Method and reactor for thermal treatment of waste gases carbon black production

 

The invention relates to the technology of low neutralization of exhaust gases of carbon black production. Method of decontamination of exhaust gases includes the mixing of air with fuel, its ignition and combustion with the formation of a stream of high-temperature oxidizer, the expansion of the flow and the introduction of the waste gas stream tangentially. In the zone of mixing fuel with air to form a gradually increasing flow of high-temperature oxidizer velocities at the initial part of 50-200 m/s, and the tangential speed of the flow of exhaust gases - 15-80 m/s Reactor for carrying out the method includes coaxially and successively installed combustion of fuel with an axial burner, combustion delaborated gases, the mixing chamber and the secondary combustion chamber. Characterized by the ratio of the sizes of tunnels that make up the reactor. Effect: increased efficiency burnout harmful components from the exhaust gas. 2 S. and 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 ill., table 1.

The invention relates to a method of thermal treatment of low-calorie exhaust gases production of technical carbon containing particles-the products of combustion can be used as a medium for drying the wet pellets of carbon black in drying drums for heating of the substrate, process air, waste heat boilers and for other purposes.

The known method of thermal treatment of waste gases technical carbon production, including the burning of axial flow auxiliary fuel with a part of the swirling air flow, tangential flow vorticity of flow of the mixture of exhaust gases from the other part of the air mixing axial flow of products of combustion of the auxiliary fuel and the tangential flow of the mixture of exhaust gases and air, ignition and combustion of the combustible components of the exhaust gases (U.S. Patent 4154567, CL 431-5, 1981).

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of completeness of burning particles of carbon black contained in the exhaust gas technical carbon production, especially in the case of high initial concentration of particles.

Known reactor for combustion industrial off-gases, which includes a cylindrical coaxially and connected in series lined chamber for flow support (auxiliary) fuel and swirling air flow, deuteromony camera turbulence for the feed of the mixture of exhaust gases and air, which contains a device for turbulence t of the combustion chamber lined contraction and has a diameter less than that of the combustion chamber.

In this reactor for combustion of the exhaust gases is used, the effect of the interaction of two different vortex flow - nizkotarifnogo and vysokobarievogo. Discoviries airflow for stable combustion-supporting fuel gives the thread that creates a barrier to return a vortex flow from the vortex chamber and creates conditions for ignition vysokobarievogo flow mixture of air and exhaust gases that moves through the narrowed passage into the combustion chamber (U.S. Patent 4154567, CL 431-5, 1981).

The operation of such a furnace is quite complex, and to create a vortex flow requires additional energy costs.

The known method of thermal treatment of waste gases technical carbon production, including the burning of axial flow fuel with a part of the air V1when the air excess factor of 1.5-2.0 and feed tangential flow of the mixture of exhaust gases from the other part of the air V2when excess factor last of 1.0 to 1.2, and the ratio of V1:V2= 0,51,0 (RF Patent 2027107, CL F 23 G 7/06, 28.05.91 - prototype).

The disadvantage of this method is the lack of completeness of burning particles of technical plastics technology: turning & the Ghost introduced tangentially.

The reactor for the implementation of the known method of thermal treatment of waste gases production of technical carbon (soot) includes coaxially and sequentially set the camera for burning additional fuel with axial burner and an output nozzle, combustion exhaust gases with two tangential nozzles mix the exhaust gases with air, an annular partition and post combustion of the combustible components of the exhaust gases.

In this reactor for the combustion of auxiliary fuel actually used the camera, consisting of coaxially and sequentially installed four cameras. The first three cameras have a gradually increasing diameter, and the fourth camera (output nozzle) has a diameter less than the diameter of the two previous cameras. The following output nozzle of the combustion chamber of exhaust gases has a length greater than its diameter.

The disadvantage of this reactor is the combination of the small diameter of the fourth chamber (output nozzle) and a large length of the next combustion chamber delaborated gas that does not preclude the overshoot of unburned particles of carbon black (soot) through the ring peregorodchataya improving the efficiency of the burn-up of harmful components from the exhaust gas of the production of technical carbon, blast furnace gas with lower energy costs.

