The method of combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels
The invention relates to a power system. The method of combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels includes a Central fuel supply to the burner, the atomization of its nozzle and the peripheral air supply. The atomization of the fuel injector in a cocurrent flow of air is carried out under the two corners in the form of two hollow cones placed one inside the other, the burning of fuel in an external torch is in the mode of excess air, while the inner mode of excess fuel. The invention is intended to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen and energy boilers. 3 Il. The invention relates to a power system and, in addition, can be used in chemical industry and metallurgy to reduce nitrogen oxides emissions from furnaces combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels.There is a method of combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels (see patent Germany NOS 3327597, CL F 23 7/02, publ. 07.02.85 year), including Central fuel supply to the burner, the atomization of its nozzle and the peripheral air flow.Supplied to the burner air is divided into primary, participates in the combustion of the fuel in the root area of the torch, and the secondary participating in the afterburning of the way of the primary air. Secondary air register is located outside the primary.This method of burning liquid fuel reduces emissions of oxides of nitrogen without significant deterioration of combustion and increasing the formation of other oxides of carbon. Lowering the temperature of the periphery of the torch inevitably leads to incomplete combustion of carbon and the formation of coke residue. Two-stage combustion has not received a distribution in energy, because this method is associated with a significant deterioration of the completeness of combustion of fuel and consequently reducing the efficiency of the boiler as a whole.A known method of burning liquid fuels, the closest to the technical essence and taken as a prototype, implemented by the device (see patent RU 2158390, CL F 23 D 11/18 from 29.06.99 year), including Central fuel supply to the burner, the atomization of its nozzle and the peripheral air flow.Fuel injector is located on the axis of the burner and provides a spray of liquid fuel in a cocurrent swirling air flow.Effective atomization of the fuel injector creates the prerequisite for a good aeration of the torch, high temperature in the zone of active combustion and intense and short torch. Unhindered penetration of peripheral Vozduha nitrogen and oxygen in a molecule of NOx in the zone of high temperature.The disadvantage of this method of combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, taken as a prototype, is the release of sprayed fuel nozzle in the form of a single hollow cone twisted in a cocurrent flow of air forming in the center of the flame zone of active combustion containing components of the reaction in a ratio close to stoichiometric, which leads to rapid formation of oxides of nitrogen in the high temperature.The technical result of the present invention is to reduce the formation of nitrogen oxides during the combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels without compromising the completeness of fuel combustion and pulling of the torch.The technical result is achieved in that in the method of combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, including Central fuel supply to the burner, the atomization of its nozzle and the peripheral air flow, fuel atomization nozzle in a cocurrent flow of air is carried out under two angles, in the form of two hollow cones placed one inside the other, the burning of fuel in an external torch is in the mode of excess air, while the inner mode of excess fuel.The proposed method of combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is as follows. PR is position the air flow is always peripheral, moreover, the burner can have multiple air registers and each air register to have your twisting apparatus. The fuel flows from the injector thin film in the form of a hollow cone and crushed cocurrent air flow into separate drops. Aeration field irrigation occurs from the periphery inwards, i.e. air molecules in the process of mixing with the fuel molecules penetrate from the outside into the depths of the irrigation fields to the axis. Warming up the field of irrigation and the subsequent outbreak of fuel begin, on the contrary, the inside of the torch due to the heat, bring the heated products of combustion from the tail of the torch in the root region. The ability of the torch to drain the hot combustion products from its own tail in the root cross-section along the centerline due to the presence of pronounced tangential velocity component of the air flow provided twisting apparatus. In addition, the negative pressure in the paraxial region of the torch is created due to the fact that the fuel is extruded from the nozzle through the nozzle, which gives the direction of its initial movement. And this angle of emission and the inertia of the droplets of fuel to generate a vacuum in the paraxial region, the rush to the hot gases from the tail Cunego burning and the intensity of the ignition of the fuel in the root of the torch.In addition, the area of the reverse currents is a region of low axial velocity and the axial region of the combustion products move even meet the basic movement of fuel and air. Stay excited by heating of the molecules of nitrogen (N2and oxygen O2in this area dozens of times higher than in the main thread, this increases the likelihood of their connection in the molecule NO.The level of NOx emissions determined mainly three operating parameters: oxygen concentration in the zone of reverse currents, the combustion temperature and the residence time of the molecules of nitrogen (N2and oxygen O2in the field of high temperatures (above 1750).Usually reduce the level of NOx emissions, reducing the temperature in the zone of active combustion by creating areas of non-stoichiometric combustion. The root of the torch perenasyschay fuel, preventing the free access of oxygen from the periphery, and then dorogaya unburned residues in excess oxygen. In the boiler furnace is observed smoke and soot which is deposited on the cold screen.Low quality spray fuel conventional mechanical or poromechanics open injector does not allow to reduce the activity of the reverse zone togoria fuel strive to increase the outer diameter of the torch by increasing the angle of ejection of fuel from the nozzle, but this path leads to the increase of the diameter of the zone of reverse currents, and with it increases the level of NOx emissions.In recent years, tested and successfully implemented in the power nozzle, enabling a more flexible form field irrigation without compromising the quality of the spray of fuel. The proposed method of combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels (MS-W) is based on their use.The method is based on the partition of the torch also on two areas of non-stoichiometric combustion. But the field divided horizontally along the direction of movement of the components, and in the vertical plane, i.e., across streams of fuel and air. The nozzle ejects the fuel under two angles F1 and F2 (see Fig. 2), two independent hollow cones arranged one inside the other. Field irrigation represents in cross-section two rings, one inside the other (see Fig.1). The outside of the fuel cone prevents air flow to mix with the fuel of the inner cone. The outside of the fuel cone forms a torch with an excess of oxygen coming from the cocurrent, peripheral air flow, and the internal fuel cone forms a torch with lack of oxygen, because oxygen can enter the internal regional as tabulation products of combustion from the periphery of the torch. Reduced formation of nitrogen oxides in double layer torch is due to the fact that the outer torch tabulation excess air required for combustion at this stage and just absorbing the energy released during combustion. And the inner torch tabulation excess fuel, which at this stage is well heated and gasified. Leaving the root of the flame, it burns at some distance from the burner. The internal combustion torch stretched. Internal fuel cone erupts directly into the burner, but intense burning is not observed due to lack of oxygen, while, on the other hand, this intensity is sufficient for the outer flame erupted inside the burner.A special place in the implementation of this method is setting the intensity of the reverse zone currents, because the excessive decrease in the intensity of heating of the fuel due to the heat generated by the combustion products in the area of reverse currents, will delay the combustion of the gas torch will move deep into the boiler furnace. You must submit the internal torch is the amount of fuel to the area of the reverse currents had sufficient intensity to both torch flashed still inside the loopholes. Numerous tests pok is t to exceed 75%. The level of emission of nitrogen oxides is reduced by 15... 25%, depending on the mode of operation of the boiler. And yet the outer torch in the root area is muddy the initial phase, although judging by the deposits of soot on the end of nozzle devices jets zone reverse currents reaches the spray head.It should be noted separately that the best application of the proposed method is the most suitable oil-gas burners having a high coefficient of twist of air N=Wt/Wowhere Wt- the tangential component of the flow of air; Wo- axial component of movement of the air flow.And it is not suitable burner flow and shock types.A large proportion of the fuel in the proposed method is burned in an external torch mode excess oxidant and caused a slightly lower combustion temperature. The intensity of combustion in the external torch is determined by the size of the combustion chamber, namely its depth. The decrease in the intensity of combustion in the external torch reduces the formation of nitrogen oxides, but draws combustion and flame can touch the rear screens. For the same reason the angle F1 cannot be below a certain, since the reduction of the outer diameter of the evidence from the press to the lack of an oxidant, which leads to the formation of the paraxial region of the restorative environment with the presence of amines NH, destroying the already formed molecules of nitrogen oxides. However, the fuel supply to the internal torch leads to decrease in intensity over the area of the reverse currents, reduces heating of the external fuel torch at the initial site and allows you to fully use the volume torch.The proposed method of combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels can reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides compared with the method taken for the prototype, due to violations of the stoichiometric ratio of the components in the cross-section of the torch, resulting in lower maximum temperature in the zone of active combustion and the creation of a restorative environment in the area of reverse currents.In Fig. 1 shows a device for combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, General view.In Fig.2 presents a diagram of a two-layer torch.In Fig.3 shows a General view of the vortex nozzles with bunk nozzle device.The vortex nozzle for the implementation of the proposed method consists of the following structural elements. A hollow cylindrical housing 1 contains a fuel swirl 2 and steam swirl and the and the other end is screwed coplowe device 4. To compensate for thermal stresses between the parts of the nozzle and the fixed base plate copper strip 5. Coplowe the device is a removable hollow cap with holes 7 and 8 on the spherical end (and holes can be of different shapes). Holes are made around the circumference of the two rows in two tiers. The openings of the outer layer is made at a large angle F2 to the axis of the device, the more the number, the diameter D2 is greater and the total area too. Holes in the inner layer have a smaller diameter D1, they performed at a lower angle F1 to the axis of the device and their total area is less.Works vortex injector as follows. Fuel (usually oil) is forced through the tangential channels of the fuel swirl into the internal cavity of the nozzle and moves swirling flow towards the nozzle device, performing a helical movement. Steam is forced through the tangential channels steam block into the internal cavity of the nozzle, accelerating up to the sound speed, is facing at the exit of the channels with a film of fuel, swirling toward the movement of the steam jets, and then they both move in the direction of the nozzle in the form of paramakotoi emulsion. In the internal the fuel in the form paramakotoi emulsion rasplivaetsa in a cocurrent flow of air into the burner through two (or more) rows of holes, performed on the spherical end of the nozzle device in a circle, circles, and holes can represent not only drilling, but slotted grooves. The openings of the outer layer usually has each a larger diameter D2 and the total area and performed at a large angle F2 to the axis of the nozzle device. Through them served a large part of the fuel, and about 75%. Holes in the inner layer are each smaller diameter D1 which is smaller than the total area and performed at a lower angle F1 to the axis of the nozzle device. The openings of the outer layer forming the outer layer of the torch in the form of a hollow cone, and holes in the inner layer forming the inner layer of the torch in the form of a hollow cone and located inside the outer cone of the flame.The positive effect from the use of the proposed method when burning fuel oil in power stations is to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen without reducing the combustion efficiency and the emergence of grime, soot, and without increasing the length of the torch.
