Method of peat extraction
The invention relates to the extraction of peat mainly for agricultural purposes in the areas of sustainable freezing peat deposits. The invention consists in that after the transition of air temperature through 0oWith by sluicing raise the groundwater level to the middle layer of cryogenic texture after thawing lower the groundwater level to design value and produce the further development of deposits by tilling to a depth of not less than 3 cm, simultaneous with loosening raking, and each subsequent roll forming offset by the width of the base of the previous roll, cleaning peat and the formation of piles. The invention provides an increase in seasonal peat extraction. 1 Il., table 1. The invention relates to the field of peat extraction mainly for agricultural purposes in the areas of sustainable freezing peat deposits.There is a method of peat extraction with separate cleaning of stackable (consolidated) rolls /1/, including milling, tedding, raking peat in consistently increasing in several technological cycles roller, cleaning peat from the rolls, t outside Tortola. In this way the main technological factors that determine the possibility of starting the season peat extraction are the transition of air temperature over +10oWith and thawing deposits to a depth of not less than 30 cm /2/.The disadvantages of this method are the following: in areas with strong seasonal freezing peat deposits, defrost deposits to a depth of 30 cm occurs much later transition of daily average air temperatures over +10oC. During this period unnecessarily consumes a large amount of solar energy.The presence of the frozen layer and slow it defrost in the fields of peat extraction delays the drying fields, complicates the patency of technology, dramatically reduces the efficiency of drying peat. Depending on the capacity of the frozen layer and the quality of ice in it seasonal fees are reduced on average 12-15%.Closest to the claimed method is a method of peat extraction /3/, including development of deposits by loosening after the transition of air temperature through 0oWith and thawing peat deposits of not less than 3 cm, cleaning and shaping of the stacks, the wet spreading peat crumb simultaneously loosening gather in the incremental rolls, and Ubort the flax forming rolls, forming each successive swath offset by the width of the base of the previous swath until complete thawing deposits.The disadvantages of the method are the availability of cryogenic layer of texture to the transition of air temperature in 10oAnd slowly his thawing from the bottom, which limits the possibilities of the method, does not allow full use of positive air temperatures. After the transition to daily temperatures 0oWith the thawing peat deposits lost the sum of effective temperatures over 200oC.The invention aims at eliminating the above drawbacks and is that the way, including the development of deposits of peat soil loosening to a depth of not less than 3 cm, simultaneous with loosening raking, and each subsequent roll form with a mixture of the width of the base of the previous roll, cleaning peat and the formation of piles after the transition of air temperature through 0oC. According to the claimed invention by sluicing raise the groundwater level to the middle layer of cryogenic textures and after thawing open gateways, lower the groundwater level to design value and produce further R air temperatures of 0oTo raise the groundwater level to the middle layer of cryogenic textures by sluicing, which provides faster thawing deposits for 10-12 days and allows to involve in the process the sum of the effective positive temperature 100-110o(See the drawing) that, in turn, will increase the volume of seasonal peat extraction (see table).The sluicing operation will not result in large economic costs, because it can be produced, using for this purpose gateways fire extinguishing systems, or in case of its absence (for example, on cortometraggi S50 ha), when for the purposes of fire-fighting water is taken from a special fire fighting reservoirs, is arranged on the drainage network gateway controller.Raising the groundwater level from the bottom to the middle layer of cryogenic texture, it is advisable that the main defrost is on top under the influence of positive mean daily air temperatures and in the case of the cryogenic layer texture of the thawed patches, ensures that groundwater in the peat extraction layer.Method of peat extraction in areas with strong freezing peat deposits is as follows: season of peat extraction start PA 3 cm of the conditions for effective operation of equipment and optimal seasonal fees.First, by sluicing raise the groundwater level to the middle layer of cryogenic textures, then the peat thickness loosened to a depth of thawing 3 see the Obtained wet spreading peat crumb without drying my stackable rolls, roll capacity is 6-8 days. Harvesting peat from the rolls, the transportation of the harvested peat and unloading of produce in parallel with the forming rolls, a new swath shape shifting relative to the base width of the roll. The latter is necessary for uniform thawing deposits.Thawing peat ends at the moment of transfer of air temperature in 4oWith, in addition involved in the technological process is the sum of effective temperatures of 100-110oWith 6-8% of the season, which is 15-20% can increase seasonal fees.After thawing peat deposits open the gateways and the groundwater level is reduced to the design size. Moreover, after the transition of air temperature in 10oWith the spreading of peat crumb clean stackable rolls after reaching the standard humidity.The inventive method of peat extraction in comparison with the known technologist and 1. Technological scheme and a set of equipment for the production of milled peat, with separate housekeeping of a series (consolidated) rolls. VNIITF, 1987, 80 S.2. Antonov, C. J., Kopenkin C. D. Technology and complex mechanization of peat production. M: "Nedra", 1983, 286 S.3. RF patent 1789026, CL E 21 49/00, B. I. 2 - 93,
ClaimsMethod of peat extraction, including development of deposits by tilling to a depth of not less than 3 cm, simultaneous with loosening raking, and each subsequent roll forming offset by the width of the base of the previous roll, cleaning and shaping of the stacks, characterized in that after the transition of air temperature throughoWith by sluicing raise the groundwater level to the middle layer of cryogenic texture after thawing open gateways and lower the groundwater level to design value and produce the further development of deposits.
