The recording medium having a reserved area for defect management and information management defects, and the way to select the backup area and the method of managing defects

 

The invention relates to the field of optical recording media. On the recording media has a primary backup area allocated upon initialization. There is an additional selected after initialization and/or advanced backup area. Defective blocks in the advanced backup area and the corresponding replacement sector, which has already been registered in the list of secondary defects (SVD), are not intended for use as a backup. The sizes of the primary and reserve areas are determined by the number of defects detected during initialization. The technical result - the avoidance of double substitutions and the definition of serviceable units as defective. 4 C. and 21 C.p. f-crystals, 8 ill., table 2.

The scope of the invention the Invention relates to the field of optical recording media and, in particular, to a disk that has information on the size of the selected reserve and the remaining volumes, which is allocated during initialization corresponds to the amount of the reserve areas, and if in the course of use upon completion of the initialization of the backup area is not allocated additional reserve area, to method of allocation of equipment In the recording media, for example, the General use discs, backup area is allocated once during initialization, and during disk usage no additional reserve area is not allocated. However, in order to increase the efficiency of the disk corresponding to the volume of the reserve area is allocated according to the status of the disk during initialization, and allocated additional backup area when the backup area allocated upon initialization, insufficient during disk usage.

According to the standard random access memory digital versatile disk (DVD-RAM) (DVD Specification for rewritable disc. Part 1 PHYSICAL SPECIFICATIONS version 1.0, each zone has one backup area, so when you initialize the allocated 24 backup area, because the disk has 24 zones.

In accordance with the prior art, as shown in Fig.1, the flag representing the state of the backup area allocated to each zone within the field of management defects (OAD), formed by only one bit, which indicates whether you can use the appropriate backup region, i.e., busy. Accordingly, the full flag full backup areas has 24 bits informats in the relative positions of bytes (OPB) from 8 to 15 list of secondary defects (SVD) OAD. When the bit representing the respective group, equal to "1", this means that the corresponding group is no backup area, and when the bit is "0", this means that in the corresponding group remains a reserved area.

Information in the backup area, which is formed by only one bit, as described above, shows only busy whether the backup area. On the other hand, drives, where after initialization can be allocated additional reserve area, it is preferable that additional reserve area allocated on the disk when the backup area is still a bit of free space, i.e., when it is almost busy condition, but not in the fully occupied state. However, the problem is that state when the backup area is almost filled, cannot be represented by only one bit.

In addition, when the selection of reserve areas, in accordance with the current standard of the DVD-RAM version 1.0, when the initialization of each zone is allocated a specified amount of the reserve area, the size of which is specified reasons adequacy to handle all of the defects that can be managed in the way management defects, which prementum drive General purpose for defects generated during initialization of the disk, the so-called "primary defects", to bypass defects without providing the defect numbers of logical sectors a way to substitute the pass is not used. The existing standard DVD-RAM version 1.0, instructs to record the position of the defective sector is replaced by the replacement with a pass in the primary list of defects (SPD) in the OAD on the disk. Furthermore, with respect to the defects generated during use of the disk, the so-called "secondary defects", uses a linear substitution to replace a block error correction code (KIO) zone with an error on the normal blocks in the backup area. The existing standard DVD-RAM version 1.0, instructs to record the position of the defective block is replaced by a linear displacement in the vertical OAD on disk.

However, when in accordance with the status of the disk is allocated during initialization corresponds to the amount of the reserve areas and as the deterioration of the disk during use allocated additional reserve area, required a more efficient way of allocating the backup area. Under the existing standard, the size of the buffer in the apparatus recording and/or playback is here occurs limitation, consisting in the fact that the actual number of defects that can be managed, is less than the number of defects that can be written in the OAD on the disk.

In this case, information management defects includes SPD and SVD, and the total size of the SPD and VDS is about 60 KB. Thus, according to the standard of DVD-RAM, version 1.0 SPD varies within sectors 1-15, and the remaining sectors to be used for processing elements of the SVD, so that the number of elements of the SPD and elements of the SVD is limited in accordance with the size (32 Kbytes) of the buffer.

Summary of the invention to solve the mentioned problems, the present invention has the task to provide a recording medium having information related to size and the remaining amount of the reserve allocated at initialization, and the size and the remaining amount of the reserve area allocated upon initialization.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide a simple method of calculation and allocation of the backup area to replace with a pass and a backup area for linear replacement of some defects during initialization of the disk, and the backup area for linear replacement, which require the TB method for managing defects in an additional backup area which stands for linear replacement during disk usage.