The proposed method of thermal treatment of waste gases production of technical carbon (soot) includes mixing the total quantity of air used in the process, gaseous auxiliary fuel ignition and combustion with the formation of the axial flow high-temperature gaseous oxidant, having a maximum speed at the initial plot in the zone of mixing of fuel gas with air, equal 50-200 m/s, its speed smooth extension and submission to him tangential flow delaborated gases with the speed of 15-80 m/s, the ignition and combustion of combustible components delaborated gases.

Distinctive features of the proposed method of thermal treatment of waste gases production of technical carbon (soot) is the formation in the zone of mixing of gaseous auxiliary fuel with air smoothly extending axial flow high temperature oxidizer velocities at the initial part of 50-200 m/s and feed rate of tangential flow delaborated gases is 15-80 m/s

Another distinctive feature of the proposed method javljaetsja method of thermal treatment of waste gases production of technical carbon (soot) includes coaxially and successively installed cylindrical combustion chamber of the auxiliary fuel, consisting of three sequentially and coaxially mounted tunnels with gradually increasing diameters of D1, D2and D3and axial burner, combustion delaborated gases, the mixing chamber, the relationship of diameter D5to the diameter of the third tunnel D3is 11.5, the diameter of the second tunnel D2- 23, the diameter of the first tunnel D1- 3,56.0 and the diameter of the combustion chamber delaborated gases D4- 0,10to 0.35, and the ratio of its length L to the diameter D5- 1,01,5, and post combustion of combustible components delaborated gases.

Distinctive features of the proposed reactor are executing a combustion chamber of the auxiliary fuel in the form of three sequentially and coaxially mounted tunnels with gradually increasing diameters of D1, D2and D3while the ratio of the diameter of the mixing chamber D5to the diameter of the third tunnel D3is 11,5 diameter of the second tunnel D2is 23, the diameter of the first tunnel D1�tp://img.russianpatents.com/chr/247.gif">to 0.35, and the ratio of the length of mixing chamber L to the diameter D5is 1.01,5.

We offer a set of essential features of the invention improves the efficiency of the burn-up of harmful exhaust gases produced with lower energy costs.

In the method of thermal neutralization of exhaust gases production of technical carbon (soot), blast-furnace gases during the combustion of auxiliary fuel and speed to the expiration of the products of complete combustion of the nozzle axial burning device 50-200 m/s conditions for intensive turbulent pulsations, which promotes rapid mixing of the jets of air and auxiliary fuel and complete combustion of the latter. As a result of this get the flow of high-temperature oxidizer, which provides heating and ignition of the (relatively cold) tangential flow delaborated gases containing particles of carbon black (soot). The particles of carbon black (soot) heat up and begin to glow. The heated stream delaborated gas contributes to the fact that the cross-sectional area of flow of hot gases a few more square poperechnov is at the forefront of hot gases of combustion, heated and finally mixed in the mixing nozzle. This glowing particles of carbon black (soot) is completely gasified (burn), including the sudden change of their concentration.

Turbulent pulsation that occurs when the speed of the expiry of the flow of combustion products 50-200 m/s can be used in the combustion process unheated air, which reduces the energy cost of the decontamination process and submit all the air for combustion of the auxiliary fuel axially. The use of burners for combustion of auxiliary fuel by patents of the Russian Federation 1651625 and 1651626 in combination with the claimed method and reactor allows you to receive a stream of oxidizer with energy sufficient for neutralization of exhaust gases at a sufficiently low temperature process 1320-1380oWith that excludes the formation of oxides of nitrogen.

At a speed of expiration gases of combustion from the burning nozzle device is less than 50 m/s the intensity of the turbulent pulsations decreases and degrades the mixture of auxiliary jets of fuel and air, which reduces the efficiency of heating of the tangential flow of exhaust gases containing particles of carbon black (soot) and possible leakage bore which decreases the overall efficiency of the process.

