Apparatus for producing x-ray radiation of high brightness

 

The invention relates to a means for receiving x-ray radiation, in particular to the means intended for use in the study of substances, materials or devices. The device contains a source of divergent x-ray radiation and an x-ray lens 1. It is already installed and configured to capture part of the divergent x-ray radiation source and convert it into a focused or quasi parallel. Radiant source zone divergent x-ray radiation is shifted relative to the input focus 10 x lens so that this area is within the solid angle 13. The solid angle 13 is formed by continuations of the channels of the x-ray lens in the direction of the source of the divergent x-ray radiation. Effect: increases the brightness of the output radiation due to more efficient use of primary radiation real source used with the radiating area with finite dimensions exceeding the dimensions of the focal region of the x-ray lens in the plane normal to the longitudinal axis of the lens. 8 C.p. f-crystals, 9 Il.

The invention relates to means for the floor and the test substances, materials or devices.

Know the use of synchrotrons or storage rings for receiving x-ray radiation of high brightness (see Synchrotron radiation. Ed. by K. Kunz. Moscow, publishing house "Mir", 1981, S. 80-89 [1]). From a very broad spectrum of synchrotron radiation is allocated the required spectral bandwidth in the x-ray range. However, synchrotron radiation sources, including cumulative rings represent complex capital structures, which cost hundreds of millions of dollars. So, accumulator ring, the radiation spectrum which includes x-ray range, have a diameter of not less than 50 m ([1], S. 80).

However, synchrotron radiation sources, until recently, was virtually the only source that allows you to get sufficient for the purposes of research and testing spectral density of the focused x-ray radiation in the desired operating range.

The situation changed with the advent of x-ray capillary lenses, using the phenomenon of total external reflection (C. A. Arkad'ev, A. I. Kolomiytsev, M. A. Kumakhov and other Broadband x-ray optics with large corner akumajou (see U.S. patent 5175755, publ. 29.12.92 [3] and others). Due to the focusing properties of the lens kumacheva brightness relatively low power source can be increased significantly. Implementing this capability is known device (U.S. patent 5570408, publ. 29.10.96 [4]) contains the source of the divergent x-ray radiation and an x-ray lens in the form of a set of curved canals using multiple total external reflection of x-rays from their walls. It is already installed and configured to capture part of the divergent x-ray radiation source and convert it into a quasi parallel or focused. According to the calculation given in the international application PCT/EN 00/00324 (international publication WO 02/12871 from 14.02.2002) [5], using such a device can be achieved brightness, comparable to the brightness of the x-ray radiation output synchrotron source.

The known device [4] are the most close to offer.

The use specified in the known device the source of the divergent x-ray radiation involves the combination of its radiating area (for example, the focal spot of the target x-ray tube) with an input focus of the lens. When atakuje quasiconcave source, when the size of the radiating area comparable to the size of the input focal region of the lens in the plane normal to the longitudinal axis of the lens. If the size of the emitting zone exceeds the specified value of its elements does not participate in the formation of the output device, as the radiation emitted by these elements not captured by the lens. In the known device cannot be ensured, in particular, a satisfactory interface with x-ray lens source with radiant zone in the form of a bar (the source with a linear focus).

The present invention aims to obtain a technical result consists in increasing the brightness of the output radiation due to more efficient use of primary radiation real (non quasidecadal) used with the radiating area with finite dimensions exceeding, including significantly, the dimensions of the focal region of the x-ray lens in the plane normal to the longitudinal axis of the lens.

For this purpose, the proposed device as mentioned above is closest to it [4] , contains a source of divergent x-ray radiation and an x-ray lens, which is installed and executed with the possibility zakwaterowanie.

In contrast to the known device, the proposed device, the radiating area of the used source is offset focus x-ray lens so that this area is within the solid angle formed by continuations of the channels of the x-ray lens in the direction of the used source. This solid angle consists of two parts symmetrical with respect to the input focal region of the x-ray lens; part located between the focal region and the input end of the x-ray lens, usually called the angle of capture.

The offset of the focus is possible within any of the named parts of the specified solid angle, i.e. in the direction of approximation to the input end of the lens and in the direction away from him.