FIELD: drying equipment engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has frame with frontal and backward rotary support rollers, sole with groove on surface and heaters placed therein. Device is provided with mechanism for vertical displacement of soil, placed between ends of frame and sole, on running surface of rollers ball-like shelves are placed in staggered order. Vertical displacement mechanism is made of guide with post, held on the middle of each frame end, and of screw positioned on guide aperture, having two nuts, on sole surface groove is made along shape of common sine curve in form of even size portions serially placed one after the other along and symmetrically to longitudinal axis of sole. One nut is set on screw above said guide and made in form of hub and wheel placed below it, rigidly interconnected by rods, and other nut is set on screw below the guide. Size of ball-like shelves, length and width of sole are determined from mathematical formulae.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has frame, front and back supporting rollers, cutter with working elements in form of thin plates placed along spiral line, forming apparatus, drive. Edges of thin plate of working elements are made in form of parabolic curve. Plates of working elements are made even, slanted and, in turns, rotated in opposite directions. Back support roller is mounted on side holders of front portion of forming apparatus.
EFFECT: higher quality.
FIELD: open-pit mining for obtaining peat.
SUBSTANCE: method involves prior dewatering peat deposit; serially excavating peat from separate zones for depth equal to peat deposit thickness; installing caisson with watertight walls to isolate zone having volume equal to that of caisson from remainder peat deposit; pumping out water from peat deposit zone isolated by caisson to dewater peat inside caisson; removing peat from caisson along with retaining of cut upper horizontal ground forming layer; taking out caisson from excavated zone and diverting water from adjacent zones to above excavated zone; filling hole created in place of previous caisson location with cut upper horizontal ground-forming layer; reinstalling caisson in adjacent zone and repeating above peat production operations.
EFFECT: increased output due to reduced time of prior peat deposit dewatering, reduced peat drying time due to production of peat mass having lesser moisture content and possibility to maintain natural water balance of surrounding territory.
FIELD: mining industry, possible use in peat industry for extracting peat at non-dried, natural peat deposits.
SUBSTANCE: complex for extracting mineral resources, peat in particular, contains a lift with a winch for raising and deepening working organ in form of a system of coaxially positioned upper and internal pipes, the latter being connected to hydro-monitor in lower part, slurry pipelines, drilling plant containing diesel plant, high pressure forcing pump. Complex is also provided with water intake pump having pipeline tubing and connected to slurry pipeline by vacuum pump. Platform is made in form of a pontoon and connected by rigid connection to off-road rig, and on it high pressure forcing pump, diesel plant, vacuum pump are mounted and interconnected, and additional pipes are positioned for drilling the well and extending the slurry pipeline. Working organ is provided with peat intake connected to external pipe, which is positioned above the hydro-monitor, and has radially made apertures along whole perimeter with diameter not less than 15 mm, hydro-monitor being made in form of conical tip, perforated across whole surface, with diameter of apertures not more than 3 mm, while external pipe through the vacuum pump is connected to the slurry pipeline.
EFFECT: lowered costs, ensured ecological safety, increased reliability, shorter times needed to launch areas into operation, extended peat extraction season and transition to year-round production.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method of excavation of garden or fuel peat. Peat is extracted from a bog, is transported from the bog at a distance to a drying field, whereon transported peat is dried with the use mainly of direct solar energy so, that peat is being dried under influence of solar radiation and wind. When peat is dried, it is transferred from the drying place for further use or storing. The said drying field is made in form of specially leveled field, in essence not permeable to water and accommodated for drying; peat is spread on the field in form of a thin layer of 1-15 cm thickness of high consistent mass with contents of solid substance of 8-30%.
EFFECT: creating method and equipment which facilitate more efficient use of peat bogs with their banks without producing dust, noise and harmful effect to rivers.
17 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: mining engineering.
SUBSTANCE: matrix for moulding contains contains casing, which, according to the invention, is implemented as divided. Divided casing contains external and internal parts, located co-axial with ability of free motion in axial direction relative to each other and forming annular slot. Two parts of casing are connected to each other by screws, herewith between heads of screws and external casing there are installed springs, which overlaps annular slot at absence of solution pressure in feeding system of binding additive.
EFFECT: simplification of moulding of as damp, as and dry materials, ensured by friction reduction.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises auger with cutting tool installed on it and planetary reducer. Auger is placed into jacket with longitudinal ledges on inner surface, rotating with the help of planetary reducer in the opposite direction relative to direction of auger rotation, besides, torque to auger and external jacket is sent from single drive.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of broken mineral transportation process.
SUBSTANCE: peat fields floating in water areas of the water-storage reservoir are cut into blocks with sizes of sides of 20×40 m with thin water jet under a pressure of 120-150 at and the range of 20-25 m, which is obtained by means of hydraulic monitor installed on the floating platform with attached equipment.
EFFECT: higher cleaning efficiency of water-storage reservoirs from floating peat fields.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the method to mine gravel deposits, including contouring of balance reserves by data of exploration wells, opening of a sand bed, performance of opening and production works, after contouring of balance reserves the opening works are carried out with solid transverse trips into a dump to the level of the maximum elevation of the balance reserves contour. Production works are started by slabbing with a bulldozer in the area of the maximum elevation of the balance reserves contour with transportation of sands into a mined space. Each subsequent lifting of the balance reserves contour is mined in the similar manner, peats located between lifts of the balance reserves contour are transported through slabbing with secondary displacement into the dump.
EFFECT: reduced operational losses of a useful component.
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: method includes stages of peat production from a peat production field using a producing auger installed in a winning pipe, supply of produced peat under pressure into outlet nozzles, with which the winning pipe is equipped, cutting of pressed peat discharged from outlet nozzles, into pieces. At the same time the method includes a stage of transfer into the peat production field stack, by means of a belt conveyor or a similar device, of sod peat produced at different distances from the peat production field. Besides, transfer of the freshly produced sod peat is carried out with its laying above the previously produced sod peat dried without usage of turning and bundling.
EFFECT: minimised number of vehicles, working stages and reduced losses of peat.
14 cl, 8 dwg