Preparation for winter cleaning highways and urban roads
The invention relates to the chemical industry, namely to the drugs used to prevent and remove smiledand covers on the roads. The product has the following composition, wt.%: sodium chloride 97,5-98,5, disubstituted phosphates of alkali metals - the rest. The technical result - the reduction of corrosion activity of the drug while reducing inhibitory action on plants. 3 table. The invention relates to the chemical industry, namely to medicines, in particular for the prevention and removal of neinleganan covers on the roads.A well-known drug for the removal neinleganan covers on the basis of chlorides of alkali and alkaline earth metals containing as phosphate inhibiting additives dihydroorotate alkaline earth metals in the following ratio, wt.%: Chlorides of alkali and alkaline earth metals - 20-98 Dihydroorotate alkaline earth metal, and 0.1 - 12 Water and inert impurities (CaS4, SrSCO4) - The rest (and.with.482488, MKI.2 09 K 3/18, Appl.26.11.71, publ.25.09.76, B. I. 35) (1).The disadvantage of the drug is its high corrosiveness against metals. So, with the rhenium of dihydroorotate alkaline earth metals compared with the chlorides of the metals (table. I) the beginning of the corrosion from the ingress of chlorides on the metal surface takes place before the formation of a passivating film formed through the use of inhibitory phosphate additives.In addition, due to the very low solubility of dihydroorotate calcium (table. II) introduction to the drug has no significant effect on the reduction of inhibitory action of the chlorides of the metals on plants (chemist's Handbook 2 hours, Izd-vo "Chemistry", L., 1965, page 146) (3).In the case of using the liquid preparation (example 3) due to the additional amount of water formed from melting ice, the concentration of the inhibitor will decrease to the point where its protective function practically ceases to operate. As shown by laboratory studies, when the concentration of the phosphate additive in the mixture is lower than 0.8%, the corrosion process is active, i.e. not enough inhibitor for passivating a metallic surface.Well-known drug for winter cleaning highways and urban roads, containing an aqueous solution of metal chloride and phosphate additive, characterized in that as the chloride of the metal it contains magnesium chloride, and as a phosphate additive - superphosphate or centripetal the next time soothes the class. 4 09 K 3/18, Appl. 07.08.84, publ. 07.08.86, B. I. 29) (2).The disadvantage of the drug is relatively high corrosional activity to metal surfaces auto and electric.Like all metal chlorides, magnesium chloride is an activator of corrosion of metal surfaces of cars and electric vehicles, and unlike sodium chloride, falling on a metal surface, forms crystals, which starts the corrosion process. In addition, when using an aqueous solution is more dilute and reduce the concentration of phosphate additives in a mixture of ice and salt. When the content of phosphate additives in a mixture of 0.8% or below, its inhibitory effect stops (PL.III).The disadvantage of using aqueous solutions is also the fact that the viscosity of such solutions at temperatures belowoWith two to three times higher than at 25-30oIn terms of solution preparation. If you get solution to clean the ice and snow of the road coating is formed slick "film", resulting in deteriorating the adhesion with the road surface (Corrosion under the action of coolants, refrigerants and working phone Chemistry, L., 1988, S. 302-304) (4).As a prototype us the plants is reduced corrosive activity of the drug while reducing inhibitory action on plants.The solution of this problem is achieved by the fact that the product containing the metal chloride and phosphate additive in solid form, contains as phosphate additives disubstituted phosphates of alkali metals in the following ratio, wt.%: Sodium chloride - 97,5-99,2
Disubstituted phosphates of alkali metals - Rest
The essence of the invention consists in the following. When using disubstituted phosphates of alkali metals (dinatriumfosfaatti, discalificata or mixtures thereof in the ratio 1:1) passivation of metal surfaces immediately after contact with them selenophosphate ice mixture, because the dissolution rate of dinatriumfosfaatti and discalificata higher than that of sodium chloride (table.I). This leads to reduced corrosion activity of the drug. Solution hit on near - road lawn allows for the use of dinatriumfosfaatti to support the content of mobile forms of phosphorus on an average level, and the application of discalificata incorporated into the soil is another useful component (potassium), which ultimately reduces the dampening effect on plants of de-icing agent based on sodium chloride.Tests, corrosion was carried out by standard Metodicheskie components close to the real after melting of