Method and device for dissipating the impact energy, in particular, in the automatic coupling of rail vehicles

 

The invention relates to railway vehicles and for the design of devices for dissipating the impact energy, as well as to the method of implementation of the allotment of the impact energy. The technical result - the dissipation of the impact energy under different conditions of work, and provides mitigation of impacts, with both the low and high energy. The method consists in the removal of the impact energy by overcoming the resistance of flow in liquid, compressed and pre-pojetom the elastomer, and the removal of the impact energy occurs in several stages. A device for dissipating the impact energy includes elastomeric shock absorber, a work cylinder which is inserted two stem. The rods have different diameters, and a rod with a small diameter adjacent its end to the bottom of the device, and the bottom of the elastomeric shock absorber rests on a shock plate. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to a method and apparatus for dissipating the impact energy, in particular, in the automatic coupling of rail vehicles.

In known devices having elastomeric shock absorber (hydraulic damper with elastomer as the working fluid) to divert energy the United elastomer. This happens inside the working cylinder during movement of the RAM elastomeric shock absorber, which is caused by external forces. The movement of the piston rod occurs after overcoming their own stress elastomeric shock absorber and is then proportional to the acting force.

From the application of the Polish utility model W97130 known device containing elastomeric shock absorber for dissipating the impact energy in an automatic coupling for railway vehicles. The device is designed so that the enclosure closed with one hand with the bottom of the cylinder is inserted elastomeric damper. The elastomeric damper is oriented with its piston in the direction of the bottom of the casing and through the shock plate is pressed against the bottom. Shock plate is connected with the housing by means firmly inserted into the shock plate screws. The screws pass through holes that are located opposite the bottom of the chassis ears corps.

The disadvantage of this solution is that the operating range of the device is limited because of the need for relatively high native voltage of the shock absorber.

The objective of the invention is to create a method and device for removal of enerugii shock under different operating conditions. Thanks to the method and apparatus can be mitigated attacks that have low impact energy, and those that have the impact energy up to the maximum allowable limit values.

The method according to the invention is that with increasing the forces applied in the longitudinal direction of the device with elastomeric shock absorber, namely from zero to trim the original native voltage of the device, in the beginning there was no reduction in the length of the device. At the subsequent increase strength decreases the length of the device to the first predetermined stroke in the longitudinal direction, and the reduction of length caused by the lowering of the piston rod having a small diameter, in the working cylinder of elastomeric shock absorber. At the subsequent increase efforts to trim additional native voltage of the device, there is no reduction in the length of the device. After equilibration additional native voltage of the device and at the subsequent increase power to the maximum value occurs further reduction of the length of the device until the entire stroke in the longitudinal direction of the device, precept maximum value occurs an abrupt decrease in resistance force of the device without changing the length. Subsequent efforts fall the length of the device increases until it reaches the first longitudinal course, and increase in length is called a raise with a large diameter piston rod of the working cylinder. During the subsequent fall of the forces takes place the second abrupt decrease in resistance force of the device, namely, without changing the length. The other following the fall of efforts there is a further increase in the length of the device until it reaches its original length, with the increase in length caused by a raise with a small diameter rod of the working cylinder. During the subsequent fall of the forces to zero and retaining its original length is reduced opposing forces.

The device according to the invention for dissipating the impact energy is different in that it consists of a body, impact plates and elastomeric shock absorber. Elastomeric shock absorber has two different stem diameter in General the working cylinder. A rod with a small diameter adjacent to the bottom of the case and the bottom of the elastomeric shock absorber rests on a shock plate.

The invention is illustrated further by means of the attached drawings.

In Fig.1 shows characteristics u elastomeric shock absorber with two rods in General the working cylinder.

Two examples of practices that describe shown in Fig.1, device characteristics, it is possible to explain the allocation of impact energy according to the invention.

