The method of estimating the energy properties of motor oils
The invention relates to the field of study of lubricating oils, in particular to a method of assessing the energy properties of motor oils, and can be used in the development of new engine oils to assess their energy-saving properties, and can also be used in the selection of oil to the engine. The essence of the invention: method of estimating the energy properties of a vibrating tribometer SRV with a pair of friction ring-plane" measuring the coefficient of friction of the first oil (KTP1) when the load on the bearings (501) N, the temperature of the friction pair (801)oC, amplitude and frequency of the movement of rubbing pairs (1,50,1) mm and (501) Hz, respectively, and the coefficient of friction of the second oil (KTR2) under identical conditions, and about energy-saving properties of the second oil is judged by the dependence obtained experimentally. The technical result of the invention is to increase the information content of the method due to the possibility of quantitative evaluation of energy-saving properties of oils. 2 Il., 3 table. The invention relates to the field of study of lubricating oils, in particular to the method of assessment of the key energy saving properties, and also used in the selection of oil to the engine.As is known, increase reliability and efficiency of equipment is an important task. This task is solved as through further design improvement techniques and by improving the quality of used lubricants. In particular, by reducing the loss of energy to overcome the frictional forces provided by the manifestation of the anti-friction effect and are used motor oil, can be reduced by 5-12% of fuel consumption when operating machinery, as well as costs for maintenance and repair [1. Bunakov B. M., Grigoriev, M. A., Pervushin, A. N. Engine oil and fuel efficiency of the engine. - Automotive industry, 1984, 3, S. 9-11], associated with increased turnaround time of engine operation.A known method of test oils on the stand with Jogging drums. The essence of the method is to test a full size sample of the equipment to operating conditions that simulate the real conditions of its application. In the tests using flow meters measure the instantaneous and total fuel consumption, which allows to judge about the ability of the oils to ensure fuel economy in their application in engineering.The disadvantages of this innovation is sicnosti road transport. - M.: Transport, 1990, S. 112-119].The authors had the task: to develop a rapid laboratory method for evaluating energy-saving properties of oils with acceptable degree of accuracy.When conducting research, and the view of scientific literature, patent information was discovered a number of laboratory methods for the evaluation of anti-friction properties of motor oils, allowing to evaluate the ability of the tested oils to reduce friction when the engine and accurately judge their energy saving properties.There is a method of evaluation in anti-friction properties of lubricants on the friction machines with point contact friction pair, for example on the machine CT-2 [3. Lubricants: Antifriction and antiwear properties. Testing methods: a Guide / P. M. Matveevskaya, C. L. lashi, I. A. Buyanovskaya and others - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1989, S. 28].Also known way to assess anti-friction properties of lubricants on the friction machines with linear contact of the friction pair, for example on the machine of Timken [3. Lubricants: Antifriction and antiwear properties. Testing methods: a Guide / P. M. Matveevskaya, C. L. lashi, I. A. Buyanovskaya and others - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1989, S. 25]. The essence of these methods is inyh thermomechanical loads.A common disadvantage of the above methods of evaluation in anti-friction properties of lubricating oils is the duration of the tests is due to the long pre-break-in of a pair of friction because of the rather rapid increase in the contact area during the experience.Also known way to assess anti-friction properties of lubricating oils on tribometer with the contact of the friction surfaces in the space, devoid of the disadvantages of devices with line and point contacts, for example by car CMT-1 [3. Lubricants: Antifriction and antiwear properties. Testing methods: a Guide / P. M. Matveevskaya, C. L. lashi, I. A. Buyanovskaya and others - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1989, S. 31].The closest in technical essence of the present invention is taken as a prototype method for evaluation of anti-friction properties of lubricating oils on the vibration tribometer SRV reciprocating friction pair "ring-plane [3. Lubricants: Antifriction and antiwear properties. Testing methods: a Guide / P. M. Matveevskaya, C. L. lashi, I. A. Buyanovskaya and others - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1989, S. 32].Although this method is relatively above has advantages - Sina the internal combustion engine, allowing more to simulate the working conditions of the engine oil, but does not allow to judge about fuel economy when using the specific engine oil.The technical result of the invention is the increase in the information content of the method due to the possibility of quantitative evaluation of energy-saving properties of oils.This technical result is achieved in that in the method of