The optimum is such a mutual arrangement of the x-ray source and x-ray lenses, in which the radiant source area is located wholly within a specified solid angle and its peripheral pixels reaches the borders of this angle.

In this case, in the formation of the output radiation of the device involves all elements of the radiating area of the used source and yet the work of x-ray lenses participates mA is the number of source divergent x-ray radiation can be used, for example, the x-ray tube.

The latter can be, in particular, the linear focus. The orientation of the linear focus may be perpendicular or inclined relative to the longitudinal axis x of the lens.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 and 2 shows a schematic image of the device with x-ray lenses of two types and the x-ray tube in the absence of displacement of the radiating zone x-ray tube with respect to the input of the focus lens; Fig. 3 and 4 illustrate the operation of devices with two types of x-ray lenses at various displacements of the radiating area of the x-ray source relative to the input focus lens; Fig.5 and 7 illustrate the operation of devices with two types of x-ray lenses using the x-ray tube with a linear focus; Fig. 6 shows the possibility of controlling the shape of the cross section of quasi parallel output beam using the x-ray tube with a linear focus; Fig.8 and 9 shows the use of x-ray lenses of two types in the device with the inclined position of the linear focus x-ray tube relative to the longitudinal axis of the lens.

X-ray lenses used in reddehase x-ray radiation, generated by the source 2 and the lens 3 for converting the specified radiation in quasiparallel shown respectively in Fig.1 and 2. Both lenses contain many channels 4 transport of x-ray radiation using the phenomenon of multiple total external reflection. Lens 1 as a whole has the shape of a barrel, i.e., narrowed to both ends of the input (receiving) 5 and the outlet 6. The lens 3 has the form polubochki and narrowed only to the input end 5. The flow of radiation from the output end 6 of the lens 1 converges in a neighborhood of the point 7 of intersection of extensions of the centerlines of the channels 4 - output lens focus. Thread 8 of the radiation from the output end face 9 of the lens 3 quasiparallel. The centerline of the continuations of the channels 4 of the two lenses 1 and 3 come from their input ends 5 in the direction of the source 2 x-rays converge at a point 10 to the input of the focus lens. Tricks 7, 10 are located on the longitudinal axis 11 of the lens 1, 3.

To indicate x-ray lenses these two types have proliferated accordingly, the terms "full lens and Paulina". Appropriate terminology is used below in the description of the proposed device; in those cases, when not referring to any specific of these two types, use the Oia monolithic lenses in which (as conventionally shown in Fig.1 and 2) wall adjacent channels 4 transportation of radiation contact with each other along the entire length, and the channels have a variable length cross-section, varying according to the same law, and that the full cross section of the lens (V. M. Andreevsky, M. V. Gubarev, P. I. Zhidkin, M. A. Kumakhov, A. V. Noskin, I. Yu. Ponomarev, Kh. Z. Ustok. X-ray waveguide system with a variable cross-section of the sections. The IV-th All-Union Conference on Interaction of Radiation with Solids. Book of Abstracts (May 15-19, 1990, Elbrus settlement, Kabardino-Balkarian ASSR, USSR, pp. 177-178) [6]. A progressive trend in the technology of monolithic lens technology is a so-called integral lenses that provide lenses with channels whose diameter and accordingly the size of the focal region in the transverse direction can be fractions of a micron (international application PCT/EN 00/00206, international publication WO 01/29845 from 26.04.2001 [7]; U.S. patent 6271534, publ. 07.08.2001 [8]). Therefore, the use of the known device [4] lenses are the latest generation is only effective in combination with microfocus sources. The larger size of the radiating area of source 2 (this area 12 shown in Fig.1 and 2) lens, focus 10 which is not shifted relative to the radiating zone, captures radiation only part of the elements in this zone, ahogadas Haradok transverse size d channels lenses (more accurate is the estimation of d+2fcrwherecrcritical angle of total external reflection, depending on the energy of the applied radiation and the material of the walls of the channels transporting radiation; f is the focal distance of the lens from the side of the entrance is the distance between the focus 10 and the input end face 5 (see Fig.1 and 2). For emitting elements emitting areas outside the focal region, not the condition of total external reflection, and this radiation hitting on inputs 4 channels of transportation of radiation, does not apply on them.

