The method of processing a food product

 

The invention relates to the field of processing of food products, mainly dairy. The processing method is that the product is heated to a temperature at which the activation of its microflora. As a result of heating the cells of the microorganisms become more vulnerable as increase in size, and their shells are thinned. Then produce inactivation microflora by creating excessive pressure and sharp it is reset. The method improves the quality of the processed product by maintaining its native properties and increase the shelf due to the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms, and in particular Escherichia coli. table 2.

The proposed method relates to the field of processing of the biological product to improve its safety threshold.

Known methods of destruction of microorganisms in foods, such as milk, temperature effects, (see Microbiological basis of milk production: a Handbook /L. A. Bannikova, N. With. Queen, C. F. Semenikhina; / Ed. by K. I. N. I. I. Kostin. - M.: Agropromizdat,1987, 400 S.: ill.). There are pasteurization and sterilization of milk, resulting in destroying the rigid parameters: 72oC with a holding time of 15 s, 76oC aged 15-20, 78oC with a holding time of 30 seconds While the resistance of milk increases are insignificant and can develop enterococci at a storage temperature of more than 15oC. Sterilization of milk produced by three methods: by autoclaving in glass bottles; sterilization in the stream, and then in bottles; disposable sterilization and subsequent spill in aseptic conditions. Processing is done with temperature effects: 105-108oC; 135-150oC with a different exposure time. When this effect is the destruction caused by microorganisms and enzymes.

The most sensitive to temperature influences during inactivation of the microflora of biological products is the protein structure of the milk (see Technology of milk and dairy products: Textbook. for universities / Year / Century Tverdokhleb, Z. X., he, L. C. Chekulaeva and others - M.: Agropromizdat, 1991, 462 S.: ill.).

During heat treatment, the decrease of the concentration of soluble phosphates and citrates calcium and accordingly mineralization protein structures. Already at a small heating (above 61oC) a marked change in the protein part of the shells in the melting of fat inside the protective blockslide use of high temperatures and long enough time of their exposure. It is believed that under normal conditions of pasteurization may lose up to 12% of the vitamins, and at high temperature up to 40%.

The temperature increase leads to a spatial reorientation in supramolecular structures of proteins. A natural consequence is the loss of catalytic activity of milk.

The disadvantage of this method of heat treatment is the reduction of the biological value of the product.

There is a method for processing food products high pressure (see patent US 5593714 And, MKI 6 A 23 L 3/015. Method pressure canning food). The food product is placed into a compressed package and seal the package, which is then subjected to a pressure of 1750 kg/cm2and maintained at this pressure with temperature 18-23oWith more than 5 days. The disadvantage of this method is its low productivity.

There is a method to the combined effects on the food product of high temperature and ultrahigh pressure (see patent WO 9721361 A1, MKI 6 And 23 L 3/015. Method of high-temperature sterilization of food products low acidity at high pressures). In this way the instantaneous temperature change that occurs when the application Yes is especially quick and mild temperature processing of the Packed product. The disadvantage of this method is to reduce the quality of the processed product.

The closest analogues is a known method for improving the security of biological product in which the stability of biological products increases the exposure of the product of pressure and a rapid decrease in pressure so that the walls of the microorganisms are destroyed (see patent EP 642745, MKI A 23 L 3/015. Method and devices that enhance the stability of the biological product). The product is subjected to reduced pressure in the process of going through a homogenizing valve in which the pressure is relieved with a maximum of 400 bar up to atmospheric pressure. The disadvantage of this method is the low efficiency of destruction of certain types of microorganisms. For example, E. coli is not destroyed.

In the known methods for microorganisms create living conditions that either lead to their death pressure, time, temperature, Ultrazvuk, or degradation of, for example, by failure envelope abrupt change in pressure).

The efficiency of inactivation of microflora depends not only on the parameters of the living conditions of microorganisms and the duration of exposure, Lenogo effect on microorganisms, the more effective.

Object of the invention is to provide a method for processing food products that provide results, consisting in increasing the efficiency of inactivation of microorganisms to improve the quality of the product.

The problem is solved in that in the method of processing food products, mainly milk, heat the product to a temperature at which the activation of the development of the microflora. The cell of the microorganism grows and its shell becomes thin, which creates favorable conditions for its destruction. Next, the effect of excess pressure, stand up and then quickly reduce the pressure.

The method improves the quality of the processed product by maintaining its native properties of food and biological value and increase shelf-life due to the possible destruction of pathogenic organisms, including Escherichia coli.

The invention is evidenced by the following detailed examples, which are not limitations of the proposed method of processing a food product. The proposed method allows to increase the shelf life of potatoes, carrots, beer and pathogenic staph) was heated to a temperature of 40oC and was maintained for 15 minutes Microflora in these conditions started to develop. The cell increases in size, and the shell becomes thin. The milk is then subjected to excessive pressure 2600 ATM, shutter speed at this pressure for 2 minutes and a sharp pressure relief. As a result of this processing product of microbial membranes were destroyed. Analyses of milk treated in this way, confirm the inactivation of the above-mentioned microorganisms.

When handling product in a known manner without preheating of milk after inactivation was observed preservation of Escherichia coli.

The application of the method allows to obtain the following results.

1. Improvement of microbiological indicators. For the comparative example (table 1) taken products that meet the standards for sanitary safety and the closest food value.

2. Allows you to retain the nutritional value of the product, relative to the native, the main indicator of which is the biological value as an indicator of the quality of food protein (table 2).

3. Increases the shelf life of the food product under different storage conditions by improving the quality of inactivation of microorganisms.

The proposed biological value, physico-chemical and organoleptic properties. Thermolabile foods do not allow thermal effects, as this is a qualitative change.

Claims

The method of processing food products, mainly milk, providing heating it to a temperature at which the activation of the development of the microflora with the increase in the volume of cells and thinning of the shell, the pressure excess, holding at this pressure with subsequent rapid decline.

 

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