Dermis natural leather and fur semi-finished product and the methods of their production

 

The invention relates to a collagen base of the natural leather and fur semi-finished product and refers to the light industry. Dermis natural leather and fur semi-finished product includes tanning, doubleValue and greasing components, at least 50% of the total number of which is distributed at the structural levels of collagen base, corresponding to the fibrils and subfebrile. Derma receive method, including preparatory and left lying processes and operations including deep razvlechenie the structure of the dermis, the use of integrated chrome tanning agent, containing not less than 50% of the complexes of the total size of not more than 0.5 nm and a degree of olitical not more than 40%, and greasing exercise fat compositions forming direct water emulsion with sorption resistance of not less than 5 mg/g and containing up to 50% of the particles of the dispersed phase size of not more than 1.0 nm. The technical result is to improve the quality of the dermis natural leather and leather fur semi-finished product by optimum distribution tanning, doublelayer and greasing of components on the structural elements of the dermis and the rational use of raw materials. 3 S. p. f-crystals, 2 tab.

Basis of leather or leather fur - dermis - is a fibrous protein collagen, with a multi-level structural organization. The individual structural elements are fastened to each other through mutual weave in different directions, forming a macrostructure - natural non-woven material. The dimensions of the structural units have a wide range and depend on many factors, including the type and age of the animal. In addition, the processes of chemical and mechanical effects on the dermis dimensions of structural elements and interrelations of structures spaces change.

According to various researchers (A. N. Mikhailov, "Chemistry and physics of collagen of the skin" M, "Light industry". 1980, S. 6) conditional dimensions of structural elements and interrelations of structures spaces can be represented as follows (table. 1).

In technological processes of processing of the dermis, with the aim of obtaining skin or fur, using chemical and mechanical effects do the cleaning of the fibrous structure of collagen from the interfibrillar substance and partial separation of the fibers themselves, then their binding tanning compounds, subsequent greasing, filling and finishing proveu mix (GOST 4661-76, which satisfy the requirements of such products, however, the loss of area of finished products up to 25% of the area of the original skins, the efficiency of use of tanning with chromium compounds does not exceed 70%, and with the development of some kinds of skin and 50%, which leads to a high content of chromium wastewater (concentration of chromium oxide is 12 g/l), there is an uneven distribution of feeding materials in the dermis, 60-80% of the total amount deposited in the front and botermans layers and only 20-40% in the middle layer.

The closest analogue to the proposed technical solution is genuine leather chrome tanning of hides and skins of bovine /Handbook Tanner (technology), edited by N. A. Babirovoy "Light industry". 1986, S. 18-40).

The method of manufacture includes: soaking off leather raw material in the presence of sodium carbonate for 8.5 hours, two-phase liming: 1st phase in the presence of sodium sulfide and calcium hydroxide, the consumption of which is respectively 3.2 and 4.6% of the mass of raw material, processing time of 10 hours; 2nd phase in the presence of calcium hydroxide, the concentration of which is 10 g/l when the LCD is 1.5, the processing time of 18 ahcene protocontinent - 0,2%, flushing and pickling in the presence of sodium chloride, a mixture of formic and sulfuric acids, the consumption of which is respectively 0.4 and 0.7% of the weight of the hide. Tanning is carried out on the waste liquid after pickling, the consumption of chrome tanning agent with the basicity of 40% is 2.2% by weight of the hide, in terms of oxide of chromium, the processing time of 12 hours. Then spend retanning chrome tanning agent with the basicity of 40% and the consumption of 1% or organic tanning agent, a flow rate which is 3% by weight of shaved leather. Greasing spend feeding materials, the total flow which is 7% by weight of semi-finished product, counting on pure fat.

Finishing processes and operations carried out by standard methods. The indicators characterizing the dermis natural leather, are given in table. 2.

The closest analogue to the dermis leather fur semi-finished product is the dermis of the semifinished fur sheepskin produced by "processing Technology fur sheepskin" - M, Createrepo, 1982

Technology includes: soaking off fur raw material in the presence of sodium silicofluoride - 1 g/; surfactants "News" - 0.5 g/l, the processing is carried out for 12-16 hours at a temperature of 35oWITH THE LCD 5. Then after washing and for whatWith a duration of 20 hours, the composition of the working solution includes sodium chloride and 40 g/l, acetic acid 2 g/l, sulfuric acid and 2.4 g/l, chrome tanning agent with the basicity of 36-42%is 3.5 g/l, counting on the oxide chromium (III), the hyposulphite of sodium, 2 g/l, sodium carbonate, 2 g/l Fat emulsion consisting of industrial oils AND 12A - 3 g/l, Prevotella - 3 g/l, turpentine - 0.3 ml/L. Further processes and operations carried out by standard methods. The indicators characterizing the dermis fur semi-finished product? are given in table. 2.