ClaimsThe method of combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, including Central fuel supply to the burner, the atomization of its nozzle and the peripheral air flow, characterized in that Donoso, located one within the other, the burning of fuel in an external torch is in the mode of excess air, while the inner mode of excess fuel.
SUBSTANCE: nozzle has mixing chamber whose section arranged downstream of the radial nozzles of the first sprayer is conical. The nozzles of the third sprayer are arranged over the periphery at the outlet of the conical section of the chamber. The nozzles of the third sprayer are connected with the ring row of the passages of the first sprayer. The nozzles of the third sprayer are mounted at an angle of to the vertical axis of the nozzle and under an angle of to its plane.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
1 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: burner is made of well of specified length (up to 650 mm). The fuel flowing through stabilizer of fuel supply enters the fuel supply pipe and then through fuel nozzles to the mixing chamber of the nozzle. The fuel jet impacts on the conical hollow in the working face of the deflector, thus enhancing the spraying of fuel. The compressed steam enters the ring passage defined by the fuel and steam supply pipes. The steam then enters the first (hydraulic) spraing stage of the mixing chamber through the steam nozzles drilled in the swirler radially and tangentially. The mixing chamber is interposed between the hydraulic deflector and exit section of the fuel nozzle. The steam entrains the fuel jet broken down with the deflector and then continues to break it in the second (gas) spraying stage, in the zone around the rod of the hydraulic deflector.
EFFECT: improved quality of spraying.
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-turbine engine has central stage arranged in gas duct of engine from its part arranged higher relative to direction of main gas flow to part lower in direction of main gas flow and provided with exhaust gas cone forming device in direction of main gas flow, and guide arrangement. Gas-turbine engine has group of blades, group of fuel nozzles and group of igniters. Guide arrangement is located in zone of edge of exhaust gas cone-forming device arranged higher relative to direction of main gas flow. Group of blades is located in gas duct out of the limits of central stage. Blades are provided with atomizing guides extending through blades. Fuel nozzles are installed on inner ends of corresponding atomizing guides. Each nozzle is provided with input, output and passage between input and output. Passage has part arranged to direct fuel flow to first part of passage surface located across and widening downwards in direction of flow with subsequent deflection fuel flow by first part of surface and its outlet from nozzle. Igniters are arranged in corresponding atomizing guides for igniting fuel from corresponding fuel nozzle.
EFFECT: provision of reliable lighting up in afterburner, improved recirculation of fuel in flow.
13 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: coaxial jet nozzle comprises hollow tip that connects the space of one of the fuel components with the combustion zone and bushing that embraces the tip to define a ring space and connects the space of the other fuel component with the combustion zone. The exit section of the tip is provided with the radial grooves so that the periphery of the central jet bounded by the generatrices of the beams is no more than 3s, and the beam length is 2.3-2.5s, where s is the beam thickness.
EFFECT: enhanced completeness of combustion.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: module of burner for gas generator consists of two-step spreader of two-component mixture flow, of two component supplying tubes running from two-step two component mixture spreader, and of face plate of burner, where there pass tubes for supply of two-component mixture. The face plate contains a cooling system designed for plate cooling. Further, the module of the gas generator burner consists of circular nozzles built in the face plate of the burner; also each circular nozzle envelops a corresponding tube supplying two-component mixture. The two-step flow spreader of two component mixture flow contains a main cavity consisting of spreaders of flow of the first step and of secondary cavities diverging from the main cavity on further ends of the spreaders of the first step. Also each secondary cavity comprises the spreaders of flow of the second step. Tubes for supply of two-component mixture run from each secondary cavity on the further ends of the spreaders of the second step flow. The face plate of the burner contains a porous metal partition with nozzles passing through it; the cooling system has a porous metal partition cooled with reagents infiltrating through the porous metal face plate. The face plate of the burner contains a back plate, a front plate and a channel of cooling medium between the back and front plates. The cooling system contains the cooling medium channel. In the cooling system cooling medium flows through this channel to cool the front plate. The front plate contains transition metal. The burner module additionally contains conic elements running through the back plate and the front plate; also each conic element is installed on the end of each tube for supply of two component mixture. Each conic element contains a circular nozzle.
