Non-woven material

 

The invention relates to the field of production of nonwoven materials, including carbon: carbonized, and activated graphite, used as insulating, conductive and filter materials. Non-woven material consists of two nonwoven outer layers and the inner frame layer comprising a homogeneous fiber, and the layers are connected by hypoproteinemia (the number of punctures is 120-500 on 1 cm2). As a frame layer using a continuous viscose filament linear density of 192 or 380 Tex, with the strength of 600-800 CN/Tex, laid parallel to each other along the nonwoven outer layers of viscose shtabelirovaniya fibers with a length of shtabelirovanija not less than 18 mm, and the ratio of the surface of the nonwoven outer layers and the inner frame layer is(15,5-47,0): (1-4): (15,5-47,0). The surface density of the nonwoven material is 280-852 g/m2. The technical result of the claimed solution is to make adjustable strength non-woven material in a longitudinal direction while maintaining high breathability and improvement of the technological process. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 2 ill., table 4.

Analogous to the claimed invention is non-woven carbon material derived from needle-punched cotton, in which fibers are arranged randomly, with the specified mode hypoproteinemia (bilateral hypoproteinemia, 36 needles with the same density on the two sides, the number of punctures 120 on 1 cm2(H41 m2and the depth of the perforation 8 mm), weighing 382 g/m2formed from viscose fibers with a linear density of 0.2 dtex, length cutting fibrils of 35 mm and a strength of the fibrils 40 CN/Tex, which was subjected to carbonization to obtain a carbon non-woven fabric at a temperature of 250-1000oC for 5 h in an inert atmosphere [ed. mon. 39406 And, NRB, MKI6D 01 F 9/22. The method of obtaining carbon textile materials. 27.06.86].

The closest analogue to the claimed invention is non-woven filtering material consisting of layers of polyester fiber (fiber according to GOST - 10435-83, Tex 0,17 length shtabelirovanija 30-38 mm), between the layers which is woven frame comprising polyester fibers of the same chemical sites width equal to not less than 10 mm corresponding to the width of the connecting seam of the filter (628 mm) from the edges of the filter nonwoven material. Introduction to the basis of plots of cotton threads allows more evenly to continue weft threads and thereby increase the tensile strength of the filtering material by fixing the position of the warp and weft threads. In addition, the presence of areas of cotton threads allows you to get canvas equal to the width of the filter with the connecting seam.

First were getting outside of the canvas from the web with a surface density of 100-180 g/m2and the number of punctures h4-H41 m2. Then the webs are placed second layer in the form of canvas and produce a bond by hypoproteinemia similar to previous, after perforation formed the first outer non-woven layer with a surface density of 200-360 g/m2and the number of punctures h4-H41 m2.

On the formed outer nonwoven layer side webs impose woven frame plain weave weighing 15015 g/m2and breaking load strips h mm 245 kg (2401) and fasten hapraklit hypoproteinemia 280104-7201041 m2. Then the resulting material is subjected to short-term heating at a temperature of 170-250oC and a pressure of 20 to 50 kgf/cm2method of calendering. And calendering conditions of operation provided with one or two sides [the patent of the Russian Federation 2109092, MKI6D 04 H 1/46. Filtering non-woven material. 20.04.98 (prototype)].

The performance of the filter material.

Surface density, g/m2- 476-63 5 Breaking load, kgf - 87,9-240 (861-2352 N) Elongation at rupture, % - 24-108 Breathability, DM/mwith - 40-139,5 However, having satisfactory characteristics for the surface density, air permeability and strength, at the same time, the filter material is not suitable for the production of carbon nonwoven material, because at high heat it is impossible to obtain a carbon non-woven material, because it will break down, and to achieve technological process.

The technical result of the claimed solution is to eliminate these disadvantages, namely giving adjustable strength non-woven material in the longitudinal direction due to the additional connection of the fibers Nar the permeability and improving the technological process through the development and introduction of the framework in the production process of the carbon material with high yield after heat treatment in the temperature range from 600 to 2500oC.