Another difference method lies in the fact that the tangential speed of the flow of gases is 15-80 m/S. Due to this tangential flow of exhaust gases without turbulent eddies is mixed with the outer layer axial flow. Due to centrifugal forces, particles of carbon black (soot) from the exhaust gases are concentrated at the periphery of the chamber, and during their stay in the chamber substantially exceeds the residence time of the gaseous components of the exhaust gases. Particles of carbon black (soot) are heated by heat transfer from the walls of the lining and axial flow of the products of combustion of auxiliary fuel, begin to glow and gazifitsiruyutsya (to burn).

When the tangential speed of the stream is less than 15 m/s is reduced near-wall concentration of particles of carbon black (soot), which leads to breakthrough them in the mixing zone without sufficient pre-heating. When the tangential speed of flow of more than 80 m/s increases the hydraulic resistance, which leads to increased energy costs.

Flow axial flow of products of combustion of the auxiliary fuel with air speeds of 50-200 m/s enables obtaining high-temperature flow of oxidant, energy KGO air quantity, that is, the tangential component of the air flow is equal to 0.

The method is carried out in the reactor, which includes the combustion of auxiliary fuel axially torch, comprising sequentially and coaxially mounted tunnels with diameters of D1, D2, D3the camera delaborated gases with diameter D4with tangentially mounted outlet for flow of exhaust gases, the mixing chamber with a diameter of D5and the secondary combustion chamber For stable burning additional fuel and ensure complete burnout of harmful components from the exhaust gas, the ratio of the diameters of the following: D5/D1=3,56,0 D5/D2=2,03,0 D5/D3=1,01,5 D5/D4=0,100,35 L/D5=1,01.5, If such ratios of diameters coaxially and sequentially installed cameras axial flow of products of combustion of the auxiliary fuel moves through them with optimal speed. When you exit the camera with diameter D3the stream is disclosed in such a way that has the cross-sectional area a few aching relatively cold streams of exhaust gas through the chamber D5that would reduce the effectiveness of burning particles of carbon black and contributes to the heating of the exhaust gas.

When the ratio of D5/D1<3,5; D5/D2<2; D5/D3<1; D5/D4<0,1; L/D5<1 increases the resistance of the reactor, which leads to increased energy consumption.

When the ratio of D5/D1>6,0; D5/D2>3; D5/D3>1,5; D5/D4>0,35; L/D5>1,5 possible leakage of unburned particles.

In Fig.1 schematically shows a reactor for implementing the method of thermal treatment of waste gases production of technical carbon (soot), and Fig.2 - section a-a of Fig.1.

The reactor includes coaxially and successively installed cylindrical combustion chamber, consisting of tunnels 1, 2, 3 with diameters of D1, D2and D3accordingly, for the combustion of auxiliary fuel axially torch 4, combustion exhaust gas 5 with a diameter of D4and length L with tangential pipe 6 for supplying exhaust gases through the inlet 7, the mixing chamber 8 with a diameter of D5and the camera 9 post-combustion of the combustible components of the exhaust gases. Working reactor chamber is aguinaga method used reactor for thermal treatment of waste gases production of technical carbon (soot) with the following parameters: the ratio of the diameter D5to the diameter D1is 6.0; diameter D2- 2.7; the diameter D3- 1,1; to the diameter D4- 0.35 and the ratio of the length L of the combustion chamber delaborated gases to the diameter D5to 1.4.

The reactor operates in the following way. In tunnel 1 with diameter D1the combustion chamber through the burner serves 4 auxiliary fuel with air when the air excess factor=1,9-3,0. The fuel burns with formation of high temperature stream of combustion products, which passes through coaxially and successively installed the tunnels 2 and 3 with diameters of D2and D3the combustion chamber. The products of combustion enter the chamber 5 with a diameter of D4. Exhaust gases from the production of carbon black containing particles as carbon (soot), through pipe 7 are received in the chamber 5 through a tangential nozzle 6.