To solve the first problem, the present invention provides a recording medium, characterized in that provided by the primary backup area allocated upon initialization, and additional reserve area allocated after initialization, and the size of the reserve areas are determined by the number of defects generated during initialization.

For the second objective, the present invention provides a method of allocating the backup area for managing defects in equipment to record and/or playback of a disc, the method comprising the following steps: determination of the minimum size of the backup area on the basis of the number of primary defects generated during initialization; determining the maximum size of the backup area, which should be selected in accordance with the size of the memory device for defect management, part of the hardware recording and/or reproduction; and the allocation of primary reserve areas to replace skip and line replacement based on the minimum and maximum size of the backup area.

To solve the third problem is now the picture is about the primary backup region, dedicated replacement for primary defects generated during initialization, by substitution with a pass, and additional redundant region allocated for the replacement of secondary defects generated after initialization by the linear replacement method, comprising the following stages: identification of additional reserve area using the area, which has already been subjected to a linear substitution, according to which the defective blocks in the additional reserve areas, which has already been subjected to a linear substitution, are not used for linear replacement, and elements of the SVD in the management of defects related to the defective blocks are not changed.

Brief description of the drawings the Above-mentioned objectives and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent when the detailed description of preferred implementation options described with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which: Fig.1 is a view illustrating the structure of a conventional full backup flag areas with the contents of the SVD; Fig. 2 is a view illustrating the structure of the disk with the user, the primary backup area and additional reservo the s control defect generated on additional backup area in the disk structure shown in Fig.2; Fig.4A and 4B are tables showing the allocation of primary reserve areas and additional reserve areas according to the present invention, when the buffer size to control defects in equipment to record and/or playback of a disc are, respectively, 32 KB and 64 KB; Fig. 5A and 5B are views illustrating the structure of the flag data on the status of the remainder, which represents the degree of use of the reserve area for defect management, in accordance with the present invention;
Fig.6 is a flowchart illustrating a method of allocating the backup area at initialization, according to a variant implementation of the present invention;
Fig.7 is a flowchart illustrating a method of allocating additional backup area on the basis of information on the status of remnant primary backup region, according to a variant implementation of the present invention;
Fig.8 is a flowchart illustrating a method of allocating additional backup area on the basis of information on the state of the balance of the additional reset implementation
The backup area on the disc for defect management, in accordance with the present invention include primary backup area and additional reserve area.

First, when you initialize a disk for replacement of defects is allocated a primary reserve area, which is first used for a replacement pass. Primary backup area remaining after replacement pass can also be used for linear replacement. Additional reserve area devoted to linear substitution defects generated during use of the disk is a backup area, which additionally occur during use of the disk after it is initialized.

That is, in the present invention, as shown in Fig.2, the primary backup area for replacement with a pass and linear replacement is allocated on the disk during disk initialization.

Substitution skipping is a replacement in the host sector, which increases the efficiency of use of the reserve area.

However, the defect region is almost not used when replacing with a pass, and the data start in the next normal sector data, resulting in defective Aulnay reserved area need to replace with a pass, and the appropriate amount of reserve area for linear replacement defect that can be generated on the disk during its use. In this case, the backup area to replace with a pass requires at least as many sectors, many items are registered in SPD that is part of the information management defects.

Additional reserve areas specified dimensions are highlighted in the forward direction from the rear positions of the logical file area when the primary backup area is not sufficient for the processing of secondary defects generated during use of the disk after the initialization.

According to the present invention as a method of defect management for the reserve areas, the proposed standard DVD-RAM version 1.0, also the rule of direct instructions. In other words, all defects should be handled by only one substitution.

Extensible additional reserve area allocated for linear replacement after initialization, perhaps, has been used as the user data area. That is, the defective block, which is used as the area of a user backup area or additional reserve area, which has already been allocated, as shown in Fig.3A. When the backup area that have already undergone the linear replacement is intended for use as an additional backup area, a double substitution defect in another user area defective block, already subjected to a linear substitution in additional reserve areas, it violates the rule of direct instructions. In addition, disks, read-only, the substitution process is complicated.

