Removing naphthenic acids from crude oil and distillates

 

The invention relates to a process for recovering organic acids including naphthenic acids, heavy metals and sulfur from the source of crude oil. The method includes the following operations: processing source of crude oil containing organic acids, heavy metals and sulfur, the ethoxylated amine and water under conditions which for a time and at a temperature sufficient for the formation of the emulsion amine salt type water in oil. While specified amine has the formula (I)where m is from 1 to 10, a R - hydrocarbons from C3to C6B - division formed emulsion on several layers. One of the layers contains processed oil feedstock with a reduced amount of organic acids, heavy metals and sulfur - removing layer containing the specified processed oil feedstock with a reduced amount of organic acids, heavy metals, and sulfur, and layers containing water and salt ethoxylated amine. The method reduces the amount of naphthenic acids by up to 95%, heavy metals, particularly vanadium and Nickel, up to 20%, sulfur up to 17%. 9 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill., table 1.

The invention relates to the removal of organic CISL special class of compounds.

The decrease in the price of crude oil with a high total acid number (OCC) is about 50 US cents /OCC/ barrel. Therefore one of the objectives is to develop technologies to reduce OKC that allows the processing of cheap oil. Counter the objective is to increase the market value of crude oil with high OKC containing metals and sulfur.

The existing method of purification of sour crude oil is mixing the acidic crude oil with sour oil raw material to obtain a mixture with OKC not exceeding approximately 0.5. The main part of the largest oil companies use this way. The disadvantage of this method is to limit the number of sour crude oil, which can be handled. In addition. a method of processing raw oil inorganic bases such as potassium hydroxide and sodium to neutralize acids. However, with this method in the treated petroleum feedstock formed emulsions that are difficult to destroy, as well as unwanted residues of potassium or sodium. In addition, the known methods are limited by the interval of molecular weight acids, which they allow to delete.

In connection with the planned increased the ski processes for further processing of crude oil and mixtures of crude oil with higher ACC. A recent promising methods include heat treatment, hydrobromide suspensions and neutralization of calcium. However, these methods do not provide isolation from crude oil acids, metals or sulfur. Instead, they turn acid in products that remain in the oil feedstock. Moreover, the removal of heavy metals, such as organic compounds of vanadium and Nickel, and sulfur is desirable to prevent poisoning of the catalyst in the process of refining oil, and for environmental reasons.

U.S. patent 4752381 describes how the neutralization of organic acids in oils and oil fractions to obtain the neutralisation number less than 1.0. The method includes the processing of petroleum fractions by monoethanolamine to obtain the amine salt followed by heating for a time and at a temperature sufficient for the formation of the amide. Such amines do not provide the results desired in accordance with the present invention, because they turn the naphthenic acids in other products, while the present invention allows to extract naphthenic acid.

U.S. patent 2424158 describes a method of removing organic acids from the oil Sannie suitable amines include mono-, di - and triethanolamine, as well as methylamine, ethylamine, n - Isopropylamine, n-butylamine, secondary butylamine, tertiary butylamine, propanolamine, isopropanolamine, mutanolysin, secondary butanol, secondary mutanolysin and tertiary butanolate.

The present invention relates to a process for recovering organic acids including naphthenic acids, heavy metals and sulfur from the source of crude oil, while this method includes the following operations: a) the processing of the original raw oil containing organic acids, heavy metals and sulfur, the ethoxylated amine and water, in amounts, under conditions which for a time and at a temperature which are sufficient for the formation of the emulsion amine salt type water in oil, and the specified amine has the following formula:where m is from 1 to 10, a R - hydrocarbons from C3to C6b) separation of emulsion from operations (a) on several layers, and one of these layers contains processed oil feedstock with a reduced amount of organic acids, heavy metals and sulfur) removing from operations (b) a layer containing the specified processed oil feedstock with a reduced amount of organic acids, taget enable, consist of, or consist essentially of the elements described below.

In Fig. 1 is a flow diagram that describes how this method can be used in existing oil refineries. The figure shows: (1) water and ethoxylated amine, (2) - the original crude oil, (3) - set for desalting, (4) - unit of regeneration, (5) - unit conversion of organic acids, (6) processed crude oil, purified from organic acids, (7) - lower phase of the emulsion and (8) products.

In Fig.2 is a flow diagram describing the application of the present invention in the wellhead. The figure shows: (1) full stream from the well, (2) primary separator, (3) gas (4) - oil raw materials, (5) is processed (refined) oil feedstock. (6) water and an organic acid, (7) pin column (8) - ethoxylated amine and (9) is water.