Exhaust gases in the chamber 5 is heated by heat transfer from the walls of the lining and axial flow of the products of combustion of the auxiliary fuel are mixed at peripheral parts of axial flow. Due to the high speed axial flow of heated flue gases are captured them and the final mixing and ignition occurs in the mixing chamber 8 is wsie particles enter the mixing chamber 8 and completely burned.

Further, the products of combustion enter the chamber 9, where the oxidation of combustible components of the flow. Neutralized gases are vented to atmosphere.

Example 1 (the prototype). In axial burner serves the air of 4300 nm3/h and auxiliary fuel (natural gas) in the amount of 120 nm3/h, which burns with formation of high temperature gas stream full combustion. This stream serves tangentially at a speed of 14 m/s mixture 7200 nm3/h of air, heated to 80oWith flue gas taken in quantity 12000 nm3/h While the speed of the outflow of high-temperature products of complete combustion of the auxiliary fuel in the initial stage is 30 m/s At the outlet from the reactor to receive the gas flow from the burnout level of the particles of carbon black 79%.

Examples 2-5 (according to the invention).

In axial burner serves the air of 2300-3600 nm3/h and auxiliary fuel (natural gas) in the amount of 120 nm3/h Temperature combustion of auxiliary fuel is 950-1150oC. the flow Rate axial flow of combustion products is 44-200 m/s and varies by changing the nozzle diameter of istechenija (soot) in the amount 8800 nm3/h is fed to the chamber through the tangential channel. The flow rate of exhaust gases varies from 14 to 60 m/s by changing the diameter of the nozzle devices for their supply. The temperature of the flue gas 200oWith the air for combustion is served without heating, i.e. at ambient temperature. Exhaust gases obtained in the transition regime with increased 2-3 times compared to the stationary regime the concentration of carbon black (soot) in gases 24 g/nm3.

The temperature of the combustion exhaust gases in the secondary combustion chamber is 1310-1350oC.

The results of the experiments according to the method of thermal treatment of exhaust gases in comparison with the prototype shown in the table. In experiments 3-5 at a speed of expiration of the products of combustion of the auxiliary fuel 86-200 m/s and the speed of the expiration of the exhaust gases 22-60 m/s burnout level of the particles of carbon black (soot) was 97-98%. When the speed of the expiration of the auxiliary fuel 44 m/s and the speed of the expiration of the exhaust gases (example 2) the degree of burnout of carbon black (soot) was 89%. The process of neutralization takes place at a sufficiently low temperature 1310-1350oWith; this ensures the absence of nitrogen oxides in the products gorini the industry will intensify the combustion process off-gases production of technical carbon (soot), significantly reduce chemical incomplete combustion of particles of carbon black (soot), with their high concentration in the exhaust gas and reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere.

Claims

1. The method of thermal treatment of waste gases production of carbon black involving the mixing of air with auxiliary fuel ignition and combustion with the formation of the axial high-temperature gas flow, the extension stream and introducing it in the zone of maximum expansion tangential flow delaborated gases, ignition and combustion of combustible components delaborated gases, characterized in that in the zone of mixing gaseous fuel with air to form a smoothly extending axial flow high-temperature gas oxidizer velocities at the initial part of 50-200 m/s and feed rate of tangential flow delaborated gases is 15-80 m/s

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the air used for the treatment of gases, serves axially.

3. The reactor for the implementation of the method according to p. 1, comprising coaxially and successively installed cylindrical combustion chamber VCOM feed delaborated gases, the mixing chamber and the secondary combustion chamber combustible components delaborated gases, characterized in that the combustion chamber of the auxiliary fuel consists of three sequentially and coaxially mounted tunnels with gradually increasing diameters of D1, D2, D3moreover , the ratio of the diameter of the mixing chamber D5to the diameter of the third tunnel D3is 11.5, the ratio of the diameter D5to the diameter of the combustion chamber delaborated gases D4is 0.10of 0.35, the ratio of the diameter D5to the diameter of the second tunnel D2is 23,the relation of D5to the diameter of the first tunnel D1is 3.56.0 and the ratio of the length L of the combustion chamber delaborated gases to the diameter D5is 11,5.

 

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