The method of stabilization and control of electric power in three-phase networks and device for its implementation

 

The invention relates to power electronics and electrical engineering and can be used to save power and increase the quality at supply shops businesses and residential neighborhoods. A method is proposed for stabilization and control of electric power in three-phase circuits, including circuits to simultaneously power all power consumers of workshops and residential neighborhoods. To implement the method developed device, one component of which is the power transformer. The described scheme include all elements of the device. All the elements of the device are placed together with the network transformer in one pot. The use of transformer and thyristor modules in the device allows for greater functionality. Method and device to solve the problems of automatic balancing power consumption of the load current in phase network transformer and power supply, automatic compensation consumed by the power consumers of reactive power and prevent its passing through a loop of the network transformer and the mains supply. In addition, the method and apparatus provide for automatic stereogram including in the direction of its reduction at the input terminals mains transformer in the night hours and holidays. Effect: reduces the consumption of the device by reducing the consumption of active materials for its production, reduced power losses in the elements of the supply network, network transformer, and also reduces the consumption of electricity-consuming equipment shops due to the increased quality by reducing the percentage of defective products, reducing the number of failures of electrical receivers, etc. 2 C. p. F.-ly, 10 ill.

The invention relates to power electronics and electrical engineering and can be used to save power and increase the quality at supply shops businesses and residential neighborhoods.

For stabilization and regulation under load parameters of electricity known method of mechanical switching of taps of the regulating winding of the transformer with a gap arc current in oil or vacuum (see Porudominsky centuries of Transformer and reactor equipment for voltage control and reactive power. - M.: VINITI, 1984, S. 10-12).

The known method is characterized by the high cost of active materials and high operational costs due to the increased elektroosmosom mechanical pin is nanotu oil, as well as poor performance.

For stabilization and regulation under load parameters of electricity known method of non-contact switching based on the use of transformer and thyristor converters (see the one A. K. and other Stabilization parameters of the electric power distribution network. - Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1989, S. 198-200).

The known method requires high cost of active materials for the manufacture of transformers and a wide range of current thyristor switch in communication with the connection of the primary winding of the transformer according to the scheme "counter zigzag".

The known method of stabilization and control of electric power in three-phase circuits, whereby a portion of the chain between the clamps mains and clamps power, transform the voltage from the mains transformer and form of different magnitude and phase incremental voltage by switching thyristor switch and change the circuit connections of the windings of the transformers series-connected transformer and thyristor modules (see the patent of Russia 2119229, CL H 02 M 5/12, G 05 F 1/253, 1998 prototype).

A device for stabilizing and regulator, a group of "n" transformer and thyristor modules (where n=1, 2, 3,...), the primary winding, respectively, "n" transformers which are connected in series, and the thyristor blocks of keys on the number "n" transformer and thyristor modules and functional unit generating signals on the voltage magnitude and phase angle of the load and is included in the system software to control the device output terminals through which blocks of output stages connected to the control electrode of the thyristor keys transformer and thyristor modules (see the patent of Russia 2119229, CL H 02 M 5/12, G 05 F 1/253, 1998 prototype).

The known method and device do not provide extensive functionality for conservation at a given level of the individual parameters of electrical energy and regulation other to the extent necessary. Therefore, the cost of active materials for the manufacture of the device and lead to high energy losses in the elements of the supply network and the device during its transport to the terminals of the receiving terminals. And in the collectors at work increased energy consumption due to the insufficient quality of supply of electricity. This is due to the action of NESCO is to compensate for the consumed power consumers of reactive power. The latter passes through a loop of the network transformer and mains supply, increasing approximatelyonce the value of current consumption, as well as 2 times the loss of energy during its transport. Another reason is that the known method and device is not symmetrist consumed by the receivers of the active power on the mains supply. Therefore, further increase the loss of electricity, and at the terminals of the receivers of the observed bias supply voltages in phases. The latter leads to increased heating of the motor during operation and premature failure. The third reason is the lack of a known device of the control voltage according to a given program (including in the direction of reducing it) at the input terminals mains transformer in the night hours and holidays (non-working time). It is not possible to reduce the burn of electricity in the network transformer and the receiving terminals that are outside the while still under load.

Object of the invention is to enhance the functionality of the method of stabilization and control options e is for its implementation.

The technical result is that you can create a resource - and energy-saving mains transformer, in which the electric network provides automatic and non-contact voltage regulation for a given program or stabilize it. In addition, it provides reactive power compensation and balancing the phases of the consumption of active power. All this together allows for more than one and a half times to reduce the consumption of active materials for the manufacture of transformer equipment device, and a 30% reduction in energy consumption per unit produced a useful product.