EFFECT: raised efficiency of installation for gasification of carbon containing materials.
20 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: pneumatic burner consists of gas and fuel supplying pipes, fuel nozzle, hollow case and flange. The fuel nozzle consists of two cylinder sections and one conic section. A circular diaphragm with profiled elliptic orifices is installed in the hollow case. The orifices are inclined relative to axis of the fuel nozzle at angle equal to angle of taper of a coaxial conic channel. The fuel nozzle can additionally contain a guiding tip with diffusion hole. The gas supplying pipe is preferably set tangentially to the hollow case. The burner can additionally have the coaxial conic channel formed with the hollow case and the guiding tip with the diffusion hole. Geometry of the coaxial conic channel is preferably made controlled.
EFFECT: reduced operational pressure fall of fuel; increased radial and circumferential uniformity of fuel distribution in spray; control of distribution of drops around diameters.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: atomiser of, primarily, liquid-propellant rocket engine comprises casing with fuel feed adapter. Note here that the latter is arranged inside said case at pylons while its channel is connected with fuel chamber via bores made in said pylons. In includes the sleeve arranged with ring clearance at said case to make circular gaseous oxidiser channel connected with oxidiser chamber via channels in the casing between its wall and fuel feed pylons. Adapter channel is closed at its inlet while its inner chamber communicates with ring gap between adapter and said sleeve via radial bores made at outlet. Note here that sleeve outlet has stepped expansion with its chamber connected with fuel chamber via tangential channels made in sleeve wall. In compliance with one version, sleeve outlet expansion accommodated hollow cylinder making an extension of sleeve inner channel to make ring gap with ring expansion outlet cylindrical surface. Chamber of said dap communicates via tangential bores with fuel chamber. Axial bore is made at adapter end. Stepped expansion is made at adapter outlet. Note here that bores equally spaced in circle and at angle to adapter axis are made at adapter end. Stepped expansion is made at adapter outlet. Note here that bores equally spaced in circle and at angle to adapter axis are made at adapter end located in the plane of sleeve tangential bores.
EFFECT: higher completeness combustion and better mix formation.
5 cl, 11 dwg
SUBSTANCE: fuel tube for a burner, and namely for a gas turbine burner, includes an end that has a surface for nozzles, as well as at least two fuel nozzles. The surface for the nozzles is equipped with splines between the fuel nozzles and is made in the form of an annular conical surface. The splines pass through the above surface perpendicular to the circumferential direction of the annular surface. The end is made in the form of a flattened cone. The side surface of the flattened cone forms the surface for the nozzles.
EFFECT: invention is aimed at increasing the nozzle service life.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: energy engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a shell with a shaped inlet and outlet, mounted on the frame, a pilot burner located inside the shell, a mixing head representing two toroid-shaped collectors located on the same axis, in which the pneumatic nozzles connecting them are set, at that one collector is connected to the system of feeding compressed air or steam and the other collector is connected to the hydrocarbon fluid feeding system.
EFFECT: increase in efficiency and completeness of combustion process of hydrocarbon fluid.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: fire safety.
SUBSTANCE: pneumatic nozzle comprises the fluid and the gas supply systems and the nozzle, the liquid supply system is carried out in two directions comprising the axial liquid supply through the inlet pipe and the confuser and the cylindrical nozzle, connected in series and coaxial with it, and the tangential liquid supply is carried out through the housing in the form of a cylindrical-conical sleeve, coaxial with the cylindrical nozzle, on the cylindrical part thereof the annular vortex chamber with the liquid supply pipe is fixed. Along the annular chamber edges, two rows of inlet fluid tangential channels are provided, each row comprising at least three tangential channels connecting the annular chamber with the cylindrical cavity of the housing, to which the circular plate is coaxially fixed, located perpendicularly to the axis of the annular vortex chamber and rigidly connected to the cylindrical cavity of the housing in its end section, and a slotted nozzle is attached perpendicularly to the circular plate. The slot nozzle is made combined and consisting of two mutually perpendicular rectangular parallelepipeds with throttle through openings of a rectangular cross section, connected with the housing cavity, and the divider of the two-phase flow is attached coaxially to the circular plate, to its peripheral portion, formed as a perforated conical surface surrounding the slotted nozzle with throttle through openings of a rectangular cross section connected to the housing cavity.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the gas-drop jet formation and expanding its supply area.
2 cl, 2 dwg