This object is achieved due to the fact that non-woven material consists of two nonwoven outer layers and the inner frame layer, and the layers are connected by hypoproteinemia. As a frame layer using a continuous viscose filament (TU 6-12-0020456-7-92, with a linear density of 192 or 380 Tex, with the strength of 600-800 CN/Tex), placed parallel to each other (with a density of 50 to 100 strands per 1 m width) along the nonwoven outer layers of viscose shtabelirovaniya fibers with a linear density of at least 0,17 Tex, length shtabelirovanija not less than 18 mm and not more than 120 mm), and the ratio of the surface density of the nonwoven outer layers and the inner frame layer is- (15,5-47,0):(1-4):(15,5-47,0).

A significant difference of the claimed material is the fact that it is made of two nonwoven outer layers of viscose shtabelirovaniya fibers and the inner frame layer of continuous viscose yarn, laid parallel to each other along the nonwoven outer layers, and the ratio of the surface density of the nonwoven outer layers and the inner frame layer is- (15,5-47,0):(1-4):(15,5-47,0).

Viscose materials are materials infusible and able to work the same time can be easily converted into carbon materials (carbonized, activated, graphite) during the heat treatment above 600oC.

Know the use of homogeneous fibers (polyester fibers in the outer frame layer) - see the prototype, and viscose in single-layer non-woven carbon material obtained from viscose wool - see similar. However, to obtain a carbon non-woven material with the stated properties is not possible, because at high heat it is impossible to obtain a carbon non-woven fabric made of polyester fibers due to the fact that he will be destroyed, and of needle-punched cotton impossible to obtain material, adjustable for durability and breathability. The ratio of the layers in the stated non-woven material in the prior art the authors do not know.

Below are examples for obtaining a nonwoven material presented on the drawing with the following positions: 1, 3 - nonwoven outer layers of viscose shtabelirovaniya fibers with a length of shtabelirovanija not less than 18 mm; 2 - internal frame layer in the form of a continuous viscose yarn with a linear density of 192 or 380 Tex, with the strength of 600-800 CN/Tex, laid parallel to each other along the nonwoven outer layers.

The layers are connected by hypoproteinemia.

Example. Lois and the base frame layer previously acquired.

The outer layers, declared non-woven material produced from viscose fibers, such as substandard raw materials, Tex not less 0,17 following metrical composition, determined experimentally: the length of 18-25 mm - not more than 5%; length 26-40 mm - 8-12%; length 41-80 mm - 41-48%;
length 81-120 mm - not less than 35%.

A lot shtabelirovaniya fibers pre loosen, then served on the carding machine. From the web form to the canvas with a surface density of 160-480 g/m2. When this fiber length 26-80 mm provide crease resistance and the volume received in the future, non-woven material. Fiber length 81-120 mm, permeating the whole mass of the resulting webs, and further non-woven material allows, already at the stage of receiving the webs, to unite all the fibers in a single mass of cloth. The resulting structure of the webs, even without hypoproteinemia, allows you to hold the fiber length 18-25 mm in weight of the fabric due to the orientation in the process of scratching. Next, the finished fibrous canvas serves on the needle stand, where they were unilateral hypoproteinemia (needles are staggered vertically relative to the canvas, the depth of the perforation 10-20 mm). The number of punctures is 60-250 on 1 cm2(H4- the e fiber length 18-25 mm volume outer nonwoven layers, which allows for the subsequent stages of the process of obtaining non-woven material, including the stage of obtaining carbon materials, to eliminate the rash fibers of this metrical composition from the mass of cloth.

The base frame of the layer is obtained by parallel winding yarns with a linear density of 192 or 380 Tex on a bobbin with the aim of obtaining Rove. Used continuous filaments, capable of withstanding a tensile load of 600 to 800 CN/Tex, perform, on the one hand, the role of the threads transporters, allowing you to stretch without loss of continuity of nonwoven materials through all stages, including the stage of production of carbon materials. On the other hand, the threads of the frame layer are such a structural element of nonwoven material, which provides for hypoproteinemia durable mesh fractions long shtabelirovaniya fibers of the outer layers of continuous filaments frame layer, so that the resulting reinforced non-woven materials have a high strength.

One of the advantages of the claimed non-woven material is the fact that the formation of the frame layer and the reinforcement of non-woven material occurs simultaneously. For this purpose, the outer layers non-woven Mat is the red layer in parallel to each other are placed (with a density of 9.5 38.0 g/m2between outer layers of nonwoven material. On the aggregate THEM-1800M-AND is the bond of all layers by hlopotala-tion (needles are staggered vertically relative to the canvas, the depth of the perforation 5-10 mm). The number of punctures is 60-250 on 1 cm2(H4-H41 m2). Thus, the total number of punctures in the inventive non-woven material is 120-500 on 1 cm2(H4-H41 m2).