This technical result is achieved in that in the method of stabilization and control of electric power in three-phase circuits, whereby a portion of the chain between the clamps mains and clamps power transform voltage from the mains transformer and form of different magnitude and phase incremental voltage by switching thyristor switch and change the circuit connections of the windings of the transformers series-connected transformer and thyristor modules, when, with whom and the circuit between the terminals of the mains and the respective input terminals of different phases of the primary winding of the mains transformer by using part of the above-mentioned transformer and thyristor modules, as with other parts to form an incremental voltage in circuits that are connected in parallel to the receiving terminals of the load between the output terminals of different phases of the secondary winding of the mains transformer and contain a capacitor connected in series with the battery and the primary winding of the transformer other part of the transformer and thyristor modules.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that the device for stabilization and control of electric power in three-phase networks, network containing two-winding transformer, a group of "n" transformer and thyristor modules (where n=1, 2,...), the primary winding, respectively, "n" transformers which are connected in series, and the thyristor blocks of keys on the number "n" transformer and thyristor modules and functional unit generating signals on the voltage magnitude and phase angle of the load and a member of the program control device, output terminals through which blocks of output stages connected to the control electrode of the thyristor keys transformer and thyristor modules, when creating a resource - and energy-saving mains transformer clamps in various phases is of botoc transformers first part of the group transformer and thyristor modules, output terminals of these circuits are connected to input terminals of the respective phases of the primary winding of the mains transformer, to the output terminals of the different phases of the secondary winding of the mains transformer is connected circuits, each of which contains a serial connection of capacitor Bank and the respective phases of the primary windings of the second part of the group transformer and thyristor modules, the ends of the above-mentioned circuits are interconnected and form a single circuit node, and the clamps and the taps of the secondary windings of the transformers of the first and second parts of the group transformer and thyristor modules via the thyristor is connected with the possibility of switching between them or counter-consonant relative to the respective primary windings of these transformers and their parallel connection to the terminals of the mains for the first part of the group transformer and thyristor modules and to the output terminals of the secondary winding of the mains transformer for the second part of these modules, and functional unit of the system management software is included between the output terminals of different phases of the secondary winding of the mains transformer in series with the input terminals of the eponymous phases of electrical receivers of navline selected according to the number of transformer and thyristor modules in the device.

The claimed method of stabilization and control several parameters of the electric power, which is based on the use of the two groups transformer and thyristor modules, network transformer and capacitor banks, as well as the requested connection diagram of the above-mentioned elements together to mains and to the receivers of the load, contributes to solving problems of resource and energy efficiency in the organization of supply shops businesses and residential neighborhoods. During its implementation more than half reduced consumption of active materials and the cost of manufacturing the transformer equipment device, and a 30% decrease in energy consumption per unit produced a useful product. A comparison of the proposed technical solutions with prototype has allowed to establish their compliance with the criterion of "novelty". The study of other known technical solutions in this area the features distinguishing the claimed invention from the prototype, were not identified and therefore they comply with the criterion of "inventive step". The tests confirm compliance with the criterion "industrial applicability".

In Fig. 1 shows Suleyman; to implement the process of stabilization and control of electricity as an example in Fig.1, both groups of modules contain one transformer and thyristor module of Fig.2 - variant schematic diagram of one of the transformer and thyristor modules device in accordance with the proposed method, Fig.3 - vector topographic chart illustrating the process of stabilization and control of electric power according to the proposed method, Fig.4 is a schematic functional block of the system software to control the device, which explains his function; Fig.5,a-d shows the approximate histogram changes during the day the individual parameters of electricity for existing power schemes and modified in accordance with the proposed method of stabilization and control of electricity; Fig.6 shows a vector diagram of voltages and currents explaining the method of stabilization and control of electricity; Fig.7-10 shows the circuit connection of the secondary winding of transformers and schedules time zones natural commutation thyristor switch at various stages of the algorithm rabotasumy a1b1c1for connection to various mains supply, which includes the sources of the phase voltagesand complex impedancethe individual phases of the power lines. Between the input terminals a1b1c1and the input terminals a2b2c2the primary winding 1 mains transformer 2 includes the primary winding 3 of a transformer 4 modules from part group transformer and thyristor modules. In Fig.1 the rst part of the group transformer and thyristor modules depicted only one module. Version full circuit performance transformer and thyristor module of Fig.1 is limited by the dotted line I and is shown in Fig.2. The clamps and the taps of the secondary winding 5 of the above mentioned transformer and thyristor module through the thyristor unit 6 connected to the terminals a1b1c1mains supply.

