Greenhouse

 

The invention relates to the field of agriculture. The greenhouse includes a base, side and top pitched translucent enclosure in the form of a flat trapezoidal panels. The Foundation is a Foundation that has the form of a hexagon formed by trimming three sides from the right of the octagon by vertical, North-facing wall. One of the remaining sides of the octagon facing South. A continuation of the base are vertical fence and at least two hollow, installed at each other, cut, translucent pyramid cut out of the same wall. On the upper surface of greenhouses posted by solar thermal collectors, one of which is the face turned to the South, while the greenhouse is equipped with devices for heating, cooling and irrigation. When using greenhouses in cold soil freezing inside is prevented by sealing basement below freezing and heating of the internal environment - soil and air. In the daytime, certain segments of the translucent panels of the fence and truncated pyramids, as well as solar collectors perceive solar energy. This provides us with the Z. p. f-crystals, 7 Il.

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used for growing vegetables, berries, flowers and other crops.

A device for heating greenhouses, including a water tank, solar heater collector, water manifold, distribution and soil air ducts, the heat pump evaporator and the condenser, heat exchangers and other elements (SU 1523114 A1, IPC4A 0l G 9/24, 1989).

The technical disadvantage of such devices: the increased complexity with limited functionality, in particular there are no opportunities translucent fence of the greenhouse, soil irrigation as an element for heating the soil, etc.,

Also known greenhouse that includes a base, side and top pitched translucent enclosure in the form of a flat trapezoidal panels, some of which are South facing and oriented in the direction of the sun during periods of winter and summer solstices (SU 418998, IPC And 01 G 9/14, 1974).

The technical disadvantage of this greenhouse: there is no comprehensive decisions on the use of sunlight and energy efficiency, and reliable operation of the structures: the greenhouse is not the tons of cold air from the North side of the greenhouse; translucent fence extends to the soil surface (some exception frame 14 - basis of limited height in the variant of Fig.4), which is ineffective due to the presence of plants on the outside of the greenhouse and is dangerous for the fragile barriers when inside and outside maintenance personnel; there are no means to prevent heat loss through the working passage as it is being opened; the main square of translucent fence facing South, despite the fact that the main problem of heating is the effective use of sunlight during the midday and afternoon light time; there are no technical means of heating the soil directly to the plant habitat; there is no information about the internal devices for irrigation, without which the greenhouse cannot function; do not use heat energy of the atmosphere by solar collectors.

Technical goal: increase the efficiency of solar rays and heat of the atmosphere, reducing energy and material costs of construction and cultivation of plants, improving the reliability of the greenhouse.

According to the invention the base aplicabilidade hexagon, formed by cutting off three sides of the right octagon through vertical, North-facing wall, one of the remaining sides of the octagon is parallel to the specified wall and facing South, a continuation of the base is a vertical fence and at least two hollow, installed at each other, cut, translucent pyramid cut out of the vertical wall provided with a work passage on the upper surface of the upper truncated pyramid posted by solar thermal collectors, one of which is the face turned to the South, and the other, respectively to the South-East and South-West, while the greenhouse is equipped with devices for heating, cooling and irrigation.

In addition, the Foundation is embedded in the soil to a depth below the frost; the vertical wall is made in the form of an opaque insulated panels, and crossing is made in the form of insulated vestibule; the Executive device for heating is placed in the soil below freezing; actuating devices for irrigation placed in the soil below the freezing and made in the form of elements subsurface irrigation; actuators for mandatory form concentric arcs, facing their bulges to the short sides of the hexagon; water tank and means for heating and irrigation placed inside the greenhouse near vertical walls on either side of the vestibule; the technical means for heating is made in the form of double-loop solar heating system with pump and heat exchanger for pumping the coolant and heat water in the tank and in the form of additional electric heater, the system is provided with an additional pipe heating; a vertical wall provided with a heater which has a capability of heating and cooling.

In Fig. 1 shows the appearance of the greenhouse, front view; Fig.2 is a view in plan; Fig.3 - the same, lateral view; Fig.4 - the same, rear view; Fig. 5 - section a-a in Fig.1; Fig.6 - section b-B in Fig.5; Fig.7 is a diagram of a heating system and irrigation.

The greenhouse (Fig. 1-4, 6) comprises a base 1 made in the form embedded in the soil and towering above the soil Foundation, which has the shape of an irregular hexagon 2 (Fig.5). The latter is formed by cutting off three sides by 3 (Fig.2, shown by the dotted line) from the right of the octagon by vertical, North-facing wall 4 (Fig.2, 4, 5). One is e other remaining sides 6 and 7 of the octagon facing respectively to the South-East and South-West, and yet the two sides 8 and 9 respectively on the East and the West.