A disadvantage of the known technical solutions is the uneven distribution of tanning and oiling substances in the structure of the dermis, resulting in less efficient use of raw materials and reduction of consumer properties of the finished product.

The aim of the invention is to improve the quality of the dermis natural leather and leather fur semi-finished product due to the optimal allocation of tanning, doublelayer and greasing of components on the structural elements of the dermis and the rational use of raw materials.

This goal is achieved by the fact that the dermis natural leather and fur semi-finished product, including collagen based multilevel structure doublelayer and greasing of components, distributed at the structural levels of collagen base, corresponding to the fibrils and subfebrile, i.e., the intra - and mifepriston space, the size of which is from 0.1 to 1 μm. In accordance with the above structural gradation levels of the collagen framework fibrils and subfebrile have a size of from 0.3 to 5 μm.

To achieve this goal, a method for processing the dermis, providing deep razvlechenie structural elements of collagen, the preparation of the electrokinetic potential of the surface of the structural elements of collagen, the same sign with the electrokinetic mobility of the manufacturing tanning and oiling systems and the difference in the numerical value not exceeding 10 mV.

The way we produce natural skin, comprising: soaking off, two-phase liming, left lying processing: -obessolivanie-abating-pickling, tanning, retanning, greasing, characterized in that the duration of the 2nd phase ashing - glutton liming - 36 hours, pickling is carried out in the presence of a nonionic or anionic surfactant, tanning carry out the chrome tanning agent, containing not less than 50% of the complexes from the total size of no more than 0.5 nm and the degree orifice more than 0.7 nm or organic tanning agent with a molecular weight of not less than 600 g/mol, greasing exercise fat compositions forming direct water emulsion with sorption resistance of not less than 5 mg/g and containing up to 50% of the particles of the dispersed phase size of not more than 1.0 nm.

The way we produce fur semi-finished product, comprising: soaking off, pickling, tanning, greasing, characterized in that: soaking off is carried out in the presence of the enzyme preparation and a nonionic or anionic surfactant, pickling is carried out in the presence of a nonionic or anionic surfactant, tanning carry out the chrome tanning agent, containing not less than 50% of the total number of complexes with a size of not more than 0.5 nm and a degree of olitical not more than 40%, and greasing exercise fat compositions forming direct water emulsion with sorption resistance of not less than 5 mg/g and containing up to 50% dispersed phase particles of a size not more than 1.0 nm the set of distinctive features ensures the achievement of this goal.

Examples of specific performance.

The development of the dermis from the skins of cattle: soaking off the leather raw material in an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate to 1.6% by weight of the raw material, the LCD is 1.5, the duration of 8.5 hours.

The liming two-phase 1-phase aqueous solution of sodium sulfide is 3.2% and the calcium hydroxide - 10 g/l, duration of treatment - 36 hours.

Then carry out the washing and mechanical operations meskene, ghosting.

Left lying processes Obessolivanie carried out in an aqueous solution of ammonium sulfate and 3.5% by weight of the hide, LCD 1,2, temperature 37oWith the duration of 30 minutes. The abating spend on waste fluid after obessolivanija protocontinent G-SX - 0.05, the duration of 40 minutes. Pickling in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride and 5% by weight of the hide, formic acid 0.4%, sulfuric acid - 0.7%, nonionic or anionic surfactants (taken from the range fatty alcohol ethoxylates, privately, intamicy) - 0,15%, LCD 1,2, temperature 20oWith the duration of 3.5 hours.

Tanning is performed on the waste liquid after pickling using an integrated chrome tanning agent, containing not less than 50% of the total number of complexes with a size of not more than 0.5 nm and a degree of olitical not more than 40% of the amount of tanning agent is 1.5% by weight of the hide, in terms of oxide of chromium (III), the process duration is 8 hours.

Integrated chrome tanning agent is obtained on the basis of chromechrome with a molar ratio of chromium oxide (III) and chromium oxide (VI), is equal to 0.8 to 1.2, by dissolution in sulfuric acid to complete depoliticization adjustment of the basicity of the tanning agent the introduction of sodium dichromate or potassium (U.S. Pat. RF 2132388, WITH 14 3/06).