Schematic diagrams of all thyristor switch device are the same. As an example in Fig.2 by the dashed line allocated schematic diagram of one of the variants of the thyristor key block 6 (item 6.1). As the active elements (thyristors the m high-current elements (for example, the triacs, mechanical contact with the extinguishing of the arc in a vacuum, a mechanical switch with a limited number of thyristor keys used exclusively to eliminate elektroosmosa contacts of the switch and transients when switching contacts, and so on). To the output terminals a3b3c3the secondary winding 7 of the network transformer 2 is connected circuits, each of which contains a serial connection of condenser battery 8 and the corresponding phase of the primary winding 9 of the transformer 10 module from the second part of the transformer and thyristor modules.

In Fig. 1 included transformer and thyristor modules second part of the group they represented only one module. The ends of the above-mentioned circuits are interconnected to form a circuit node. The clamps and the taps of the secondary winding 11 of the transformer 10 of this transformer and thyristor module through the thyristor unit 12 is connected to the output terminals a3b3c3the secondary winding 7 of the network transformer 2. The program control device (highlighted in Fig.1 by a dotted line (II) contains a block of continuous memory device 13, the processor unit 14, a functional block 15 (Fig.1 dedicated PU transformer and thyristor modules. To connect to the device three-phase load (power 19) are terminals a4b4c4and o4. Functional block 15 is connected in series with the collectors of the load 19 between the clamps of a3b3c3the secondary winding 7 of the network transformer 2 and the output terminals of the a4b4c4device. It produces signals that carry information about the phase angles of the load current collectors, and the values of voltage, current and power at their terminals. Contains sensors instantaneous values of the consumed current i, voltage u at the terminals of the individual phases of power load, as well as semiconductor Converter F. With the release of the latest in the program control device according to her team receives the aforementioned signals. Device functional block is explained using Fig. 4, where it is the same as in Fig.1, a dotted line (item 15). Blocks 17, 18 produce control pulses, by means of which at given points in time are switched on and off certain thyristor blocks 6, 12 to modify the schema of the connections of the secondary windings of transformers 4, 10. The algorithm programmnopribornoj circuit one transformer and thyristor modules, which explains the commutation of the windings of the transformers 4 and 10. Fig. 2 is a fragment of Fig.1, a dotted line I. By including certain thyristor switch blocks 6 and 12 clamps and bends the corresponding secondary winding connected more than 150 different options, both among themselves and to the terminals, respectively, a1b1c1the mains supply and the secondary winding 7 of the network transformer 2. For these purposes, in each block of the thyristor keys use multiple groups. Certain thyristor 6.1, 6.3, 6.5, 6.8, 6.10, 6.12 unit 6 of the first group include when you want to reduce some discrete value of the voltage at the input terminals a2b2c2mains transformer 2 in comparison with its value at the terminals a1b1c1the mains supply. When you want to increase the voltage at the terminals of a2b2c2then include a thyristor, for example, 6.2, 6.4, 6.6, 6.7, 6.9, 6.11 unit 6 of the second part of their group. Thyristor 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18 the third group is used for connection between the terminals and taps of the secondary winding to obtain different variants of the diagram and its connection is 2 network transformer relative to that of terminal a1b1c1mains, include certain thyristor exclusively from their part of the third group. A schematic diagram of one embodiment of thyristor switch is shown by the dashed line (item 6.1). The total number of different stationary modes transformer and thyristor module is more than 150.

Fig.3 provides examples of vector topographic charts, which correspond to different modes transformer and thyristor modules. As an example, given the graph of the nine modes, which are shown in Fig.3 conditional name "MODE1", "MODE2",.... "Mode 9". To support these modes of operation in accordance with Fig.2 includes certain thyristor switches from different groups. For example, the mode of operation, codenamed "Mode 1" is produced by switching on the thyristor keys 6.13, 6.14, 6.17, 6.18 exclusively from the third group. Such modes as "Mode 2", "Mode 3",..., "Mode 5" is provided through the use of part of the thyristor switches from the first and third groups. Other modes of operation "Mode 6", "7",..., "Mode 9" obtained by incorporating some of the thyristor keys from the work in transformer and thyristor modules shown in Fig. 3. Analysis of different chart modes shows the increase or decrease of the output voltage, for example a linear voltage Ua2b2with respect to the input line voltage Ua1b1almost equal speed. Between the input terminals a2b2c2mains transformer 2 and clamps a1b1c1the mains supply can be connected in series of two or more transformer and thyristor module. Therefore, the device allows you to receive respectively 150150=22500 or more levels of the three-phase voltage at the input terminals of the network transformer.

