The method of disposal of tailings in underground mine workings

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the mining and metallurgical industry, in particular to the disposal of tailings and hydrometallurgical processing of mineral resources in areas of natural occurrence and mining of these minerals, for example in underground mine workings. The method of disposal of tailings in underground mine workings include underground mining of ore formation in a clearing space pillars and disposal of tailings as part of the bookmark, and treatment space formed when ore, expand by extracting the empty host rocks presecco to Oistamo the space between the pillars, and the ratio between the volume of ore extracted blank of host rocks and flow of the solid phase tailings tab is determined from the expression where Vp- the volume of empty host rocks in terms of natural occurrence, m3; Vp- the amount of extracted ore in terms of natural occurrence, m3; kx- the ratio of output tailings after beneficiation and hydrometallurgical processing of ores; kC- coefficient of filling voids in sacla the new tab, t/m3.The technical result - the burial in underground mine workings of the whole volume of the solid phase tailings, hydrometallurgical processing of extracted ore from the bowels, the liberation of the earth's surface from the harmful effects of the tailings.

The present invention relates to the mining and metallurgical industry, in particular to the disposal of tailings and hydrometallurgical processing of mineral resources in areas of natural occurrence and mining of these minerals, for example in underground mine workings.

There is a method of storing radioactive waste tailings in the tailings, providing for the establishment of two cards of the tailings with the possibility of bypass water from the top of the map at the bottom; forming a layer of zeolites in the upper map in such a way that its upper part is above the water surface to 1/4 of its power, and shielding of the free surface of the top card, and a surface part sorbing radon layers of plastic film, thus achieving the effect of preventing the emanation of radon from the tailings into the environment (see RF patent 2090946).

The disadvantage of this method is that HVAC vodohranilisha exposed to erosion and destruction, the result is contained in the tailings pond harmful elements, such as long-lived radionuclides, come to the surface and contaminate the atmosphere and near-surface soil layers. This method is not suitable for long-term isolation of tailings, and can only be used for temporary storage.

Closest to the claimed method is the disposal of tailings in underground mine workings, including underground ore extraction with working cameras queues, wherein filling the arrays formed by laying the cameras of the previous turn, serve as the pillars on the flanks of the working chambers subsequent stage, and placement of tailings in underground mined-out space in the composition of the filling mixture, while obesshlamlennyj tailings admixed in filling the mixture in an inert filler and placed in the cavities, resulting from the extraction of ore (hamsters Century. And. Foreign experience of bookmarks in the mines. M.: Nedra, 1984, S. 38-40).

The disadvantage of this method is that due to the loosening of ore mining and crushing and small amounts extracted from the ore during its enrichment concentrates in comparison with Evesham volume underground goaf, formed in the ground by mining. As a result, most part of the resulting tailings are to be placed in the tailings, resulting in the contamination of the environment after the conclusion of the tailings out of control.

The present invention is directed to solving the problem of creating a method that provides burial in underground mine workings of the whole volume of the solid phase tailings and hydrometallurgical processing of extracted ore from the bowels.

The problem is solved by creating a method of disposal of tailings in underground mine workings, including underground mining of ore formation in a clearing space pillars and disposal of tailings as part of the bookmark, with the treatment space formed when ore, expand by extracting the empty host rocks presecco to Oistamo the space between the pillars, and the ratio between the volume of ore extracted blank of host rocks and flow of the solid phase tailings tab is determined from the expression

< / BR>
where Vp- the volume of empty host rocks in terms of natural occurrence, m3;

Vp- the amount of extracted ore in the conditions which I hydrometallurgical processing of ores;

kC- coefficient of filling of cavities tab;

gpvolumetric weight of ore in the array t/m3;

gx- the charge of the solid phase of these tails in the finished tab, t/m3.

Extension of the treatment space through extraction empty host rocks allows you to dispose of in the underground workings of the mine the entire volume of tailings produced during enrichment. Removing empty enclosing rocks presecco to Oistamo the space between the pillars will prevent uncontrolled Samoobrona host rocks. The use of this ratio will allow for each of the specific camera unit or the mine as a whole to determine the additional amount of developed space formed by removing the empty host rocks, in a total volume of the treatment space formed when the ore, will be sufficient to accommodate the total volume of the solid phase tails formed due to the enrichment of ore mined in said chamber, a block or mine.

At the disposal of tailings in the claimed method on the flanks to stretch excavation unit or camera form the pillars. If leaving the ore pillars undesirable ore body AMI of the first stage are the camera of the second stage (see, for example, Backfilling work in the mines. The Handbook. M.: Nedra, 1989, S. 341, and Fig. 22.28; S. 348 and Fig. 22.36). The dimensions of the chambers shall be determined by calculation or empirically, based on the specific mining conditions, but it is preferable that the width of the chambers of the second stage was greater than the width of the chambers of the first stage. Exhaust chamber of the first stage fill backfill mixture with binder content, providing durability filling mass, sufficient for resistance reference pressure arising from the development and expansion chambers of the second stage of testing. Filling arrays formed in the bookmarks chambers of the first stage, serve as artificial pillars for the cameras of the second line.

After ore extraction from the cells of the second stage between these pillars beat by known methods, such as drilling and blasting, containing the waste material from the hanging or lying, or both sides to free treatment space, giving the formed cavity is cylindrical or spheroidal shape, which contributes to the stability of its walls in comparison with their original plane-parallel state. The shape of the created cavity should provide in the permissible slope of the walls of the cavity in a gravity flow of extracted species in the exhaust developing or breaking rocks only from the hanging side if for the same reasons blasting from lying flank will violate conditions of release. Repulsed host rocks are taken out of the mine and warehoused on the surface.