A continuation of the base 1 are: vertical translucent enclosure 10 with a flat rectangular panels and at least two hollow, installed at each other, cut, translucent pyramid 11 and 12 with flat trapezoidal panels, load-bearing function pitched fences. Education 10-12 cut off the vertical wall 4, which has a work passage 13. On the upper surface 14 of the upper truncated pyramid 12 posted by solar thermal collectors 15-17 (Fig.1-4, 7), one of which (15) the face turned to the South, and other (16 and 17), respectively, in the South-East and South-West (Fig.1-4). All the collectors are installed at an angle to the vertical, optimal for a given latitude. The greenhouse is equipped with devices for heating, cooling and irrigation.

Foundation 1 embedded in the soil below the freezing level (Fig.6). The vertical wall 4 of the greenhouse is made in the form of an opaque insulated panels, and working passage 13 in the form of insulated vestibule. In the vertical wall 4 (Fig.4) provides a window 18 and the heater 19 which has a capability of heating and cooling. Actuators 20 and 21 for heating (timido and a are elements of subsurface irrigation. In plan (Fig.5) actuators 20 and 21 are placed in the form of concentric arcs, pointing their protuberances short sides 5-9 hexagon (Fig.2). Over the devices 20 and 21 are two sections 22 and 23 of the respective configuration (Fig.5, 6) for cultivation of agricultural crops; between areas and along their long sides are provided passages. Inside the greenhouses near vertical walls 4 - on the sides of the platform 13 posted by capacity and technical means 24 and 25 (Fig.5) for heating and irrigation.

Part of the heating system and irrigation (Fig.7), also called solar collectors 15-17 and actuators 20 and 21, includes a tank (container) 26 water with heat exchanger 27 and the additional electric heater 28; pipe 29 from the heat exchanger 27 by pump 30 for pumping the coolant through the reservoir; a conduit 31 connecting the opposite side of reservoir heat exchanger; pipes 32 and 33 with the pump 34 and the pressure sensor 35 for water supply device 20, and 21; the pipeline 36 feedback of these devices with tank 26; check valves 37 at the ends of the devices 20 and 21; the pipe 38 with the valve for the water intake from the tank. As a coolant in a closed loop, including the call for heat is made in the form of double-loop solar heating system with pump 30 and the heat exchanger 27 for pumping the coolant and heat water in the tank - the tank 26 and the additional electric heater 28. For air cooling in the greenhouse in the summer, in addition to the coil 19, is provided by natural ventilation through opening Windows 39 and 18 (Fig.3, 4), respectively, in the southern part of the hollow pyramid 11 and the rear wall 4.

For additional heating of the greenhouse is also used finned tube heating 40 (Fig.7), through which the valves are "embedded" in the heating and irrigation of the soil - one end through the pump 34 communicates with the tank 26, and the other end connected to the fuel tank directly. Pipe heater 40 is laid down along the walls inside the greenhouse. In addition, the pipeline feedback 36 is equipped with a filter 41.

The greenhouse is used as follows.

When using greenhouses in cold season (late fall, winter, early spring) soil freezing inside is prevented by sealing basement 1 in the soil below the freezing and heating of the internal environment - soil and air. Heating is carried out by feeding pump 34 hot water from the tank 26 to the execution units 20 and 21 and due to the inflow of warm air from the heater 19. If necessary, attach additional heating system in the form of finned tubes abut. Pumping hot water through the pipe 40 and the return of water into the tank 26 (for heating) is performed by a pump 34. The creation of a microclimate inside the greenhouse at this time of year is also facilitated the passage of the sun's rays through the translucent cover the bottom of a vertical fence 10, hollow, installed at each other, truncated pyramids 11 and 12, and the configuration of the translucent part of the greenhouse is set so that the sun's rays penetrate at any day time. Through the passage of sunlight prevents opaque insulated "North" vertical wall 4, "blowing" warm air from the inside prevents insulated vestibule 13; wall 4 serves as a protection against cold air from the North.

Combined actuators 20 and 21 for heating and subsurface irrigation, being located below the level of freezing themselves (along with water) avoid cooling below zero temperatures and provide heating of the soil in the rooting zone of the soil directly under the plants or seeds (before germination) on the sections 22 and 23. At the same time with a local heating of the soil for plants (seeds) on the sections 22 and 23 are supported set is integrated fertilizer and microdose trace elements.

At the same time of year, in addition to heating the inner volume of the greenhouse solar rays to heat water using solar heating system and additional electric heater 28. In the daytime solar collectors 15-17 perceive heat energy rays (even in winter). Due to their described the location of the at least one collector get sunlight; additionally, all the collectors perceive scattered in the atmosphere thermal energy. Since the collectors 15-17 located outside the greenhouse on the upper surface 14 of the upper truncated pyramid 12, in the first (sealed) the circuit of solar heating systems, including, for collectors, the heat exchanger 27 and the pump 30, is applied freezing coolant.

In cold weather, the pump 30 is operating at peak performance, through pipe 29 takes the coolant from the heat exchanger 27 and with great speed pumps the medium through the tubular system of collectors 15-17. The coolant heated by the heat (microclimate) in reservoirs and due to friction of the medium on the inner walls of the path of the first circuit; the estimated temperature of the medium in the first circuit 120oWith, the village is developed with the outer surface, which heats the water in the tank 26. In the initial period of operation of the first circuit when the ambient temperature is below -10oTo include additional electric heater 28, which also heats the water in the tank 26. In the first circuit should have an expansion tank to compensate for possible changes in the volume of the media.