estimating the energy properties of motor oils, including measurement of coefficient of friction on the vibration tribometer with a pair of friction ring-plane for the given load for a couple of friction, the temperature of the friction pair, the amplitude and frequency of the movement of the friction pair, and measuring the coefficient of friction of the first oil (KTP1) when the load on the bearings 501 H, the temperature of the friction pair 801oC, amplitude and frequency of the movement of the rubbing pair 1,50.1 mm and 501 Hz, respectively, and the coefficient of friction of the second oil (KTR2) under identical conditions, and about energy-saving properties of the second oil is judged according to the following dependence: e=andKTr+b, where e is an indicator of energy saving is 41.ToTr- the relative change of the friction coefficient of the pair of the tested oils, %:In Fig. 1 schematically shows the friction vibration tribometer SRV, implements the method of estimating the energy properties of oils.The friction consists of a base 1 with a heater 2, the bottom of the retainer 3, the holder 4 with the upper clamps 5 and a pair of friction plates 6 and ring 7. The filing of a load on pair of friction, heat it and bring in a reciprocating movement is performed automatically. Resistance to the relative movement of the friction pair is recorded by the load cell in the form of coefficient of friction (KTP1ToTR2) is displayed on a chart recorder (Fig.1 is not shown).The method is implemented as follows. Cleansing & fat die 6 put 2 ml of the first oil and fix using the lower latch 3 on the base 1. The ring 7 by means of the upper clamps 5 is fixed in the holder 4. A pair of friction heated to 801oTo create a load on her 501 N, the amplitude and frequency of movement of the rubbing pair 1,50.1 mm and 501 Hz, respectively, and Pref) on the recorder. In the same way produce the definition of the coefficient of friction of the second oil (KTR2). Obtained values of the coefficient of friction oils put into the design formula and calculate the predicted fuel economy when using the second engine oil.The conditions for testing oils selected according to the actual conditions of the working oil in the area of the first piston rings of internal combustion engine: the frequency of movement of the piston 30-50 Hz; the value of the contact pressure of 0.5 MPa is provided with a load equal to 50 N. According to the results of preliminary experiments established that the change of the amplitude of the relative movement of the pair of friction in the range of 1.0-2.0 mm material effect on the coefficient of friction does not, the stabilization of the obtained values of coefficient of friction in different conditions and on different oils comes after 4-5 min of the test.When choosing the temperature conditions of the test were taken into account that in contrast to the periodic update of a thin layer of oil in the cylinder group of the engine, a pair of friction vibrationer oil change on the new portion was not made, i.e., the oil worked in harsher conditions. Aims of the study the coefficient of friction of various oils and oil compositions. These same oils and oil compositions were tested under field conditions in the engines of buses LiAZ-M, ZIL-130, VAZ-2106, URAL-5323, marine diesel engine 2NDV18, where it was determined the fuel consumption on these oils and calculated maximum received fuel economy. All this has allowed to draw a conclusion about energy saving capabilities of a specific oil. The results of the tests are presented in table.1, which shows that the best correlation was obtained at a temperature equal to 80oC.Based on the results of the study, we constructed the dependence of the maximum fuel economy from the relative changes of the friction coefficient obtained vibrationer (Fig. 2), which is described by the equation y=a+b. Was regression analysis, the results of which the calculated coefficients a and b of the equation, which is equal to 0.17 and 1.41, respectively. Regression analysis showed that the obtained regression equation y=0,17 x+1,41 adequately describes the experimental data in the range of values of the relative changes of the friction coefficientToTrequal to 5-25%.To determine the valid discrepancies between the results of two consecutive tests vibratable way tests were conducted oils to determine their energy saving properties. The results of the tests are presented in table.3.Test results shows that the proposed method estimates the energy properties of the oils has a high degree of confidence.Thus, a rapid laboratory method for assessment of energy-saving properties of motor oils, allowing 95% probability to predict the energy saving properties of motor oils by tests on the vibration tribometer SRV.The use of the invention will promptly and reliably assess the energy saving properties of engine oils at low cost method.Sources of information 1. Bunakov B. M. , Grigoriev, M. A., Pervushin, A. N. Engine oil and fuel efficiency of the engine. - Automotive industry, 1984, 3, S. 9-11.2. Govorushchenko N. Ya, cost Savings and reduced toxicity in road transport. - M.: Transport, 1990, S. 112-119.3. Lubricants: Antifriction and antiwear properties. Testing methods: a Guide / P. M. Matveevskaya, C. L. lashi, I. A. Buyanovskaya and others - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1989, S. 25, S. 28, s 31, s 32 (prototype).