snow and ice formations on the roads (on the basis of consumption norms - 150 g of the drug per 1 m2the road surface). The sample was immersed in the prepared solution for 6 hours, then removed and dried for 18 hours. The test was conducted 30 days.The second mode of testing consisted of wetting the samples solution for 30 sec, followed by drying (1 hour), when eight cycles per day. All tests were conducted in parallel at t=203oC.In addition, when conducting industrial experiment at the prospect of the Glory of the Moscow district of St. Petersburg on the road surface near the border were installed metal shields-probes in the control and experimental plots, which after 3 months of testing were evaluated for susceptibility to corrosion.The material composition of the samples was studied using energy spectrometer LINK AN 10000/S85 (UK) combined with SEM. As shown by the research results, when used as a corrosion inhibitor DCP and/or TNF decreases the thickness of the oxidized film (iron oxide) on metal surfaces by 40-50%. Inhibitor does piscivorous role, slowing down the corrosion process.Example 1. 1 t solution of magnesium chloride (bischofite) composition, wt.%: MgCl2- 30, substances), and get the drug, the next composition, kg: MgCl2- 300; Na2NRA4- 15; water and inert impurities - 685.Example 2. 1 ton of a mixture of chlorides of alkaline-earth and alkali metal composition, weight. %: CaCl2- 40; NaCl - 50; water - 10, mixed with 70 kg of double superphosphate, containing dihydroorotase of calcium in the number of 55.3 kg Receive the solid product of the following composition in weight. %: CaCl2- 37; NaCl - 47; Ca(H2RHO4)2- 5, water and impurities - the rest.Example 3. 1 t technical sodium chloride (TPS) is mixed with denitrification (DNF) in an amount of 0.2%, which is 2 kg, and get the product containing the following composition in weight. % of: salt - 99,8; DNF - 0,2.Example 4. 1 t technical sodium chloride (TPS) is mixed with denitrification in the amount of 0.5%, which is 5 kg, and get the product of the following composition in weight. % technical sodium chloride (TPS) - 99,5; DNF 0.5 in.Example 5. 1 t technical sodium chloride (TPS) is mixed with 0.8% of dinatriumfosfaatti that is 8 kg, and get the product of the following composition in weight. % technical salt - 99,2 and TNF - 0,8.Example 6. 1 t technical sodium chloride (TPS) is mixed with 1.5% dinatriumfosfaatti that is 15 kg, and get the product of the following composition in weight. % who scored 25 kg, and get the product of the following composition in weight. %: TPS - 97,5 and DP to 2.5.Example 8. 1 t technical sodium chloride (TPS) is mixed with 3.5% dinatriumfosfaatti, which is 35 kg, and get the product of the following composition in weight. %: TPS - 96,5 and TNF - 3,5.Example 9. 1 t technical sodium chloride (TPS) is mixed with 1% of dinatriumfosfaatti and 1% discalificata (DCP), representing, respectively, 10 kg, and get the product of the following composition in weight. %: TPS - 98; DP - 1 and DCP - 1.Example 10. 1 t technical sodium chloride (TPS) is mixed with 0.8% of discalificata that is 8 kg, and get the product of the following composition in weight. %: TPS - 99,2 and DCP - 0,8.Example 11. 1 t technical sodium chloride (TPS) is mixed with 1.5% discalificata that is 15 kg, and get the product of the following composition in weight. %: TPS - 98,5 and DCP - 1,5.Example 12. 1 t technical sodium chloride (TPS) is mixed with 2.5 discalificata that is 25 kg, and get the product of the following composition in weight. %: TPS - 97,5 and DCP - 2,5.The results of the experiments are presented in table.III.The table presents the results of investigations and tests confirm indications that the use of solid mixtures is preferable to use aqueous solutions, because it saves the expense fosfat the same 0,8% significantly reduces its effect on the metal surface and increases the surface corrosion.With increasing phosphate content of the additive higher than 2.5% increases the cost of the drug, but the speed passivation is not increased because the amount of inhibitor sufficient to cover the metal surface of the phosphate film.The use of discalificata improves quality impacts of phosphate additives as passivator (because potassium is itself an inhibitor, and in connection with phosphate increases the inhibitory activity) and reduce the suppressive action of chlorine on plants when you hit it in the soil of lawns, because potassium in mobile form is a useful component that enhances the growth and growth of plants, shrubs and trees.The use of dinatriumfosfaatti and, especially, Dikili-phosphate with alkaline pH close to neutral (8-10), in comparison with mononatriumfosfaatti, double superphosphate, trisodium phosphate, with or acidic, or roscomalosco environment that allows sewage waste waters have a pH corresponding to the maximum allowable set of sue "Vodokanal".