With the help of the pump 34 warm water is drained from the tank 26, which is the identity of the second circuit of solar heating systems, and through pipe 32 (with sensor 35 and the pipe 33 is pumped under low pressure (controlled by the sensor 35) in the actuators 20 and 21 for heating and subsurface irrigation. Warm water with additives of liquid complex fertilizers and trace elements through corresponding holes in the devices 20 and 21 enters the soil. At pressures above the estimated work check valve 37 at the ends of the devices 20 and 21, which will miss the remaining water in the pipe 36 feedback from the tank 26. Possible contamination of the water during its passage through the soil devices 20 and 21 removes the filter 41, built-in pipe 36. Simultaneously, the tank 26 is filled with the initial (cold) water.

In the transitional vremena the system works in a sparing and economical mode; disconnect the heater 28. In summer, the solar system is shut off by a valve on the pipe 29. If necessary, the solar system is used to heat water for household needs, including bathing. To do this, warm or hot water taken from the tank 26 through pipe 38 with the crane. In the hot summer, the internal volume of the greenhouse air and cool - open the doors to the platform 13 and the window 18 and 39, and the coil 19 is switched to the cooling mode.

At any time of the year in the greenhouse, use of solar thermal energy. In the daytime, certain segments of the translucent panels of the fence 10 and clipped pyramid 11 and 12, as well as solar collectors 15-17 necessarily perceive solar energy. In particular, after sunrise and at sunset rays fall on the side East 8 or 9 Western side; simultaneously rays perceives one of the collectors 16 or 17. When the elevation of the sun above the horizon in the "work" shall take appropriate bottom of the pyramid 11 and parties of 6 or 7; the rays fall on the Central solar collector 15. In the afternoon the sun shines on the South side 5 and the corresponding panel of the pyramids 11 iznaga fence 10 and pyramid 11, this does not preclude released from the foliage of the vegetation around the greenhouse. Foundation 1, "North" insulated wall 4 with tambour 13 contribute not only to create the climate in the greenhouse, but also protect the translucent panel from damage when servicing the greenhouse inside and outside and technological operations in the cultivation of vegetables, berries, flowers and other crops.

The achieved result is the efficiency of the solar rays and heat of the atmosphere, reducing energy and material costs of construction and cultivation of plants, improving the reliability of the greenhouse.

Claims

1. Greenhouse, comprising a base, side and top pitched translucent enclosure in the form of a flat trapezoidal panels, some of which are South facing and oriented in the direction of the sun during periods of winter and summer solstices, characterized in that the base of the greenhouse is made in the form embedded in the soil and towering above the soil Foundation, which has the form of a hexagon formed by trimming three sides from the right of the octagon is parallel to the specified wall and facing South, a continuation of the base are vertical fence and at least two hollow installed at each other truncated translucent pyramid cut out of the vertical wall provided with a work passage on the upper surface of the upper truncated pyramid posted by solar thermal collectors, one of which is the face turned to the South, and the other, respectively to the South-East and South-West, while the greenhouse is equipped with devices for heating, cooling and irrigation.

2. The greenhouse under item 1, characterized in that the Foundation embedded in the soil at a depth below freezing.

3. The greenhouse under item 1, characterized in that the vertical wall is made in the form of an opaque insulated panel, and a working pass - in the form of insulated vestibule.

4. The greenhouse under item 1, characterized in that the actuating devices for heating is placed in the soil below freezing.

5. The greenhouse under item 1, characterized in that the actuating devices for irrigation placed in the soil below freezing and is made in the form of the elements-soil irrigation.

6. The greenhouse is on PP.1, 4 and 5, characterized in that the actuating devices for heating and irrigation combined with each other.

disposed in the form of concentric arcs, facing their bulges to the short sides of the hexagon.

8. The greenhouse is on PP.1, 3 and 7, characterized in that the water tank and means for heating and irrigation placed inside the greenhouse near vertical walls on the sides of the vestibule.

9. The greenhouse is on PP.1 and 8, characterized in that the means for heating is made in the form of double-loop solar heating system with pump and heat exchanger for pumping the coolant and heat water in the tank and in the form of additional electric heater, when the system has additional pipeline heating.

10. The greenhouse is on PP.1, 3 and 8, characterized in that the vertical wall is provided with a heater which has a capability of heating and cooling.

 

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FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: block is composed of transparent cylindrical cups produced by cutting off of throats from used plastic bottles. Columns of cups are positioned tightly one aside the other into frame equipped with device for attachment to other similar frame. Frame has plates arranged in lower and upper part of frame and provided with beads. Restricting plates are arranged at both sides of frame. One of plates is made movable and connected by side couplers to immovable plate.

EFFECT: simplified building of hothouses and greenhouses of different shape and sizes.

2 cl, 1 dwg

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