In Fig. 3 shows a device suitable for the extraction ethoxylated amines used for the removal of naphthenic acids from the source of crude oil. The figure shows: (1) the layer or phase containing the ethoxylated amine, (2) thermometer, (3) - breather pipe, (4) - graded column for measuring the height of the foam (5 is in.

According to the present invention ethoxylated amines of the following formula:add to the original oil raw materials for the removal of organic acids, heavy metals, such as organic compounds of vanadium and Nickel, and sulfur. Some types of crude oil contain organic acids, which in General belong to the category of naphthenic acids and other organic acids. Naphthenic acid is a generic term used to identify a mixture of organic acids present in the raw oil product. Naphthenic acids can be present alone or in combination with other organic acids such as sulfonic acid and phenols. Thus, the present invention is particularly suitable for the extraction of naphthenic acids.

Important features ethoxylated amines is that the alkyl groups should be such that amines mixed with oil to be processed, and ethoxypropan should impart water-solubility of the resulting salts. In the above formula m is from 1 to 10, preferably from 1 to 5, a R is the hydrocarbon from C3to C6. R may be branched or linear. For example, suitable umbrella bootrom, and m equal 2. It turned out that the primary amine (R=N), although it is water-soluble strong base, however, does not remove organic acids including naphthenic acids, as described in the present invention.

According to the present invention, organic acids including naphthenic acids, which are removed from the source of crude oil or mixtures preferably have a molecular weight in the range of from 150 to 800, more preferably from about 200 to about 750. The present invention provides a preferably essentially remove or substantially reduce the amount of naphthenic acids present in the original crude oil. The term "essentially" means the removal of all acids, except in trace amounts. However, it is not necessary to remove essentially all of the acid because the price of processed crude oil increases even in the case of partial removal of naphthenic acids. Applicants have found that the amount of naphthenic acids can be reduced at least about 70%, preferably at least about 90% and more preferably at least about 95%. The amount of heavy metals can be reduced by at least about 5%, prefer is possible to reduce at least about 5%, preferably about 10% and most preferably about 17%. In particular reduces the quantity of vanadium and Nickel.

Used in the present description, the term "original oil" ("feedstock") includes a mixture and the distillate of crude oil. Preferably the feedstock comprises potenciano oil, however, can be a sour faction potenziani oil, such as vacuum gas oil. Original oil ethoxylated raw materials are treated with the amine capable of forming an amine salt with organic acids that are present in the feedstock. The amount of ethoxylated amine should be such that it is necessary to neutralize the desired quantity of acids present. Usually the number of ethoxylated amine is in the range from 0.15 to 3 molar equivalents based on the amount of organic acid present in the original crude oil. If you want to neutralize essentially all present naphthenic acids, it is necessary to use a molar excess of ethoxylated amine. It is preferable in excess of 2.5 times compared to the amount of naphthenic acids in oil raw material which ensures removal of naphthenic acids, the molecular weight of which is in the range from 150 to 800, preferably from 250 to 750. Molecular weight remove naphthenic acids can increase or decrease with respect to these numeric values, as these intervals depend on the level of sensitivity of the analytical tools used to measure the molecular mass remove naphthenic acids.

Ethoxylated amines can be added separately or in combination with water. If they are added in combination, it is possible to prepare a solution of ethoxylated amine and water. It is preferable to add about 5 to 10 wt.% water in relation to the number of crude oil. Regardless, add if amines together with water or before adding water, oil raw materials are treated in the course of time and at a temperature at which the emulsion is formed salts of organic acids and ethoxylated amine type water in oil. The time of contact depends on the nature of the subject processing of raw materials, the content of acid and the amount added ethoxylated amine. The reaction temperature is any temperature at which the reaction takes place between the ethoxylated amine and naphthenic acids, containing the up>oC, preferably from about 25 to about 130oS and more preferably from about 25 to about 80oC. the Pressure is in the range of from about atmospheric pressure, preferably from about 60 pounds/inch2(414 kPa) and most preferably from about 60 pounds/inch2(414 kPa) to about 1000 pounds/inch2(6895 kPa). The contact time is in the interval from 1 minute to 1 hour, preferably from 3 to 30 minutes. Heavier oil raw materials are treated preferably at higher temperatures and pressures. In the case of manual add oil feedstock containing salt, then mix with water for a time and at a temperature sufficient for the formation of the emulsion. Time and temperature are the same as for the simultaneous and stepwise addition of water. If the addition takes place simultaneously, the mixing is conducted simultaneously with the addition at a temperature and for a time specified above. In the case of adding no need to produce stirring for an additional period of time relative to the period of time during which the formation of salts. Thus, treatment is improving. Heavier oil raw materials such as raw materials with a density of 20 or less units on the scale of the American petroleum Institute and a viscosity greater than 200 centipoise (0.2 NS/m2) at 25oWith the preferred process temperatures above 60oC.