In order to solve these problems, as shown in Fig.3B, the defective block in the advanced backup area that has already been linearly replaced primary backup area or previously allocated additional reserve area, as shown in Fig.3B, should not be used for linear replacement. In addition, the items in the list of secondary defects (SVD) for the corresponding defective block is stored in the management of defects, should not be changed. The reason that the elements of the SVD should not be changed, is that the land reserve area, which is bypassed and not used during consistent use of the reserve area is determined as a defective region, if the elements of the SVD used for obrazuemyj for linear replacement, could be mistakenly identified as defective and, therefore, when the formatting is done later, defect-free region can be registered as defective. Therefore, the information element SVD related linearly-replaced defective block in the advanced backup area does not change, and the corresponding defective block should not be used for linear replacement defect in the user area.

In the apparatus recording and/or reproducing information on the disk is initially read into the temporary storage area, such as semiconductor memory, the buffer, with the aim to immediately use the information defect management. The standard DVD-RAM version 1.0 prescribes the use of a buffer size of 32 KB. 32 Kbytes correspond to the data for 16 sectors, and SPD and SVD designed for information management defects, are stored in the buffer by sector. Thus, the minimum number of elements SPD stored in the buffer is intended for one sector, and the maximum number of elements SPD stored in the buffer corresponds to the maximum number of elements (i.e., 7679 elements designed for 15 sectors), which can be written in the SOP. The elements of the SVD is to manage the elements of defects, which have a size in the range from at least one sector to a maximum of 15 sectors.

Therefore, the maximum size of the backup area (primary reserve area + additional reserve area) is determined by the buffer size and the number of elements SPD generated during the initialization of the disk. In this case, since the defect could probably be generated even in the backup area, you need to consider incremental backup area for a possible defect.

According to the present invention for processing the maximum number of items (7679 elements: for 15 sectors), which can be written in the SPD, and the maximum number of items (3837 elements; for 15 sectors), which can be written in the SVD, you can use a buffer with a capacity of 60 KB, which can hold information for defects relating to defects having a size of 30 sectors.

In addition, if we can establish that the buffer has a capacity of 64 Kbytes, the buffer capacity of 64 Kbytes can handle as many defects as may be recorded in the field of information management defects, in accordance with the standard. According to a variant implementation of the present invention, in the case when the buffer is administered which are stated the most preferred amount of reserve areas, that can be allocated during initialization of the disk during disk usage.

If the size of the backup area that can be allocated is limited to have a specified volume increment, the mathematical expression for calculating the required amount of the reserve area can be significantly simplified, as described below. With this in mind, dignity, reserve the area for a replacement pass for the management of primary defects is calculated by dividing the elements of the SPD by sector. One sector corresponds to 512 elements of the SPD, and the volume of the backing field for the treatment of 512 elements SPD corresponds to 32 blocks KIO. One block KIO has 16 sectors of data.

Fig. 4A and 4B are tables showing the amount of the reserve areas, when the buffer size is, respectively, 32 KB and 64 KB. The first column in each of figs.4A and 4B represents the number of elements of the SPD, and the second column in these tables shows the maximum number of elements of the SVD, which can be processed in relation to the number of elements of the corresponding SOP. The numbers in the third column indicate the minimum amount of reserve areas, which are expressed in units KIO required if allocated through imally the size of the backup area, which can be allocated is the sum of all reserve areas required for the processing of list items SPD, and the backup area required for the processing elements of the SVD for one sector.

The next column shows the minimum amount of reserve areas required for the processing of all defects in an appropriate state of defects. The first small column to the fourth column shows the maximum amount of the required reserve areas, expressed in blocks, second small column indicates the minimum amount of the required reserve areas, expressed in megabytes, and the third small column indicates the minimum amount of the required reserve areas, expressed as a proportion (%) of total capacity. The next column shows the total number of defects that can be treated. The last column shows the maximum amount of the reserve areas, featured under the present invention, i.e. the volume of the reserve area, simplified from the appropriate amount of additional reserve areas, in order to facilitate the calculation of the amount of the reserve area and replacement of defects generated in the backup area. The first and second small columns last STI as a proportion of the backup area in the full capacity of the disc, when the increment between the required reserve areas set to 32 blocks. The third and fourth small columns show the maximum recommended size of the reserve areas, expressed, respectively, in units and in percentage of the reserve areas as compared to the full capacity of the disc, when the increment between the required reserve areas set to 48 blocks.

According Fig. 4A, when using a buffer with a capacity of 32 Kbytes, fully handle all of the defects that can be recorded in all areas of management defects, it is impossible. Increases in the number of primary defects (items SPD), the actual number of secondary defects that can be processed is reduced. This means that as you increase the number of primary defects, due to which the number of secondary defects that can be managed, reduced, the disk status is deteriorating.