Example 1 while hitting 90-ton car with a speed of 11 km/h on the other, standing, not put on the brake the car occurs external, rising force Fdthat affects the device in the longitudinal direction. This effort after overcoming the initial own voltage device Fod140 kN (Fig.1, point A) cause a decrease in the length of the device is proportional to the shock force. This reduction in length is shown on the line a-b in Fig. 1 and caused by lowering of the rod having a small diameter, in the working cylinder of elastomeric shock absorber. At point b in Fig. 1, i.e. when the force Fdapproximately 400 kN, the rod reaches the end of its stroke, the so-called longitudinal course. Further increase efforts Fdto the value of 600 kN at point C in Fig. 1 no longer cause any reduction in the length of the device, and only (causes) overcoming additional native voltage of the device. After overcoming their voltage is further proportional to the impact force reduction in the length of the device to the elastomeric shock absorber. Point in Fig. 1 corresponds to the maximum value of the effort Fdequal to 2200 kN, the maximum decrease in the length of fr. It is a common set of longitudinal stroke of the device. When reducing the external force Fdis an abrupt decrease of opposing thrust with a larger diameter. This occurs until a value of 700 kN, denoted by point E in Fig.1, without changing the length of the device. After that there is a proportional reduction of the external force pushing the rod with a larger diameter of the working cylinder, namely to its original position. The position indicated by the point F in Fig.1 and the corresponding external force approximately 420 kN. With a further reduction efforts is initially abrupt removal of the load on the rod with a small diameter, namely to a value of 120 kN, indicated by point G in Fig.1. Then begins the shift rod with a small diameter, is proportional to the reduction of external force to its original position. It corresponds to the point N and the external force is about 100 kN. Subsequent efforts fall to zero, there was a decline opposing efforts by the device.

Example 2 When the load speed and with the total force Fdthat affects the device in the longitudinal direction. This effort after overcoming the initial own voltage device Fos120 kN (Fig.1, point a'), cause a decrease in the length of the device is proportional to the shock strength. This reduction of the length of the device is shown on line a'-a' in Fig. 1 and caused by lowering of the rod having a smaller diameter in the working cylinder of elastomeric shock absorber. At point b' in Fig. 1, i.e. when the force Fsapproximately 250 kN, the rod reaches the end of its stroke. Further increase efforts Fsto a value of 550 kN at point C' in Fig.1 does not cause any reduction in the length of the device, and only the overcoming of additional native voltage of the device. After overcoming its own voltage device is further proportional to the shock strength decreases the length of the device, which is shown on line C'-D' in Fig.1. It is caused by the lowering of the rod having a larger diameter in the working cylinder of elastomeric shock absorber. Point D' in Fig.1 corresponds to the maximum value of the effort Fsequal to 1400 kN, and the maximum reduction of length frdevice. It represents the second set of longitudinal stroke of the device.

When further biometra, namely to a value of 900 kN, denoted by point E' in Fig.1. This is followed by a proportional reduction of the external force to the shift rod with a larger diameter to its original position. The position corresponds to the point F' in Fig.1 and corresponding to it the external force of about 450 kN. With a further reduction efforts is initially abrupt reduction in the load on the rod with a smaller diameter, namely to a value of 140 kN, indicated by the point G' in Fig. 1. Then begins a proportional reduction of the external force to the shift rod to its initial position, which corresponds to the point N'. Subsequent efforts fall to zero and retaining its (his) original length is reduced opposing efforts by the device.

The method according to the invention allows to obtain a new characteristic of the device for dissipating the impact energy, which allows the use of the device in different operating conditions. New features of the device show for small values of the external shock of the efforts of a large increase in travel compared to a shock force. For large values of the external impact efforts increase travel significantly less.

Pokazalisi 2 and the bottom 3. In the inner space of the housing is slidable relative to the body of elastomeric damper. The stem 6 having a larger diameter, stands out from the working cylinder 5 elastomeric shock absorber. The rod 6 is another rod 7 with a smaller diameter can travel in each other. The rod 7 with a smaller diameter adjacent to the bottom of the case and the bottom 8 of elastomeric shock absorber adjacent to the inner side of the impact plate 9. Shock plate is connected with the housing by means of connecting elements 10.