After the formation of emulsions of water in oil it is divided into several layers. Separation can be achieved by methods known in the art, for example by centrifugation, gravity sedimentation and electrostatic separation. The division receives several layers. Usually formed of three layers. The top layer contains oil feedstock from which the removed acid, heavy metals and sulfur. The middle layer is an emulsion containing salts of acids with high and medium molecular weight and ethoxylated amine, organic surface-active compounds of vanadium and Nickel and sulfur compounds, while the bottom layer is an aqueous layer containing salts of ethoxylated amine and acid with low molecular weight. The top layer containing the processed crude oil, is easily removed by methods known in the art. Thus, in contrast to previously used methods where the acid was converted into niteline, although not required, you can use demulsifiers for speed emulgirovanija, and with water you can use a common solvents, such as alcohols.

The method can be performed using existing facilities for desalination.

In Fig. 1 shows a flow chart of the method according to the present invention when applied in a refinery. The method can be applied both in the process of mining and refining. The flow of the acidic oil is treated with the required amount of ethoxylated amine by adding the amine to the wash water and mixing in a static mixer at low shear force. Alternatively, you can first add ethoxylated amine, mix, then add water and mix again. Then the processed feedstock is subjected to emulgirovaniu or separation in the installation of desalination where the use of an electrostatic field or other means of separation. Oil reduced ACC and a decreased amount of metals and sulfur away from the top and, if necessary, subjected to further processing. Lower water and emulsion phase display together or separately, preferably somastreetpricemj water solution of the amine can also be used again and get the cyclic process. The flow of naphthenic acids can be further processed by methods known in the art, to obtain non-corroding cast product or be directed to waste.

In the process of oil extraction, the present invention can be effectively used in the wellhead. In the wellhead feedstock typically contains the associated water and gases. Fig.2 illustrates the applicability of the present invention in the wellhead. As shown in Fig.2, the full flow from the well containing feedstock, water and gases into the separator and separated into a gas stream, which is removed, the flow of water, which may contain minor amounts of the source of crude oil, and the flow of the source of crude oil (from which you have removed the water and gases), which may contain minor amounts of water. Then, the flow of water and crude oil are served in the contact column. Ethoxylated amine can be added or oil raw materials, or in the water and perform the specified processing and mixing directly in the contact column. The flow of water and oil feedstock is passed through the contact column countercurrent in the presence of ethoxylated amine to obtain an unstable emulsion of the type oil-in-water. Unstable emulsion abranyi to obtain a dispersion of oil in a continuous aqueous phase. Thus it is necessary to add oil to the aqueous phase, and not the aqueous phase in the oil raw materials, to minimize the formation of stable emulsions of the type water-in-oil. In the calculation of the mass of the oil and water phases using the ratio of oil phase to aqueous phase of from 1:3 to 1:15, preferably from 1:3 to 1:4. A stable emulsion can be formed when the ratio of oil and water phases is 1:1 or less. The amount of ethoxylated amine is in the range from about 0.15 to about 3 molar equivalents based on the amount of organic acids present in the feedstock. The aqueous phase is a water flow, if ethoxylated amine are added directly to the oil feedstock, or ethoxylated amine and water, if ethoxylated amine added to the water. Usually require the formation of droplets with a size of from 10 to 50 μm, preferably from 20 to 50 microns. The contacting of crude oil and water ethoxylated amine should be done within a period of time sufficient for the dispersion of oil in an aqueous solution of ethoxylated amine, and preferably should provide a dispersion of at least 50 wt.%, more preferably at secondaction usually performed at temperatures in the range of from about 10 to about 40oC. At temperatures over 40oWith increases the probability of formation of stable emulsions. The obtained ammonium salt of naphthenic acids are separated from the droplets of crude oil as they rise from the bottom of the contact column. Processed oil feedstock are removed from the top of the contact column, and the water containing salts of naphthenic acids and ethoxylated amine (lower layers), is removed from the bottom of the contact column. Thus, from the wellhead extract refined oil feedstock from which you have removed naphthenic acid. Processed crude oil, if you want, then you can handle, for example, electrostatically to remove the rest of the water and naphthenic acids.

By-products of water and organic acid salts and ethoxylated amine is removed from the contact column, you can re-injected into the ground. However, given the cost of ethoxylated amine, before re-injection is desirable to perform the extraction operation.