In Fig. 4 shows a variant of the circuit of the functional block 15, which explains his device and his function. Fig.4 is a fragment of Fig. 1, a dotted line (item 15). By switching between the respective input a3b3c3and output a4b4c4the clamp block 15 of the primary winding of the current transformer 15.1 receive a signal about the value of the instantaneous power consumed by the receiver 19 of the current i. This signal is taken from the terminals of the secondary winding of the current transformer 15.1 and enters the body 15.3 signal from the secondary winding of the transformer voltage 15.2. This signal corresponds to the instantaneous value of the voltage u at the input terminals of the receiver 19. Semiconductor Converter 15.3, using as input data the instantaneous values of current and voltage (i and u), generates signals in accordance with the following functional dependencies F: F{U=F1(u);H=F2(u, i); I=F3(i); P=F4(U, I,H); Q=F5(U, I,H)}.

The signals indicating the values of the effective values of voltage U and current l, and the values of the phase angle of the loadHand consumed active P and reactive Q capacities necessary for the organization of the program control system. Their purpose is explained in the description of the method of stabilization and regulation, as well as the principle of the device for its implementation.

In Fig. 5 shows an exemplary histogram changes during the day of the voltage at the terminals of the power consumers shop (curve' - Fig.5,a), power consumption (curve L' - Fig.5,b) and consumed active and reactive power (curves M' and N' respectively of Fig.5,and Fig.5,g). These histograms correspond to the supply shop from tipover 2 during the day does not exceed 75% of nominal, and transformers 4 and 10 transformer and thyristor modules device and condenser battery 8 from the power supply excluded. Therefore, the histogram marked by hatching in Fig.5 correspond to the current scheme, the power receiving terminals of the shop.

Analysis of the histograms shows that high values of the consumed active and reactive power are observed mainly during working hours of the shop (from 7 to 23 hours). Outside the opening hours (from 23 to 24 hours, and from 0 to 7 a.m.) load is significantly reduced. The voltage in the working hours of the shop on the contrary on average significantly lower than outside. In addition, in Fig.5,a-d presents daily histogram of the change of variables (K, L, M, N), which is similar to the above (K', L', M', N'). The difference is that the histogram K, L, M, N correspond to the network transformer 4 in the composition of the governing body of the present invention, and control of the power elements is performed in accordance with the proposed method of regulating the parameters of the electric power in three-phase networks. Comparative analysis of the histograms of Fig.5 it is possible to note significant changes in the parameters of electricity. The voltage at the terminals e the setpoint 380 V and changes from this level only in the range of1.5%. Voltage outside these hours (23-7 am) significantly reduced compared with the data of the graph To' by transferring the transformer and transformer and thyristor module mode control (reduce) voltage. Reduced voltage outside these hours resulted in a significant (40%) reduction of power consumption by the shop during these hours of active and reactive power. It can be seen by comparing the data of the graphs M and N (Fig.5,b,g) with similar data graphs M' and N'. Current consumption (graph L in Fig.5,b) mains transformer windings 2 and(Fig.1) mains supply has decreased dramatically. It can be seen by comparing the graph L and L' in Fig.5,b. The last fully confirms the vector diagram in Fig.6. Such a targeted change of the parameters of the power leads to the reduction of energy losses (at times) when transporting it, to reduce overspending its power consumers in the work and especially after hours (night hours and holidays). In addition, the reduced burnout electricity directly by network transformers, and their installed capacity is reduced by at least 40%.

In Fig. 6 shows the vector d is atora TM-1000-10/Q4 as part of the proposed device and without it. When the network transformer 2 without the proposed device values of phase voltages and currents on the phases of the windings shown in Fig.6 with strokesFor the case of network transformers in the composition of the present invention is similar to the above variables are depicted without the dashes- Fig.1). In addition, the load currents of the individual phases added relevant Symmetra-compensating currents(Fig.1), which flow through windings of the transformer 10 transformer and thyristor module. The resulting summation of Symmetra-compensated currentsmore than one and a half times smaller than the currentswhich flowed through a loop of the network transformer 2 when its on normal power supply circuit without the use of the invention. The phase shift between the phase voltages and currents decreased from 45 El. degrees to 2-3 al. degrees, indicating almost complete exclusion of the passing of reactive power, and reverse currents and zero sequence mains transformer windings.