After the release repulsed empty host rocks in the workings of the bottom of the block communicating with the workings haulage horizon between the pillars, erected impenetrable for backfill mix jumper and stope fill the same tab, as when filling the chambers of the first stage, resulting in extended cavity is isolated from the bottom and sides. After that, in the extended cavity is placed a bookmark, which can be prepared with additives binders as hardening, without a binder, as a hydraulic or air-dry of dewatered tailings.

Concurrently with mining operations prepare the filling mixture on technology, providing maximum use of solid phase tailings tab. The largest part of the solid phase tailing ores of non-ferrous metals are slimes (see Hydraulic storage of tailings. The Handbook. M. : Nedra, 1991, S. 24-33). In the tails of hydrometallurgical processing of uranium ore content of sludge even more, so the x ores, there are several problems, related limitation on the amount of sludge fractions in mixtures according to the conditions of their transportation and hardening. These problems can be solved by using the tab obesshlamlennyj tails or contact additional volumes of sand and gravel or crushed rocks in a mixture with a high content of sludge fractions. At the present day represented the most progressive technology, based on the preparation of filling pastes (mixtures), in which the mixed tailings and crushed rock (see, for example, Erofeev I. E., Krupnik L. A., Sokolov, C. Use of tailings processing plants for laying mines, non-ferrous metallurgy of Kazakhstan. Information review, vol. 1. M: TSNIITOCHMASH of economy and information, 1986, and Richard Brummer. Paste: The Fill of the Future? (Part 1). Canadian Mining Journal, Nov./Dec., 1991, p. 31035).

We believe that the crushed rock filling mixture in whole or in part can be replaced by crushed off-balance ore, which in the environmental aspect is also represented by an environmental pollutant. These filling mixture is transported to the place of laying pipelines. To increase the flow of tailings in the tab on the claimed method can Obama, form the pillars, and in the extended chamber of the second stage stack pre-dehydrated to a state specific humidity unclassified tails using for their transportation, for example, pneumatic, wheel or conveyor transport.

Execution of works on the claimed invention would require additional effort and funds, so it is essential that the ore extraction, the technological capabilities of filling complex for use tails tab and volumes created for bookmarks voids were reasonably balanced. This balance is provided by the ratio

< / BR>
The ratio between the volumes of recoverable empty host rocks Vpand ore Vpis dependent on factors characterizing the output of the tails of the enriched ore, the possibility of filling complex for the preparation and transportation of backfill mixtures containing tailings, backfill properties of mixtures and the technology of their placement in the goaf. Characteristics taken into account in the formula factors include the following:

- factor out tails after ore kxnumerically equal to the relative share of tailings from Mac is but 5 tons of concentrate, this means that, of these 100 tons of ore formed by 95 tonnes of tailings in terms of the solid phase, and kx= 0,95;

- coefficient of filling of cavities tab k3reflects the fact that the tab as a result of hardening and consolidation of backfill mixture shrinks and technology placement of filling mixture in the developed space does not ensure filling of all voids, resulting in the value of this ratio is changed, for example, in the range of 0.8-0.9 and is always less than 1;

- the charge of the solid phase of the tails in the finished tab gxcharacterizes technological excellence scheme of the preparation of the filling mixture from tailings, primarily in relation to opportunities thickening and transportation of the material of the solid phase tails: at the enterprises of nonferrous metallurgy of the Republic of Kazakhstan has achieved the flow of tailings from 0.8 to 1.5 t 1 m3ready bookmarks (see, for example, Erofeev I.e., Krupnik L. A., Sokolov, D. the Use of tailings processing plants for laying mines, non-ferrous metallurgy of Kazakhstan. Information review, vol. 1. M: TSNIITOCHMASH of economy and information, 1986, PL. 1);

- the sum of the amounts recoverable waste rock Vpand ore Vprepresents the volume, noobpreneur as the ratio of the weight of ore extracted to its volume weight (gpand the quantity of waste rock Vpdetermine derived from the proposed ratio formula

< / BR>
When applying the proposed method in the mining industry provided the disposal of all generated tailings removed from the interior of the ore in an underground mine workings, thus achieving environmental effect, which consists in the liberation of the earth surface from the environmental load caused by the harmful influence of the tailings.

The additional effect of carrying out the proposed method lies in the fact that in case you need to remove from the tailings and low-grade ore additional volumes of primary or concomitant mineral formed in the mortgaged voids filling the array can be passed, for example, by the method of underground block leaching using previously held workings and without pollution of the earth surface chemical reactants and products leaching.

The method of disposal of tailings in underground mine workings, including underground mining of ore formation in a clearing space pillars and disposal of tailings obogashchen retrieve empty enclosing rocks presecco to Oistamo the space between the pillars, and the ratio between the volume of ore extracted blank of host rocks and flow of the solid phase tailings tab is determined from the expression

< / BR>
where Vp- the volume of empty host rocks in terms of natural occurrence, m3;

Vp- the amount of extracted ore in terms of natural occurrence, m3;

kx- the ratio of output tailings after beneficiation and hydrometallurgical processing of ores;

kC- coefficient of filling of cavities tab;

gpvolumetric weight of ore in the array t/m3;

gx- the charge of the solid phase of these tails in the finished tab, t/m3.

 

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