To solve the problem, according to Fig.4B, the present invention recommends the use of a buffer with a capacity of 64 Kbytes. In this case, the maximum number of secondary defects that can be written in the management of defects can be processed regardless of the number of primary defects. In addition, the volume of the reserve area is SC, where a reserved area for defect management is partially released during initialization in accordance with the purpose of use of disc or condition of the disc, and additional reserve area is allocated after initialization, when the size of the backup area is insufficient. Accordingly, when should be allocated additional reserve area, the amount of additional reserve areas, which can be selected, must be calculated in advance. Thus, additional backup area can be easily selected by writing the size of the backup area that can be allocated in the structure of the job drive (TAS) management defects (OAD) after initialization.

The size of the backup area for defect management can easily be calculated as described below. When using a buffer with a capacity of 64 Kbytes, the maximum size of the backup area, which can be selected, can be calculated by the following formula 1:

When using a buffer with a capacity of 32 KB maximum size of the backup area that can be allocated is calculated by the following formula 2:

In 623247.gif">ESPDdenotes the number of elements of the SPD, and 32(=NATURE) specifies the increment. 4096 (=Pmaxthis number that is divisible by 2, which is approximate for ease of calculation the value of the size of the backup area required to process the maximum number of defects when the number of primary defects (the number of elements SPD) is less than 512. In this case, the size of the backup area is expressed in units of KIO. 256 (=PSVDthis refers to the size of the backup area required for the processing elements of the SVD for one sector.

Maximum reserved area recommended according to Fig.4A and 4B, about 4% more than actually needed the backup area. The sizes recommended by the reserve areas are defined according to the defects generated in the backup area, and corresponding to numbers that are multiples of 2, which simplifies the calculation of the size of the backup area.

The difference obtained by subtracting the size of the backup area allocated upon initialization, the maximum recommended size of the backup area, is recorded in TAS as the size of the backup area that can be allocated, resulting in additional reserve area can be easily selected through use of the di is no other reserve areas, or if additional reserve area is completely used, allocated additional reserve area, or should be increased, the amount of additional reserve areas. When the disk is actually used, it is highly likely that the defects are generated continuously. Therefore, it is more preferable to carry out the allocation of additional reserve areas or increase the size of the backup area, when only a small amount of the reserve areas, for example, when there are a certain number of blocks or used 90% of the reserve area, than to allocate additional reserve area after the selected reserve area has been completely used.

In this case, the required flag state of balance, representing the degree of use of the reserve area to indicate that was used by the specified amount or more spare area, and do not represent only two States, corresponding to cases full use of the backup area and the balance of the reserve area, as the existing full backup flag areas. Also need a flag indicating whether the selected additional reserve area, when it was used given objectmenu balance for the primary backup area), representing the state of the primary backup area has a status which is shown in the following table. 1, and has the structure shown in Fig.5A.

A flag (which can be regarded as a state of balance for additional reserve areas), representing the state of an additional reserve areas, has the state shown in the following table. 2, and has the structure shown in Fig.5B.

In this case, the flag is presented in table. 2, may indicate the need to increase the size of the backup area, just imagining the state in which was used the specified amount or more additional backup area. When the increase in additional reserve areas by allocating a specified amount or more additional backup area, the binary value of the flag "01" you can just change it to "00". Therefore, unlike the status flag of the balance for the primary backup area, the state flag of the remainder for additional backup area has only three States.

Fig. 6 is a flowchart illustrating a method of allocating the backup area at initialization, according to a variant implementation of this izobreteniya absence of defects on the disk during disk initialization, subject to crawl and is not available with the number of the logical sector and a logical sector, which was supposed to be assigned to the defective sector is the next sector, and the position of the defective sector is stored in the SPD.

Then, at the stage A, the computation of the required amount of the reserve area. For example, when the number of elements of the SPD is 3072 and 3583, the minimum size of the backup area is equal to the sum of all reserve areas to processing elements SPD, and the backup area required for the processing elements of the SVD for one sector, and, thus, equal to 480 units KIO. If you use a buffer with a capacity of 32 Kbytes and the increment between the required reserve areas is 32 blocks, as the maximum size of the backup area can be allocated 2752 bloc KIO, obtained by calculation according to the formula 2.