In Fig. 7-10 OK 5, 11 transformers respectively 4, 10 (Fig.7, 9) and their corresponding timelines in Fig.8 and Fig.10 zones of natural commutation (QEC) turn off thyristor switch. It is in these zones, you should create the above-mentioned circuit of the secondary winding by incorporating certain thyristor switch. As an example, consider one of the variants of the two-step algorithm switching time thyristor switch, which allows you to transfer the device from the mode with the conditional name "Mode 1" in the other stationary regime with the conditional name "Mode 2" (Fig. 3). Schematic diagram of Fig.7 and the graph in Fig.8 correspond to the first stage of the algorithm, and the diagram in Fig.9 and the graph in Fig.10 - the second stage of the algorithm switching. Analysis of the graphs of Fig.8 and Fig.10 allows us to conclude that the width of the zones of natural switching off the thyristor keys, as well as their location in time significantly depend on the phase shift (H- El.gr.) between current and voltage at the terminals of the receiving terminals. So, for example, to power a purely resistive nature (H= 0 El. gr.) area natural commutation turn off thyristor key 6.18 (the line voltage Ua1b1that was taken as a base when building a program control system. For the second phase, when off thyristor key 6.17 (Fig.9), this zone varies and ranges from 0 to 120 El.gr. and from 150 to 180 El.gr. The full algorithm switch for the above example is implemented by the system management software according to the following procedure. WhenHequal or close to zero electrical degrees (-15 El.gr.H+15 e.gr.) in the time after 120 e.gr. (QEK=120 e.gr.) after the next transition of the voltage Ua1b1through the zero value, the processor unit 14 removes the control pulses to the thyristor key 6.18. At the same time it delivers control pulses to the other two thyristor key 6.10 and 6.12. Within a few microseconds, a rapid decrease in the current iwithin the circuit of the thyristor key 6.18 to zero, and it turns off. However, over-current and voltage components of the device are not happening at this first stage of the algorithm switching ends. Next, after another 60 e.gr. after the start of the first phase (QEK=180 El.gr.), starts VTSA the control pulses for thyristor 6.8 key. There is a rapid decrease in the current iAin the circuit of the thyristor key 6.17 to zero, and it turns off. When this device is in the new stationary mode of operation, codenamed "Mode 2" (Fig.3). Possible changes in the nature of the load in the range -90 al.gr.H+90 El.gr. leads to the presentation of the algorithm in the form of tables and store it in a persistent storage device 13 system management software.

The need for resource and energy efficiency in the organization of supply shops businesses, residential neighborhoods, and so on, leads to the need for stabilization and control of electricity in the nodes of a three-phase electrical networks. During the working hours of workshops stabilize the voltage at the terminals of the power consumers shop 19 (Fig.1) with simultaneous compensation they consume reactive power compensation of the load current on the mains supply. After hours (public holidays and night time) regulate the voltage at the input terminals of the network transformer and power plant in the direction of its reduction with simultaneous compensation in response to the phase network transformer. In the claimed technical solution is implemented using program control system II by switching certain thyristor switch blocks 6 and 12V circuits transformer and thyristor modules. Past a certain way affect the operation of the network transformer, stabilizing and adjusting the parameters of electric power at its output terminals and3b3c3in accordance with a prescribed program. In the known device to implement the stabilization and regulation of the above mentioned parameters of electricity in full is not possible. For example, there is no regulation and stabilization of the voltage at the input terminals of the network transformer, and there is no reactive power compensation and balancing the load currents on the phases of the windings and the supply network. Therefore, the functionality of the proposed solution significantly wider than in the known device.