Preparation for winter cleaning highways and urban roads, containing a solid mixture of metal chloride and phosphate inhibiting additives, characterized t is Oseni components, wt.%:
Sodium chloride - 97,5-98,5
Disubstituted phosphates of alkali metals - Ostalnoe
FIELD: road servicing industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the road servicing industry, in particular with the methods of extirpation of ice covering on motorways, bridges, flyovers, and also aerodromes. The method of the roadway covering slipperiness prevention provides for application of a roadway ice covering suppressing reactant based on acetate, in the capacity of which use a solution with pH=7-9.5, containing components in the following ratio (in mass %): magnesium acetate 13-17, potassium acetate 8-16, potassium hydrocarbonate 5-8, potassium carbonate 2-6, water-insoluble impurities 0-6, water - the rest. The roadway ice covering suppressing reactant may additionally contain a fired limestone in amount of 3-5 mass % in terms of calcium oxide. The method of production a roadway ice cover suppressing reactant for a roadway covering slipperiness prevention provides for mixing of a component containing a magnesium compound, iced acetic acid and water, in the capacity of the component containing the magnesium compound is used brucite, the stirring is exercised in two stages: first they continuously agitate brucite with water and a part of iced acetic acid in a stoichiometric ratio at the temperature of 50-70°C within 50-80 minutes, then, not terminating mixing at the same temperature in the produced mix with pH=5-6 add the rest of ice acetic acid and then add potash in amount exceeding by 0.1 - 6 % the stoichiometric ratio and continue agitation till production of the roadway ice cover suppressing reactant - a solution with pH = 7-9.5 with the above indicated composition. The used roadway ice cover suppressing reactant has composition mentioned above. The technical result consists in - maintenance of the low temperature at the reactant usage, ensuring the passing ice covered roadways motor vehicles metal corrosion protection and at use as the airfield runways coatings - the corrosion protection of metals used in aircraft designs as well. The roadway coating treated with the reactant has a high coefficient of adhesion, that reduces the accident rate on the roadways.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the roadway coating treated with the reactant decreases the accident rate on the roadways.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparations used for prevention and removal of snow-ice formations in roads. An anti-glaze of ice preparation comprises the following components, wt.-%: calcium chloride, 15-50; sodium chloride, 48.5-83.5; potassium ferricyanide, 0.2-0.5, and sodium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.3-1.0. Anti-glaze of ice preparation in granulated form is resistant against caking, inhibits corrosion of metals and reduces inhibitory effect of chloride on plants.
EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of preparation.
FIELD: special reagents.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to substances for applying on surface to prevent or diminish adhering ice, mist or water on it, for prevention of icing, in particular, to anti-glaze of ice reagents. The composite comprises the following components, wt.-%: calcium chloride, 25-32; urea, 2-7; sodium nitrite, 0.03-1.0, and water, the balance. Invention provides preparing the composite harmless for environment that doesn't show harmful effect on environment, doesn't corrode road coatings, and inhibits corrosion of metals. Agent shows economy and high effectiveness.
EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of reagent.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: road-transport industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes applying substance on asphalt-concrete mixture. As substance silicon-organic modifier is used, loss of which at 1 m2 of area of pre-placed on road asphalt-concrete mixture at temperature 80-100°C is no less than 0,3-0,5 kg. After applying modifier, asphalt-concrete mixture is rolled.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, no corrosive effect on metals, effective at temperature above -20°C.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: domestic chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agents using against misting and icing windshields in transports, sight glasses in agent of individual protection and can be used in living conditions for prevention showcase glasses icing. The composition comprises the following components, wt.-%: polyoxyethylene glycol ester of synthetic primary higher alcohols of (C12-C14)-fraction as a surface-active substance, 6-25; urea or thiourea, or mixture of urea and thiourea, 1-20; glycerol, 5-25; ethylene glycol, 5-41; dye, 0.0005-0.02, and a solvent, the balance. Propyl alcohol as propanol-1 or propanol-2 can be used as a solvent. The composition elicits an anti-misting and anti-icing properties, provides two-sided protection of sight glasses of transport agents and agents of individual protection in cooling the protecting glass surface up to -40°C, elicits the prolonged protective effect, it doesn't solidify at the environment temperature below -40°C and doesn't require the special technical devices for its applying.
EFFECT: valuable properties of composition.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: Composition of an anti-icing water solution for roads surface treatment.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of composition of an anti-icing water solution for roads surface treatment against a winter slipperiness (snow rolling-ups, a glaze ice, black ice) n the roads and streets in cities and settlements. The composition contains, in mass %: 20-27 calcium chloride, 5-30 ethyl alcohol, 0.3-5 corrosion inhibitors (borax or sodium nitrite or their mixture), the rest - water. The technical result is - an increase of effectiveness of the composition application, an increase of friction coefficient due to a decrease of the ice density, a raise of the composition ice melting capacity.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of effectiveness of the composition application, an increased friction coefficient and a decreased ice density, a raise of the composition ice melting capacity.
1 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: materials for miscellaneous applications.
SUBSTANCE: grain mixture comprise, in mass %, 15-45% of compressed first salt of alkaline or alkaline-earth metal and 85-55% of the second salt of alkaline or alkaline-earth metal. The first salt is a waterless hygroscopic salt.
EFFECT: reduced cost.
14 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: preventive means against freezing and sticking of loose materials to walls of mining and transport equipment; prevention of dusting on interim roads, open-cut mining; protection of rolling stock against freezing and blowing-off of loose materials, coal and peat for example.
SUBSTANCE: preventive means is made in form of mixture of solvent and thickening additive of oil nature. Used as solvent are distillation residues of coke and by-product process and/or by-products of production of butadiene, isoprene, isobutylene, ethylene both independently and in mixture with distillation residues of production process of polymers, pyrolysis residues, benzene, styrene and distillation residues of production of butanol, isobutanol, 2-ethyl hexanol acid and 2-ethyl hexanol. Solvent may additionally contain gas oils of thermal and catalytic cracking and gas oils of coking process. Used as thickening additives are mineral and synthetic oils of all kinds, mixture of used oils, oil sludge, oil residues and oil fuel. Components of thickening additive and solvent are used at any combination. Novelty of invention is use of wastes of various processes of oil and petroleum chemistry products.
EFFECT: extended field of application; cut costs; enhanced ecological safety.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 17 ex
FIELD: suppression or reduction of icing on surfaces by means of antiicing compounds.
SUBSTANCE: proposed anti-icing compounds contain succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride and neutralizing base, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide or ammonium hydroxide in particular. When mixed with water anti-icing compounds form succinates in the course of reaction which causes fast liberation of heat sufficient for melting ice on surface. According to other versions, anti-icing compounds contain glycol which inhibits repeated icing on cleaned surface. Specification gives description of sets of compounds for melting snow and ice.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of melting snow and ice on aircraft and territories of their operation.
29 cl, 11 dwg, 7 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: motor-car industry; other industries; methods of production of the anti-icing reactant.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the anti-icing reactants for maintenance of roads in winter. The method of production of the anti-icing reactant based on sodium chloride and calcium chloride provides for mixing of the sodium chloride with calcium chloride and their heating and drying. Sodium chloride crystals are coated with the atomized solution of calcium chloride and dried in the "boiling bed" kiln with production of the double-layer granules, the outer layer of which is composed out of calcium chloride. Sodium chloride crystals are coated with calcium chloride in two phases. The forming small particles of calcium chloride are fed into the cyclone, whence the cyclone dust of the calcium chloride is fed into the mixer for intermixing with the wet crystals of sodium chloride. The produced anti-acing reactant has the improved physicochemical thermodynamic properties.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the produced anti-acing reactant has the improved physicochemical thermodynamic properties.
3 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl