing 3 of the crucible. The resulting alloy and slag extracted respectively from the metal reservoir 2 and the crucible 1.

As follows from the examples 1-5 using the proposed method and device for producing an alloy on the basis of the transition and rare earth elements allows comparison with the prototype to increase the degree of extraction of rare earth elements in the alloy to almost 100%. The invention allows to obtain alloys of different composition in a wide range of concentrations of rare earth and alloying the CSOs and rare earth elements, including the formation of the upper layer of the mixture of compounds of the transition element and the reductant and the lower layer of the mixture of rare earth elements, layer-by-layer loaded in the reaction volume, implementation metallotrejderskogo recovery, the interaction of the metal phase of rare earth elements, the separation of metal and slag phases, crystallization of the alloy and the separation of the slag phase, characterized in that the upper layer of the charge isolated from the lower layer metallothermic recovery and separation of metal and slag phases carried out only in the upper layer of the mixture, after separation of the phases partially break the isolation between the upper and lower layers, while the slag phase is separated to the interaction of the metal phase of rare earth elements, and crystallization of the alloy.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that compounds of the transition element using its oxide.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the upper layer of the charge impose additional transition element, which is used as iron, Nickel, cobalt.

4. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that as the reductant use aluminum.

5. The method according to any of the holding cerium, lanthanum, neodymium and praseodymium.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that as the rare earth elements take their alloy.

7. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-6, characterized in that the bottom layer of the charge impose additional alloying additive.

8. The method according to p. 7, characterized in that as an alloying agent used elements selected from the group consisting of calcium, aluminum, silicon, copper and boron.

9. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-8, characterized in that the mass ratio of the upper and lower layers of the charge is not less than 3,05.

10. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-9, characterized in that the separation of metal and slag phases are within 3-10 C.

11. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that metallothermic recovery and separation of the phases is carried out in a crucible with the bottom with the outlet channels, the mass of the bottom is equal to 0,05-0,20 mass of the metal phase, the resulting recovery.

12. The method according to p. 11, wherein the number of outlet channels N determined according to
N= Mk2,
where M is the mass of the metal phase, kg;
k2- empirical coefficient, K20,004 kg-1.

13. A device for receiving S graphite, which has an outlet and provided with a partition wall, and the metal reservoir positioned below the crucible, characterized in that the bottom of the crucible has a number of outlet channels, the diameter D is determined from the ratio:
D= 10,5k1,
where l is the thickness of the plate, m;
k1- empirical coefficient, k1= 0,64 of-1.04 (m)0,5,
when this partition is made of fusible or legkousvoyaemogo material.

14. The device according to p. 13, characterized in that the bottom of the crucible is made removable.

15. Device according to any one of paragraphs. 13, 14, characterized in that the body of the crucible and the metal reservoir is made of an oxide or fluoride ceramics.

16. Device according to any one of paragraphs. 13-15, characterized in that the body of the crucible and the metal reservoir is made of metal or graphite.

17. The device according to p. 16, characterized in that it comprises one or more insulating elements, which are placed between the bottom of the crucible and the metal reservoir.

 

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