When the required amount of the reserve area calculated at step A is selected primary backup area. If the size of the primary backup area is 512 blocks KIO, for processing elements of the SPD is used for a maximum of 224 bloc KIO, and the remaining blocks are used to process the elements of the SVD. Once selected pervical to its original state "00". On stage A the computation of the maximum amount of additional reserve area by subtracting the size of the primary reserve areas, selected on the stage A, the maximum size of the backup area, obtained in step E. For example, the maximum size of the backup area equal to 2240 blocks KIO, can be calculated by subtracting 512 blocks KIO selected primary backup area of 2752 blocks KIO maximum backup area. On stage A recording information on the amount of additional reserve areas (for example, 2240 blocks KIO) and information on the condition of the remainder of the additional reserve area in specified parts of the region TAS or OAD, and the initialization is completed.

Fig. 7 is a flowchart illustrating a method of allocating additional reserve areas using information on the condition of remnant primary backup region, according to a variant implementation of the present invention. On stage A determination is made whether during initialization, the status flag of the balance for the primary backup area in which the primary backup area almost used, and was allocated an additional backup oblasti allocated additional reserve area. If the stage I identified that require the allocation of additional reserve area, phase A checks the size of the backup area. In other words, checks the maximum size of the backup area that can be allocated, and the maximum amount of additional reserve areas, which should be highlighted. The amount of additional reserve areas, which must be allocated may be determined by the user or may be specified increment.

On stage A check there is enough contiguous empty space in the rear part of the logical file area. On stage A checks whether there is sufficient empty space. If the back of the logical file area there is enough empty space on the stage A, starting with the rear section of the logical file area, allocated additional reserve area of specified size, designed for linear replacement. On stage A information management for additional reserve area, that is the state flag of the remainder for additional backup area is again installed in oversees. When the area that has already been subjected to a linear substitution, stands out on stage A as an additional backup area for linear replacement, the defective block in the advanced backup area is not used for linear replacement, and elements of the SVD should remain the same as described above with reference to Fig.3.

If the stage A it turns out that in the rear area of the logical file area is not sufficient continuous empty area at a stage A is re-placement of the blank areas. Then, at the stage A, determination is made whether there is sufficient volume of continuous empty area. When there is sufficient amount of continuous empty area again is the stage A additional reserve areas. If the volume of continuous empty area is not enough, even after re-placing the blank areas on the stage A displays the message "unable to allocate additional reserve area. This process is terminated.

Fig. 8 is a flowchart illustrating a method of allocating additional reserve areas using data on residue for additional backup obla the state flag of the remainder for additional reserve areas, designed to replace the secondary defects generated during use of the disk, in the state of "01" in the backup area is almost used. If a large part of the additional reserve area was used at the stage E is another definition, namely, should be allocated one additional reserve area. If the stage I determined that requires the allocation of one additional backup area, phase A checks the size of the backup area. In other words, checks the maximum size of the backup area that can be allocated, and the size of the backup area that should be highlighted. The amount of additional reserve areas, which must be allocated may be determined by the user, or may be specified increment.

On stage A check there is enough contiguous empty space in the rear part of the logical file area. Then, at the stage A, checks the availability of empty space. If the back of the logical file area has enough empty prostra back area of specified size, designed for linear replacement. When the area that has already been subjected to a linear substitution, stands out on stage A as an additional backup area for linear replacement, the defective block in the advanced backup area is not used for linear replacement, and elements of the SVD should remain the same as described above with reference to Fig.3.

After execution of step E information management for additional reserve area, that is the state flag of the remainder for additional backup area on the stage He again set to the initial state "00", and the size of the allocated additional backup area is updated. This process is terminated.

If the stage A it turns out that in the rear area of the logical file area is not sufficient continuous empty area at a stage A is re-placement of the blank areas. Then, at the stage A, determination is made whether there is sufficient volume of continuous empty area. When there is sufficient amount of continuous empty area again is the stage A additional reserve areas. If the volume of continuous empty area is insufficient even after powersurvey area. This process is terminated.

According to the above description of the present invention the dimensions of the primary backing region and back region can be calculated using a simple numeric expressions, and information on the state of balance of the reserve areas subject to storage and management, allowing you to more flexibly and effectively manage the allocation of the reserve areas.

In addition, according to the present invention defective blocks in the additional reserve areas are not used for linear replacement, and elements of the SVD does not change, with the objective of preventing failures.