The method is as follows. Let the original operation mode when the power consumers shop 19 consume significant active and reactive power (working time), the parameters of the electric power on the output terminals a3b3c3Ula are each in a stationary mode. Let for definiteness in the composition of the thyristor switch unit 6 includes thyristor switches with non-6.13, 6.14, 6.17, 6.18 (Fig. 2), which corresponds to the mode with the conditional name "Mode 1" (Fig.3). But in the thyristor switch unit 12 includes other thyristor switches, which correspond to the mode transformer and thyristor module, for example with the conditional name "Mode 9" (Fig.3). As noted above, each of the transformer and thyristor modules can be in one out of 150 possible modes of operation. These modes are different from other data on the stabilization and regulation of the electric power parameters. The system management software periodically with an interval of one or a few tenths of a second validates the modes transformer and thyristor modules are optimal for the corresponding method. Initially, the processor 14 polls the function block 15 and receives data (U= F1(u) - Fig.4) linear voltage UiABUiSunUiCAon the clamps and4b4c4receiving terminals 19 in the current (i-th) mode transformer and thyristor(s) module(s) the first part of their group. The processor 14 calculates the average by > determines the sign and magnitude of the residuals for exceeding her half-speed voltage regulationUi/2.

If the discrepancy is greater than zero (upper inequality in the system of inequalities (1) and does not exceed the value of the half-speed voltage regulation at the translation module(s) from the mode of "i" to "i-1" (Ui,i-1), the transformer and thyristor(s) module(s) the first part of the group is(are) in the optimal mode. The same thing can occur if the discrepancy is less than zero (lower inequality in the system of inequalities (1)), but does not exceed the absolute value of half the levels of increase of the voltage translation module(s) from "i" to "i+1" (Ui,i+1). If both inequalities (1), the CPU 14 stores the old mode of "i" module(s) the first part of their group and does not give commands to the switching thyristor switch unit 6. Otherwise, for example, when the condition of the upper inequality (1), then depending on the values of the residual processor 14 first determines at what number of steps you need to reduce the voltage at the terminals of the receiving terminals 19,the device 13 and reads the information about the values of the speed reduction voltage (Ui,i-1,Ui,i-2, ...,Ui,i-k), corresponding to the lower number of mode from "i" to "i-1, from "i" to "i-2",..., from "i" to "i-k". The processor selects the mode number i-k switch which provides at the moment, the minimum value of the residual [(Ui-kAB+Ui-kBC+Ui-kCA)/3 - Uo]=min.

Similarly operates the system management software, will be broken if the lower inequality system (1). The difference is that it determines the number of steps k, which should increase the current operation mode of the module(s) the first part of the group, rather than decrease, as in the previous case. Suppose that at the request processor 14 to the functional unit 15 is detected violation of the upper inequality (1) and set k=1. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the voltage at the terminals of the receiving terminals 19 on the same level of regulation. To do this, from the mode of operation with the code name "Mode 1" to perform the translation module(s) the first part of the group in the operation mode with the conditional name "Mode 2" (Fig.3). In this regard, the algorithm of the program control system transfer devices in different staycee 6.13, 6.14, 6.17, 6.18 - "Mode 1" on thyristor 6.8, 6.10, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14 - "Mode 2" (Fig.3). For this purpose, the CPU 14 reads from the constant memory device 13 table data in accordance with Fig.7-10 algorithms switching thyristor switch, as well as the necessary digital information about the moments of time in which to change the circuit connections of the secondary(s) of the winding(s) 5 of the transformer(s) 4 the first part of the group transformer and thyristor modules. The processor 14 monitors the current time and its coincidence with the permitted time begins to implement the switching thyristor switch in the secondary(s) of the winding(s) 5 transformers 4. To do this, he first determines the current values of the phase angles (H= F2(u, i) - Fig.4) load current the magnitude of which is received in the processor 14 according to the instruction from the function block 15. From specific memory cells of the block permanent storage device 13 corresponding to specified values ofHthe processor reads the information about the stages of the algorithm switching thyristor switch for the desired unit from the initial mode to the other stationary mode.

Next, kadow the control pulses to turn off thyristor switch block 6 of the original mode of the device. At the same time it delivers control pulses to the thyristor switches, which must be included in the new stationary mode transformer and thyristor(s) module(s) the first part of their group. After the system software to control the transfer module in a new ik the optimal mode of operation or the old one (i-go) mode, if the received acknowledgement of its optimality at a given time, begins the process of checking the optimality of the existing mode (m) module(s) of the second part of the transformer and thyristor modules. At this point, the processor 14 polls the functional unit 15, and receives additional information about the phase angles of the load and the values of the currents of the different phases (H=F2(u, i), I=F3(i) Fig.4). Effective values of these currents, taking into account their phase shift relative to the phase voltageson the clamps and3b3c3the secondary winding 7 of the network transformer 2 shown in Fig.1 in the form of symbols integrated currentsBased on the obtained numerical values (IA,A; IB,Band backsequences loads, referenced to phase A, by the formula (2).