Retrieved ethoxylated amine can then be reused in the process, while receiving the cyclic process.

If you want to regenerate ethoxylated amines and organic acids, including nausicca after removal of the specified layer of the processed crude oil, including the specified emulsion layer, the acidic solution selected from the group comprising mineral acids or carbon dioxide, under pressure and at a pH sufficient for the formation of naphthenic acids and salts of amine and indicated mineral acid, if used mineral acid, or amine bicarbonate, when using carbon dioxide, b) separation of the upper layer, containing naphthenic acids, and the lower water layer) is added to the lower aqueous layer inorganic bases, if the operation and use of mineral acid or if the operation and use of carbon dioxide, heating at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to raise pH8, g) purge gas through the water layer for the formation of a foam containing the ethoxylated amines, d) selection of the specified foam for obtaining the ethoxylated amines. Further, the foam can be precipitated or it will settle over time. To create the foam can be applied to any gas, provided that it is directionspanel or inert to the process, however, it is preferable to use the air. Specialists in this field can easily choose suitable E. mechanical means.

In the method used to extract ethoxylated amines, it is possible to apply mineral acid for the conversion of salts of ethoxylated amine and naphthenic acid, formed by the removal of naphthenic acids from the feedstock. The acid can be selected from the range, including sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and mixtures thereof. In addition, the emulsion salts, ethoxylated amines can be entered under the pressure of carbon dioxide. In any case, the addition of acid is continued until until the pH reaches about 6 or less, preferably about 4 to 6. The addition of acid leads to the formation of the upper layer, containing oil and naphthenic acid, and the lower water layer. Then the layers are separated and, if used mineral acid to the aqueous layer add inorganic base such as ammonium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide or mixtures thereof, to obtain a pH of more than about 8. Alternatively, if you used carbon dioxide, the aqueous layer was heated at a temperature and for a time sufficient to obtain a pH of more than about 8. Usually this layer is heated from about 40 to about 85oC, preferably about 80oC. Saia foam, containing ethoxylated amines. Then the foam is recovered and precipitated to obtain ethoxylated amine. The extraction process can be applied either at the refinery or at the wellhead before re-uploading.

Further, the invention is illustrated by the following examples, which are not restrictive.

EXAMPLE 1
In this example, as simulated oil used a mixture of ISOPAR-M/Solvent 600 neutral/aromatic 150 ("ISOPAR-M/Solvent 600 Neutral/Aromatic 150) in a ratio of 40/30/30. "ISOPAR-M - isoparaffinic distillate, Solvent 600 neutral - basic oil and aromatic 150 distillate aromatic hydrocarbons. 5--Holloway acid used as a model naphthenic acid, and octaethylporphyrin vanadium as heavy metal.

Sour crude oil was treated with equimolar amount (based on the number of 5--holonovel acid) ethoxylate secondary amine, where R=tert-butyl, a m=2. Added 5 wt.% water and shuffled processed oil. The resulting emulsion was subjected to centrifugation for separation of naphthenic acid in the form of its salts and organic vanadium compounds in the emulsion of avandia dissolved in the model oil and subjected to the process of emulsion fractionation, as described above (mixing for 15 minutes at room temperature), using 2-2'(tert-Butylimino)diethanol. Total acid number of model oil decreased from 4.0 to 0.23 and it was observed a reduction in the content of octaethylporphyrin vanadium by 23%. Liquid chromatography high resolution confirmed the destruction of 99% 5--holonovel acid from the treated oil.

EXAMPLE 2
In this example, the used oil feedstock Griffin from the North sea with OCC of 4.6. 2-2'(tert-Butylimino)diethanol used to change the amount of processing Amin and adding water wt.% The results presented in the table.

EXAMPLE 3
Venezuelan oil feedstock was processed as described in example 2 (a 2.5 molar equivalent of amine and 5 wt.% water), and observed a decrease in OKC from 2.2 to 1.1, the reduction of the vanadium content of 13% and a reduction of the sulphur content of 17%. The temperature of extraction was 80oWith, the pressure is atmospheric, the time - 1 hour. The improvement results in a reduction of OCC from 2.2 to 0.6 was observed when the temperature of extraction was 180oWith a pressure of 60 pounds/inch2(414 kPa), and the time is 1 hour.

EXAMPLE 4
In this example, the used oil feedstock Bolobo 2/4 of the scale of the American petroleum Institute. Raw materials processed in accordance with the conditions specified in example 3. Observed decrease in OKC from 7.3 to 3.9.

EXAMPLE 5
Regeneration of the amine with the use of mineral acids
Oil feedstock Griffin from the North sea has been subjected to the process of emulsion fractionation as described in example 2. The lower emulsion phase was extracted and used as follows
100 ml of the emulsion was collected in a separating funnel and was added concentrated sulfuric acid to bring the pH value to 6. Watched immediate allocation of naphthenic acid in the form of a water-insoluble oil. The lower aqueous phase separated from the oil phase. The oil phase was analyzed using infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FTIR) and13C-NMR to confirm the presence of naphthenic acids. Analysis by liquid chromatography high resolution (HPLC) showed the extraction of naphthenic acids with a molecular mass of from 250 to 750. Added ammonium hydroxide to obtain a pH of the aqueous phase, is equal to 9. The aqueous solution introduced into the device for foaming, shown in Fig. 3. Through the inlet tube into the lower part was barbotirovany the air to obtain stable stable foam, which was collected in the cell collection. Phildecarolis.

EXAMPLE 6. Regeneration of the amine with the use of CO2
Oil feedstock Griffin from the North sea has been subjected to the process of emulsion fractionation as described in Example 2. The lower emulsion phase was extracted and used as follows.

100 ml of the emulsion was taken from the autoclave, was added solid CO2and stirred emulsion at 300 rpm, 80oS and 100 pounds/inch2(689,5 kPa) for 2 hours. The product was centrifuged for 20 minutes at 1800 rpm to separate from the aqueous phase naphthenic acids, insoluble in water. The oil phase was analyzed using infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FTIR) and13C-NMR to confirm the presence of naphthenic acids. Analysis by liquid chromatography high resolution (HPLC) showed the extraction of naphthenic acids with a molecular mass of from 250 to 750.

The lower aqueous phase had a pH equal to 9, indicating the regeneration of the organic amine. The aqueous solution introduced into the device for foaming, shown in Fig.3. Through the inlet tube into the lower part was barbotirovany the air to obtain stable stable foam, which was collected in the cell collection. The foam has settled after exposure, forming a yellow liquid, and is recommended reading

1. Method of removing organic acids, heavy metals and sulfur from the source of crude oil, including the operation and processing of the original raw oil containing organic acids, heavy metals and sulfur, the ethoxylated amine and water in amounts, under conditions which for a time and at a temperature sufficient for the formation of the emulsion amine salt type water in oil, and specified ethoxylated amine has the formula I

where m is from 1 to 10;
R is a hydrocarbon from C3to C6,
b) separating the formed emulsion on several layers, and one of these layers contains processed oil feedstock with a reduced amount of organic acids, heavy metals and sulfur) extract layer containing the specified processed oil feedstock with a reduced amount of organic acids, heavy metals, and sulfur, and layers containing water and salt ethoxylated amine.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that water is added simultaneously with the said ethoxylated Amin or after him.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the molecular weight of these organic acids is in the range from 150 to 800.

4. The method according to eschete on the amount of organic acids.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the processing and separation is performed in a period of time of 1 min to 1 h

6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that it is carried out at an oil refinery, a division perform in the plant for desalination to form a layer containing the processed crude oil, from which the removed organic acids, heavy metals and sulfur, and a layer containing water and salt ethoxylated amine.

7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that it is carried out in the wellhead and said source of oil raw materials contained in the full stream from the specified wellhead, the method includes passing the specified full flow in the separator for receiving the gas flow stream, the source of crude oil containing naphthenic acid, and water flow contacts in a counter specified source of crude oil with the specified flow of water in the presence of ethoxylated amine in amounts within the time and at a temperature sufficient to obtain the amine salt and the specified ethoxylated amine has the formula I, in the contact column, in the course of time and at a temperature sufficient for the formation of neustoichivogo Amin it additionally includes a) contacting layer, containing salt of organic acids and ethoxylated amine, acid selected from the group comprising mineral acid, or carbon dioxide, in amounts and under conditions sufficient for the formation of organic acids and amine salt, if using mineral acid, or amine bicarbonate, when using carbon dioxide, b) separation of the upper layer containing the organic acid, and the lower water layer) is added to the lower aqueous layer inorganic bases, if the operation and use of mineral acid, or heating at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time, if on the operation and use carbon dioxide to bring the pH of the aqueous layer to a value greater or equal to 8, d) blowing the gas through the water layer for the formation of a foam containing a specified ethoxylated amine, d) removing the specified foam containing the specified ethoxylated amine.

9. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that the mineral acid is chosen from the group consisting of sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and mixtures thereof.

10. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the amount of water is from 5 to 10 wt.% in the calculation of the amount of original oil

 

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