Claims

1. The recording media that contains the primary backup area allocated upon initialization, and additional allocated after initialization and/or advanced backup area in which the defective blocks in the advanced backup area and the corresponding replacement sector, which has already been registered in the list of secondary defects (SVD), are not intended for use as a backup.

2. The recording medium under item 1, in which, in the case of selection, which has already been subjected to a linear substitution after initiative is which has already been subjected to a linear substitution, not used for linear replacement, and elements of the SVD-related defect blocks in the advanced backup area does not change.

3. The recording medium under item 1, in which, in the case of selection, which has already been subjected to a linear substitution after initialization, as an additional backup area, the defective blocks in the additional reserve areas, which has already been subjected to a linear substitution, are not used for linear replacement, and elements of the SVD related to the defective blocks are not changed.

4. The recording medium under item 1, which additionally contains the list of primary defects (SPD), which has elements of the SPD, and the list of secondary defects (SVD), which has elements of the SVD, however, in the case of using a buffer with a capacity of 64 KB as a mass memory device for defect management, part of the hardware recording and/or playback can be fully processed the maximum number of defective items written in the SPD, and the maximum number of defective items written in SVD.

5. The recording medium under item 1, which further contains a control area defects or area structure of the task disk, which stores the size more is the standing balance for the primary and reserve areas, representing the degree of use of the primary and reserve areas, respectively.

7. The recording medium on p. 6, additionally containing the defect or area structure of the task of a disk that stores information on the state of balance for the primary and reserve areas.

8. The recording medium on p. 6, optionally containing an area defect management, including the elements of the list of secondary defects (SVD), and the area of the recording medium, which has already been subjected to a linear substitution after initialization, stands out as an additional backup area, the defective blocks in the additional reserve areas, which has already been subjected to a linear substitution, are not used for linear replacement, and elements of the SVD-related defect blocks in the advanced backup area does not change.

9. The recording medium on p. 6, in which information on the state of balance for the primary backup region selectively indicates whether a sufficient amount of primary reserve area for defect management has been consumed for at least the specified amount of primary reserve areas without additional reserve areas, balerinas region, and was the primary backup area is completely used.

10. The recording medium on p. 6, in which information on the state of balance for additional reserve areas selectively indicates whether a sufficient amount of additional reserve area for defect management, was used at least a specified amount of additional reserve areas, and whether additional reserve area used fully.

11. The recording medium according to any one of p. 9 or 10, in which information on the state of balance for additional backup area is a 2-bit flag.

12. The recording medium on p. 6, optionally containing an area defect management, including elements of the SVD, in which case selection of recording media, which has already been subjected to a linear substitution after initialization, as an additional backup area, the defective blocks in the additional reserve areas, which has already been subjected to a linear substitution, are not used for linear replacement, and elements of the SVD related to the defective blocks are not changed.

13. The recording media that contains the primary backup area intended for allocation during initialization of the disk, ATI backup area for additional backup area before as will be fully utilized primary back-up area.

14. The recording media according to p. 14, characterized in that it contains the second information on the state of balance that indicates the degree of use of additional back area to highlight the second additional backup area before it is completely used additional reserve area.

15. The recording media according to p. 14, in which the first information on the state of the rest of selectively indicates whether a sufficient amount of primary reserve area for defect management has been consumed for at least the specified amount of primary reserve areas without additional backup area, was used for at least the specified amount of primary reserve area with the allocation of additional reserve areas, and was the primary backup area is fully utilized.

16. The recording media according to p. 14, in which the second information on the state of the rest of selectively indicates whether a sufficient amount of additional reserve area for defect management, was used at least a specified amount of additional reserve areas, and whether additional backup region is Yu for allocation during initialization of the disk, characterized in that it contains information on the state of balance that indicates whether the primary backup area is not used, whether it was, at least in the specified extent or completely.

18. The recording medium under item 18, characterized in that it further comprises an additional backup area allocated after the initialization of the recording medium and before the information about the state of balance for the primary backup area will show that it is fully utilized.

19. The recording medium under item 18, characterized in that the size of the primary backup area is determined by the number of defects generated during initialization of the recording media.

20. The recording media according to p. 19, characterized in that the additional reserve area is highlighted repeatedly after initializing the recording media.

21. The recording media according to p. 19, characterized in that the additional reserve area is allocated in the forward direction from the rear area of the logical file area.

22. The recording medium under item 18, wherein the information about the state of balance for the primary backup area additionally specifies whether the selected additional reserve area on the recording media.