In the proposed device can be used geostroficheskie x-ray tube, as well as laser and plasma x-ray sources divergent x-ray radiation. However, despite the limited size of the radiating area of the source, complete with a lens, as in the case of quasiconcave source is formed by converging to a point x-ray beam, and Pawlenty - quasi parallel beam of x-rays. In the latter case, the generated beam in the cross section follows the shape of the projection of the radiating area of the x-ray source onto the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of Pawlenty.

This is displayed by Fig.3 for full lens 1 and Fig.4, 5 - clavulanic forming a barrel-shaped surfaces broken lines; while the left and right part of the complete lens 1 focuses on different hatching.

In Fig. 3 shows two clauses 12.1 and 12.2 of the radiating zone of the source of the divergent x-ray radiation. In the form shown in Fig.3 cases radiating area is circular. In regulation 12.1 radiant zone offset from focus 10 full lens 1 along the longitudinal axis 11 in the direction away from the input end 5. In position 12.2 bias has the opposite character in the direction of approaching to the input end 5. In both cases, the radiating area is inscribed in the solid angle 13 formed by continuations of the channels full lens 1 toward the source of the divergent x-ray radiation. Therefore, both shown in Fig.3 cases in full the lens 1 is used for all transport channels radiation. The radiation emerging from the output end of the 6 lenses, if both (12.1 and 12.2) the provisions of the radiating area of the source is focused at point 7 - as if the radiation source was a point and were in focus 10. Perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 11 of the plane 14, which is located to the right of the output of the focus 7, can be obtained x-ray image 15 of the radiating zone of the source, with the size dependent removal plane 14 of focus 7.

the Inza 3, in such the same as in Fig.3, clauses 12.1 and 12.2 of the radiating zone of the source. As shown in Fig.3, the radiating area in both positions (12.1 and 12.2) inscribed in the solid angle 13 formed by continuations of the channels Pawlenty 3 toward the source of the divergent x-ray radiation. Therefore, in polylines 3 in both shown in Fig.4 cases are all channels for transporting radiation. Thread 8 of the radiation emerging from Pawlenty 3 is quasiparallel is the same as it would be in the case of a point source located at the focus 10.

Capturing lens radiation coming from all the radiating zone of the source, using the full lens provides the highest brightness in the output focus, and when using Pawlenty highest energy density in the form of quasiparallel beam.

As noted above, when using paulenz you can get the bundle which in transverse section repeats the shape of the projection of the radiating area of the x-ray source onto the plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of Pawlenty. Fig.5 illustrates the implementation of this feature, when used source of divergent x-ray radiation is radiant rectangular area formah 17.1, 17.2 the radiating zone of the source, symmetric with respect to the focus 10 Pawlenty 3.

The possibility of obtaining a quasiparallel beam of rectangular shape (including in the form of a bar strongly elongated rectangle) without energy losses inherent in collimation method of forming a beam, makes a very promising application of the proposed device in ray diffractometer studies.

Changing the offset of the radiating zone 18 source, such as focal spot x-ray tube relative to the focus 10 Pawlenty, you can control the geometric parameters of the output parallel beam (items 19-21 in Fig. 6), including in the process or shutting down of the process of forming the output beam of the channels of Pawlenty 3. When approaching the radiating zone 18 to the focus 10 Pawlenty 3 there comes a time when radiation from some of the peripheral elements of the radiating zone cannot be captured by Pawlenty. The shape of the output beam does not correspond to the shape of the radiating area. Starting from the moment when the radiation is capable of capturing all channels Pawlenty, the shape of the beam ceases to change and corresponds to the cross-sectional shape of Pawlenty (item 22 in Fig.6).

In order in the m you can use the full lens 1 in combination with a source having a linear focus. If the emitting area of the source occupies a position 23.1 or 23.2 (Fig.7), the total lens 1 in the planes perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 11, generates x-ray image of the area. In Fig.7 shows such an image 24 formed divergent rays in the plane 14, which is located behind the exit focus 7. If this plane was located between the exit end 6 of the lens and its output focus 7, the image would be formed by converging rays. Boxes 25, 26 in Fig.7 shows part used channels full lens 1 when the radiating source area having a rectangular shape.