Further, it is knowncalculates the negative of a three-dimensional vector of numerical data load with coordinates B, C, D on the analytical expression (3).

Then, the controller 14 proceeds to the calculation of a positive three-dimensional vector of parameters Symmetra compensating currents(Fig.1). For this purpose, the processor 14 pre-generates an array of data (150 items), each of which contains values for currentsrespective one of the possible modes of operation of the module(s) of the second part of their group. All array elements are calculated from the total analytical expressions (4), but the calculation of each element of the array in the formula (4) are substituted for the specific numerical values of the coefficients corresponding to this mode.

As mentioned coefficients in the formula (4) used 4 scalar coefficient11,12,21the value which is calculated by the formula (5).

wherecomplex impedance of the capacitor battery 8, connected respectively to the terminals a3b3c3(Fig.1);impedance of one phase of the mains (Fig.1).

The resulting elements of the array of complex currentsused by the processor to calculate the array elements of the currents of forward and reverse sequences in accordance with the analytical expression (6).

whereSymmetra-compensating currents of the current (m-th) mode(s) of the second part of their group; m is the current integer value of the number of mode module(s); the value of m varies -75m75.

Further, the processor 14 by known I1,mand I2,mcomputes an array of positive three-dimensional vectors of numeric data Symmetra compensating currents with coordinates B(m) (m), D(m).


Powercor 14 determines based on the evaluation of minimal residual according to the following expression.


IfL(m)= min mode m=9, which was prior to the verification of optimality, the processor retains the old behavior module(s) of the second part of their group. Otherwise it is in accordance with the algorithm, which is similar to the above when switching thyristor switch unit 6 module first part of the group that performs the translation of the transformer and thyristor module(s) of the second part of the group in the new mode by switching thyristor switch unit 12 of the module is the second part of their group.

Consider one example of the method, when the receiving terminals 19 consumed active and reactive power is less than a certain value upon the occurrence of non-working time (night, weekends and holidays). The occurrence of non-working time, the system management software recognizes different ways. For example, at the command of the operator control unit 16 information about the start and duration of non-working time comes to certain memory cell block permanent storage device 13. At the request processor 14 to the block 13, it reads this information and at the time of an idle time the Oia off time control system also recognizes programmatically by calculating consumed by the load active and reactive power. In the next test the optimality of the existing mode of "m" module(s) of the second part of the transformer and thyristor modules, the processor 14 receives from the functional block of the 15 data concerning the values of active and reactive power consumed by the receivers of the load 19 (P=F4(u, i,H); Q=F5(u, i,H) - Fig.4). Based on these data, the processor determines the total powerand compares it with the setpoint value Smin. If SSminthe program control unit interprets this as offensive outside of time and gives the command translation module(s) the first part of the group in their new certain stationary mode. This new stationary mode of operation is characterized by the lowest possible voltage at the input terminals and2b2c2the primary winding of the mains transformer (mode number i= -75). Translation transformer and thyristor(s) module(s) the first part of the group in their new steady-state mode of operation, the system management software you who housemate at night is observed in the distribution grid, the voltage is increased above the nominal value, this work program control system undoubtedly reduces burnout electricity network in the transformer 2 and the receiving terminals 19. For example, if at night, the system management software reduces the voltage level at the terminals and2b2c21.1.UMr.to 0.9 UMr.(UMr.is the rated voltage), the power consumption is reduced by more than 40%.

As another example of the method let us assume that the energy consumption of receiving terminals 19 is a highly variable character. Intervals almost unchanged energy consumption combined with his abrupt change. In addition, the perturbation parameters of electric power can be observed from the mains supply when the voltage at the input terminals1b1c1the device also may undergo abrupt changes in value. In this case, when the process at the program control system in their work, there are some differences. One of them is that when a sudden disturbances on the supply network or power load functional unit 15 before the next treatment is Ino should start checking the conformity optimum operating conditions for transformer and thyristor(s) module(s) or the first part of their group, or the second part, or both. For this function block 15 once per period of the supply network (0.02 sec) defines the data for all five functional dependencies (U= F1(u)H= F2(u, i), I= F3(i), P=F4(u, i,H), Q=F5(u, i,H) - Fig.4). In his memory functional unit 15 holds the results of calculations not only for the current period changes in the supply voltage, but also for several prior periods changes (for example, two or three periods).