23. The recording media is back Oh area moreover, the information on the size and condition of remnant additional backup area stored during initialization of the recording media.

24. The recording medium under item 18, characterized in that it further contains information on the state of balance for additional reserve areas, selectively indicates whether sufficient unused amount of additional reserve area has been consumed for at least the specified amount of additional reserve areas, and whether additional reserve area used fully.

25. The recording media that contains the primary backup area allocated upon initialization, and additional reserve area, in which the sizes of the primary and reserve areas are determined by the number of defects generated during initialization.

 

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FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: at least one free area is determined in position, following noted data area of user. Said free area is distributed in backward order from the last element of noted area. When replacing damaged elements of user data it is used from last elements of said free data area.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: to determine origin of data carrier disk, errors are used, which appear during manufacture process of master-disk, and are imparted to later batches. Data from said disk in non-corrected form are read, then data about errors is retrieved. Characteristic information about errors is provided and extracted data is compared to characteristic data, which characterizes all data carriers, manufactured by same source. As a result of correlation of compared data, origin of disk is judged either known or unknown.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of copy-protection measures.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: at least one free area is determined in location, following said user data area. Said free data area is distributed in reverse order from the last element of noted area. When replacing damaged elements of user data it is used starting from last elements of noted free data area.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: data carrier has data area. The latter has multiple zones, in which code blocks with error corrections are formed and sectors remaining as a result of sliding replacement at the end of zone, number of which is less than necessary for forming of one code block with error corrections. Said sectors are not used for recording one code block with error corrections and are skipped, and said code block with error corrections is formed at the beginning of next zone after skipping sectors of zone noted above. Carrier has additional free space, necessary for skipping sectors remaining at the end of zone during sliding replacement process.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: method includes following stages: forming of a group of multiple zones on disk, while a group includes data area of user, including code block with correction of mistakes, distribution of primary, free space for the group. Additional free space is distributed with possible exclusion of discontinuousness of code block with correction of mistakes contained in user data area, at the limit between zones and distribution of it at two zones. Such distribution may be realized by skipping sectors at the end of zone, of their number is less than needed for forming code block with correction of mistakes with correction of primary position of code block with correction of mistakes at limit between zones.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

3 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: primary reserved area, marked out during initialization, is present on data carrier. Also present is auxiliary reserved area, marked after initialization and/or expanded reserved area. Additional reserved area is marked in directly, starting from back portion of data zone.

EFFECT: excluded double replacements and marking of normal blocks as defect ones.

2 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: optical data carriers.

SUBSTANCE: disk has recording area, where data are recorded in at least one physical cluster, defect area, in which defect, preventing recording and/or reproduction of data, is present in recording area, and recording end area, in which information, pointing to end of recording, is recorded prior to defect area. After defect area a link is set.

EFFECT: broader functional capabilities, higher efficiency.

4 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: technology for recording information onto data carrier, having shape of disc, like those of optical or magnetic disc.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to recording method, onto disc, having multiple recording tracks, separated on blocks, recording area of which has addressed user area with free access, serial data packets are recorded in different blocks of addressed user area with free access, prior to recording session, given portion of addressed user area with free access is cached as replacement zone, if damaged block is detected, replacing record for appropriate data packet is performed in aforementioned area for replacements of addressed user area with free access, in accordance to which during recording session size of aforementioned replacement zone is altered dynamically in accordance to requirements for replacement zone.

EFFECT: decreased number of leaps of recording head during recording, higher efficiency of disc capacity use.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: methods of recording and/or playing back for optic record carriers.

SUBSTANCE: method of recording and/or has the following steps: reading address from record carrier out (record carrier has at least first and second areas - data is recorded to first are and the first area goes after the second one. Information of address represents location of the second area), detecting of error, which corresponds to error detection code used for coding address information, which is read out from record carrier. When result of step of determination represents that the error was detected in address information, which was read out of record carrier the note comes to user on the error detected.

EFFECT: improved stability of recording; improved stability in data recording.

125 cl 11 dwg

FIELD: information storage; storage disk with temporary informational area of fault control.

SUBSTANCE: disk contains fault control area, temporary fault information area which is formed in data area and in which temporary fault information is written, and temporary informational area of fault control. Thus, it is possible to write user data to a recordable disk carrying out fault control.

EFFECT: effective usage of fault control area which has a limited capacity.

77 cl, 14 dwg

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