When the device according to the invention is loaded with an external force in the longitudinal direction of effort - after overcoming the initial native voltage of the device is its length, due to the lowering of the rod 7 in the working cylinder 5 is reduced. When it reaches the end of travel, the external force initially overcomes own additional voltage for the device, and then there is a further reduction of the length of the device. Reducing the length of the device caused by the lowering of the rod 6 with a larger diameter in the working cylinder, and it continues until the rod 6 reaches the end of its path of travel. By reducing the external force from the maximum value occurs Unocal.E. no modification of the length of the device. This is followed by further proportional reduction of external efforts raise the rod 6 to the original length. With a further reduction efforts again there is an abrupt reduction in the load of the rod 7 with a smaller diameter, which does not cause any displacement of the rod, and then starts pushing the rod 7 of the working cylinder 5 to its original length. Subsequent yesterday by drop efforts to zero and obtain the original length of the device is reduced opposing forces of the device.

Claims

1. The mode of removal of the impact energy using devices with elastomeric shock absorber, which is located in two General working cylinder shaft with different diameters, in particular, in the automatic coupling of rail vehicles, consisting in the removal of the impact energy by overcoming the resistance of flow in liquid, compressed and pre-compressed elastomer, characterized in that when acting on the device in the longitudinal direction of the force the removal of the impact energy carry out the following stages: a) the device with increasing efforts from zero to at the CSO compression of compressible elastomer in the cylinder 5 of the shock absorber, has the original length is obtained when the fully extended piston rod 6 having a larger diameter and the fully extended piston rod 7, having a small diameter; (b) if the subsequent increase efforts is the reduction of the length of the device up to the first predetermined longitudinal stroke equal to the length of stroke of the rod 7, and reducing the length of the exercise by lowering having a small diameter rod 7 bottom 3 of the housing 1 of the shock absorber 4 in the working cylinder 5 elastomeric shock absorber, where the compressible elastomer; (c) if the subsequent increase efforts to trim additional native voltage of the device, there is no reduction in the length of the device, depending on the stroke length of the piston rod 6 having a larger diameter; (d) after equilibration additional native voltage of the device and at the subsequent increase efforts to the maximum there is a further reduction of the length of the device, with the piston rod 7 of small diameter in contact with the bottom 3 of the housing 1 of the shock absorber 4, up to the full predetermined longitudinal stroke of the device is equal to the sum of the lengths of the strokes of the rods 6 and 7, the reduction of length caused by lower which has a larger diameter rod 6 into the working cylinder 5 elastomeric maksimalno values is an abrupt decrease in opposing efforts by the device without changing the length; f) subsequent fall of the efforts is an increase in the length of the device until the initial longitudinal stroke equal to the length of stroke of the rod 7, and the increase in length caused by running with the large diameter of the rod 6 from the working cylinder 5 and the piston rod 7 of small diameter in contact with the bottom 3 of the housing 1 of the shock absorber 4; (g) subsequent fall of the effort is the second sharp decline in opposing efforts by the device without changing the length; (h) subsequent fall of efforts there is a further increase in the length of the device, the resulting sum of the stroke length of the piston rod 6 of large diameter and stem 7 of small diameter until it reaches its original length, with the increase in length caused by a raise with a small diameter rod 7 in contact with the bottom 3 of the housing 1 of the shock absorber from the working cylinder 5 elastomeric shock absorber 4.

2. A device for dissipating the impact energy, in particular, in the automatic coupling of rail vehicles, consisting of a housing closed on one side with the bottom liner and shock plate, which is arranged to move relative to the sleeve and located between the impact plate and the bottoms of the data in General the working cylinder 5 shaft with different diameters, moreover, the rod 7 with a small diameter adjacent its end to the bottom 3 of the housing 1, and the bottom 8 of elastomeric shock absorber 4 abuts on the shock plate 9.

 

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