After calculating the data at the end of the next period unit 15 arranges the comparison of the obtained values of voltage, active and reactive power (P and Q) with the same values that were previously calculated for 2-3 period of the supply voltage (0.04-0.06). If deviations mentioned values in either direction do not exceed the beforehand set values, then the control unit 15 generates control signals. Otherwise, for example, when a sudden change in the value of the voltage U (even in any one of the phases) of the functional unit 15 generates the processor 14 a signal to change the current mode transformer and thyristor(s) mo is s, in block 14 receives the signal about the need to change the mode transformer and thyristor(s) module(s) of the second part of their group.

A second difference are some changes in the system software to control the device in a part of the search for the optimal operation mode of the module(s) of the second part of their group at intervals virtually unchanged energy consumption and dramatically variable load. In almost constant power consumption of the system management software when calculating the positive three-dimensional vector of parameters Symmetra compensating currentsallow the scan mode. It is a calculation not a complete dataset of 150 items, but only part of it. Moreover, this part of the items should include the above-mentioned vector, that corresponds to the current "m" mode module(s) and symmetrically with him regimes with numbers in the bigger and the smaller side of the "mp". The value of "R" is at least 10 modes transformer and thyristor(s) module(s) of the second part of their group. In the case of a highly variable nature of the load, as evidenced by the presence of the mentioned Viseu) positive three-dimensional vectors of parameters Symmetra compensating currentsIn turn, the magnitude and phase of Symmetra compensating currentsdetermined by the number value mode (-75m75) transformer and thyristor(s) module(s) of the second part of their group.

The proposed solution allows you to extend the functionality of the method of stabilization and control of electric power in three-phase networks. Method and device to solve the problems of automatic balancing power consumption of the load current in phase network transformer and power supply, automatic compensation consumed by the power consumers of reactive power and prevent its passing through a loop of the network transformer and the mains supply, they provide automatic voltage regulation at the output terminals him during working hours, as well as the regulation voltage according to a given program (including in the direction of reducing it) at the input terminals mains transformer in the night hours and holidays (non-working time). Reduced consumption of the device by reducing the consumption of active materials for its production, reduced power losses in the elements of the supply with the higher quality by reducing the percentage of defective products, reducing the number of failures of electrical receivers, etc.


Claims

1. The method of stabilization and control of electric power in three-phase circuits, whereby a portion of the chain between the clamps mains and clamps power transform voltage from the mains transformer and form of different magnitude and phase incremental voltage by switching thyristor switch and change the circuit connections of the windings of the transformers series-connected transformer and thyristor modules, characterized in that when you create a resource - and energy-saving mains transformer similar to the incremental voltage are formed on the circuit between the terminals of the mains and the respective input terminals of different phases of the primary winding of the mains transformer by using part of the above-mentioned transformer and thyristor modules, as with other parts to form an incremental voltage in circuits that are connected in parallel to the receiving terminals of the load between the output terminals of different phases of the secondary winding of the mains transformer and contain consistently aedh modules.

2. Device for stabilization and control of electric power in three-phase networks, network containing two-winding transformer, a group of n transformer and thyristor modules (where n=1, 2,...), the primary winding, respectively, n transformers which are connected in series, and the thyristor blocks of keys on the number n of the transformer and thyristor modules and functional unit generating signals on the voltage magnitude and phase angle of the load and is included in the system software to control the device output terminals through which blocks of output stages connected to the control electrode of the thyristor keys transformer and thyristor modules, characterized in that when creating a resource - and energy-saving transformer clamps in various phases of the mains supply connected to respective input terminals of the circuits containing the same phase primary windings of the transformers of the first part of the group transformer and thyristor modules, output terminals of these circuits are connected to input terminals of the respective phases of the primary winding of the mains transformer, to the output terminals of the different phases of the secondary winding of the mains transformer is connected circuit, cardot second part of the group transformer and thyristor modules, the ends of the above-mentioned circuits are interconnected and form a single circuit node, and the clamps and the taps of the secondary windings of the transformers of the first and second parts of the group transformer and thyristor modules via the thyristor is connected with the possibility of switching between them or counter-consonant relative to the respective primary windings of these transformers and their parallel connection to the terminals of the mains for the first part of the group transformer and thyristor modules and to the output terminals of the secondary winding of the mains transformer for the second part of these modules, and functional unit of the system management software is included between the output terminals of different phases of the secondary winding of the mains transformer in series with the input terminals of the same name phase power load, and is further provided with current sensors and power, the number of output stages of the program control system is chosen according to the number of transformer and thyristor modules in the device.

 

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EFFECT: reduced value of handled currents.

5 cl, 2 dwg

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