Retanning is carried out with the use of integrated chrome tanning agent containing 30% of complexes with a size of not more than 0.7 nm, the flow rate of the tanning agent is 1% by weight of shaved leather. LCD 1, temperature 65othe duration of 1 hour or organic tanning agent with a molecular mass of 600 g/L.

Greasing is carried out with the use of the oiling composition consisting of emulsifying and pemuliharaan fatty substances in a ratio, respectively 60-70:40-30, which form a direct water emulsion with sorption resistance of not less than 5 mg/g and contain up to 50% of the particles of the dispersed phase size of not more than 1.0 nm, forming direct water emulsion with sorption resistance of not less than 5 mg/l and containing up to 50% of the particles of the dispersed phase size of not more than 1.0 nm. Total fat consumption is 7.5% of the mass of the semi-finished product in terms of pure fat.

The components of the oiling composition is chosen from the series: emulsifying fats - alizarin oil soap "Monopole", sulfated fish oil, coasta; nemurihime fats - fish oil, castor oil, synthetic grease.

Further, the processes and operations performed by standard methods.

If any combination of these parameters, only tanning with chromium compounds and fatty substances in the structure of the dermis, which leads to excessive consumption of raw materials per unit of finished product and reduce its quality Example of the manufacture of fur semi-finished fur sheepskin.

A: soaking off fur raw materials is carried out in the presence of sodium silicofluoride - 1 g/l, anionic or nonionic surfactant is 0.5 g/l, protocolin G-SX - 0.01 g/l when the LCD 5, the processing time of 12 hours, the temperature - 35oC.

Pickling-tanning-greasing is carried out at the LCD 5, the temperature of the 40oC for 20 hours, the composition of the working solution includes: sodium chloride and 40 g/l, acetic acid 2 g/l, sulfuric acid and 2.4 g/, anionic or nonionic surfactant is 0.5 g/l, chrome tanning agent, containing not less than 50% of the total number of complexes with a size of not more than 0.5 nm and a degree of olitical not more than 40%, and greasing exercise fat compositions forming direct water emulsion with sorption resistance of not less than 5 mg/g and containing up to 50% dispersed phase particles of a size not more than 1.0 nm.

Greasing exercise fat compositions consisting of emulsifying and pemuliharaan fatty substances in a ratio, respectively 60-70: 40-30, which form a direct water emulsion with sorption resistance of not less than 5 mg/g and contain up to 50% of the particles of the dispersion/p> Violation of the combination of these parameters leads to excessive consumption of raw materials per unit of finished product and reduce its quality.

In table. 2 shows the indicators of the quality of the skin and fur semi-finished product and the basic parameters of their production.

Claims

1. Dermis natural leather and fur semi-finished product, including collagen based multilevel structural organization, tanning, doubleValue and greasing components, characterized in that at least 50% of the total number of tanning, doublelayer and greasing of components distributed across structural levels of collagen base, corresponding to the fibrils and subfebrile.

2. The way we produce natural skin, comprising: soaking off, two-phase liming, left lying processing obessolivanie - abating - pickling, tanning, retanning, greasing, characterized in that the duration of the 2nd phase ashing - glutton liming is 36 h, pickling is carried out in the presence of a nonionic or anionic surfactant, tanning carry out the chrome tanning agent, containing not less than 50% of the complexes from the total size of no more than 0.5 nm and a degree of odificatio not more than 40%, retanning assests with a molecular weight of not less than 600 g/mol, greasing exercise fat compositions forming direct water emulsion with sorption resistance of not less than 5 mg/g and containing up to 50% of the particles of the dispersed phase size of not more than 1.0 nm.

3. The way we produce fur semi-finished product, comprising: soaking off, pickling, tanning, greasing, characterized in that: soaking off is carried out in the presence of the enzyme preparation and a nonionic or anionic surfactant, pickling is carried out in the presence of a nonionic or anionic surfactant, tanning carry out the chrome tanning agent, containing not less than 50% of the total number of complexes with a size of not more than 0.5 nm and a degree of olitical not more than 40%, and greasing exercise fat compositions forming direct water emulsion with sorption resistance of not less than 5 mg/g and containing up to 50% of the particles of the dispersed phase size of not more than 1.0 nm.

 

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