Illustrated by the above examples, the equivalence of the location area of the radiation source on the opposite side from the input focus lens allows you to implement the device in the presence of structural constraints on the approximation of the lens to structural constraints on the approximation of the lens to the source (such restrictions are made, in particular, in the case of short-focus lens and source side output radiation). It is sufficient to use the location, removing from its input end and use poorly focused source.

For the most complete use of the energy of non-point source radiation area which has different lengths in two orthogonal directions (in particular, in the case of a linear focus), you can resort also to the inclined position of this zone relative to the longitudinal axis 11 of the lens (Fig. 8). Radiation of all elements of the zone 27 is captured full lens 1 and is concentrated in its output focus 7.

Fig. 9 illustrates a similar situation in relation to polylines 3. This drawing shows two options for the location of the radiating area of the source is perpendicular to (28) and inclined (29) to the longitudinal axis 11 of Pawlenty 3.

When the same specific brightness emitting zones 28 and 29, the intensity of the output of quasiparallel beam in the case of an inclined zone 29 will be higher.

If the shape of each of the zones 28, 29 is the corresponding conic section surface, limiting the solid angle of 13, for the transportation of radiation will be used for all channels Pawlenty 3. Therefore, the exiting beam 8 on the form will not differ from that which occurs when a point source is placed in the input focus 10.

The proposed device, described variants of its wyplay studies using inexpensive low-power sources.

Sources of information 1. Synchrotron radiation. Ed. by K. Kunz. Moscow, publishing house "Mir", 1981.

2. C. A. Arkad'ev, A. I. Kolomiytsev, M. A. Kumakhov and other Broadband x-ray optics with a large angular aperture. Advances in physical Sciences, 1989, vol 157, issue 3, S. 529-537.

3. U.S. patent 5175755 (publ. 29.12.92).

4. U.S. patent 5570408 (publ. 29.10.96).

5. International application PCT/EN 00/00324 (international publication WO 02/12871 from 14.02.2002).

6. V. M. Andreevsky, M. V. Gubarev, P. I Zhidkin, M. A. Kumakhov, A. V. Noskin, I. Yu. Ponomarev, Kh. Z. Ustok. X-ray waveguide system with a variable cross-section of the sections. The IV-th All-Union Conference on Interaction of Radiation with Solids. Book of Abstracts (May 15-19, 1990, Elbrus settlement, Kabardino-Balkarian ASSR, USSR, pp.177-178).

7. International application PCT/EN 00/00206 (international publication WO 01/29845 from 26.04.2001).

8. U.S. patent 6271534 (publ. 07.08.2001).

Claims

1. Apparatus for producing x-ray radiation of high brightness, containing the source of the divergent x-ray radiation and an x-ray lens, which is installed and executed with the ability to capture part of the divergent x-ray radiation source and convert it into a quasi parallel or focused, characterized in that the radiating area of the source of the divergent x-ray radiation is Oh solid angle, formed by continuations of the channels of the x-ray lens in the direction of the source of the divergent x-ray radiation.

2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the radiating area of the source of the divergent x-ray radiation is shifted relative to the input focus x-ray lens in the direction of approximation to the input end of the x-ray lens.

3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the radiating area of the source of the divergent x-ray radiation is shifted relative to the input focus x-ray lens in the direction away from the input end of the x-ray lens.

4. Device according to any one of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that the radiating area of the source of the divergent x-ray radiation is located wholly within the solid angle formed by continuations of the channels of the x-ray lens in the direction of the source of the divergent x-ray radiation, and its peripheral pixels reaches the borders of this angle.

5. Device according to any one of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that the source of the divergent x-ray radiation is x-ray tube.

6. The device under item 5, characterized in that the x-ray tube has a linear focus.

7. The device according to p. 6, differently what's lenses.

8. Device according to any one of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that the source of the divergent x-ray radiation is a laser source.

9. Device according to any one of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that the source of the divergent x-ray radiation is a plasma source.

 

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