Received the original non-woven material can be independently used as filter material.

Characteristics of the outer layer, frame layer and the nonwoven material are given in table. 1, 2, 3.

Declared non-woven material is compared with the prototype of the benefits specified in the technical result and, in addition, allows to obtain carbon materials with different properties, for example properties of sorbents and conductive materials that can be used in the processes of sorption and electrochemical concentration of various substances, including precious metals.

Strength characteristics of nonwoven material are closely related to such parameters as surface density and air shall be provided by changing the surface density. The material with low surface density strength characteristics, as a rule, lower than the strength characteristics of the material with high surface density. The change in the surface densities in the range from 280 to 852 g/m2allows you to change within wide limits air permeability (55-140 DM3/m2s) and strength (420-2300 And material. Due to changes in the surface density can be adjusted sorption properties of activated carbon materials, as well as the electrical conductivity of graphite carbon materials.

However, when using non-woven materials, such as filtration and sorption-active, the strength characteristics are not always decisive, as materials with low strength can be used in such constructions (for example, multilayer filters), where the preservation of the strength of the material will be provided at the expense of structural features of the apparatus, however, are determining characteristics such as high permeability and filtration capacity, which are provided due to the presence in the structure of the material of the fibres of different metrical composition.

Care from arodnogo material to escape from its shrinkage in width, and in a broader range to regulate the permeability of the material.

For carbon materials of different types (carbonized, graphite and activated) non-woven material is fed to the heat treatment in the temperature range from 600 to 2500oC.

Characteristics of the obtained carbon materials are shown in table. 4
In the temperature range 650oWith the gradual rise in temperature at a rate of 10oC/min receive non-woven carbonized material with the properties specified in examples 1-8 (table. 4), which can be used as insulating and filtering material and an intermediate for obtaining graphite and activated materials. For the account created at the stage of formation of the nonwoven structure, the carbonisation receive elastic and breathable material. The elasticity of the material give the thread a long 26-80 mm, the density of which increases in the carbonization process in relation to the original viscose material. At the same time, thread length 81-120 mm, penetrating all layers of nonwoven material, provide continuity by volume, and the threads of the frame layer continues to perform the role of the threads conveyors and main ProcName the measures 1-8 possess high tensile strength and high permeability, so you can use them in the filtration devices of various types (frame, palmtop, cassette filters). Having low thermal conductivity, they can be used as insulators. In addition, the obtained carbon materials are non-combustible materials and is able to work when heated to a temperature of 250-300oIn oxygen-containing environment, and when heated to a temperature of 600oWith in an inert environment.

Carbonized non-woven materials may be subjected to thermal treatment at 850oIn the environment of water vapor for 30 min, can be obtained non-woven activated carbon materials with the properties specified in example 9 (table. 4), which can be used as highly efficient filtration sorption materials. Their strength and sorption properties allow you to apply this type of materials in the processes of cleaning gas and liquid environments, including for fine purification of drinking water.

However, non-woven carbonized material may be subjected to thermal processing at 1500-2500oWith, you get a non-woven carbon graphite material with the properties specified in example 10 (table. 4), coloradony material avoids the use of a binder, that improves the environment, get some carbon materials with different properties, and also allows the use of the obtained carbon material for filtration of aggressive media and electrochemical processes of isolation of metals.


Claims

1. Non-woven material consisting of two nonwoven outer layers and the inner frame layer comprising a homogeneous fiber, and the layers are connected by hypoproteinemia, characterized in that as the frame layer using a continuous viscose filament linear density of 192 or 380 Tex, with the strength of 600-800 CN/Tex, laid parallel to each other along the nonwoven outer layers of viscose shtabelirovaniya fibers with a length of shtabelirovanija not less than 18 mm, and the ratio of the surface density of the nonwoven outer layers and the inner frame layer is(15,5-47,0): (1-4):(15,5-47,0).

2. The material under item 1, characterized in that the surface density of the nonwoven material is 280-852 g/m2.

3. The material under item 1, characterized in that the number of punctures for non-woven material is 120-500 on 1 cm2.

 

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