ClaimsThe method of estimating the energy properties of motor oils, including metering greater is the temperature of the friction pair, the amplitude and frequency of the movement of rubbing pairs, wherein measuring the coefficient of friction of the first oil (KTP1) when the load on the bearings (501)N, the temperature of the friction pair (801)oC, amplitude and frequency of the movement of rubbing pairs (1,50,1) mm and (501) Hz, respectively, and the coefficient of friction of the second oil (KTR2) under identical conditions, and about energy-saving properties of the second oil is judged according to the following dependence: e=andToTr+
where e is the indicator of energy-saving properties of the oil (fuel economy), %;
a and b are constants obtained experimentally: a=0,17; in=1,41;
ToTr- the relative change of the friction coefficient of the pair of the tested oils, %:
FIELD: any industries where motor oils are used.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device contains shaped insert with oxidizer feed axial channel. Ring passage space for cooling agent is found inside shaped insert, and outer surface of middle stage is provided with corrugations. It provides cooling of oil vapors settled on corrugations at heating and dripping down in form of condensate into high temperature oxidation zone. Oil sample meter is provided in lower part of cylindrical head made in form of branch pipe by means of which metered delivery of oil to surface of aluminum weighing bottle is carried out. Oil is applied in layers, each being 150±5 mcm thick, each layer is oxidized, 240±5 s, by delivering oxidizer at rate of 50 l/h directly to surface of oil layer in aluminum weighing bottle. Taken as information index is mass "m" on deposits formed on aluminum weighing bottle. At mass of ratios greater than or equal to 0.0170 g (m≥0.0170g) oil is considered as group "В" oil, and ratio 0.0130g≤m<0.0170g oil is considered as group "Г" and at m<0.0130g, oil is considered as group "Д".
EFFECT: improved accuracy and reduced time taken for determining service group of motor oil under investigation owing to provision of conditions of testing close to real conditions of operation of oil in engine.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 1 dwg
FIELD: express-methods for determining presence and quality of dispersing-stabilizing properties, dispersing agent type for lubricating oils and determining engine oils among other oil types.
SUBSTANCE: method for determining dispersing-stabilizing properties of lubricating oils is performed by inserting into oil and dispersing therein of dirt agent and reaching calm state, while liquid dirt agent is injected into oil, which does not form a solution with oil, and after dispersion, emulsion is maintained in calm state, on basis of alternation of information parameters like loss of transparence and coloring of emulsion in colors from dark yellow to light yellow, quality estimate of presence of dispersion-stabilizing properties is determined with detection of engine oils, and on basis of alternation of information parameters like in form of intensiveness of coloring of emulsion in colors ranging from dark yellow to light yellow, time when dirt agent starts precipitating and/or time when emulsion starts dividing on distinct layers or absence of same, volume of precipitated dirt agent and/or height of column of layered emulsion during certain time limit or absence of same, volume of dirt agent inserted into oil, for which precipitation of dirt agent starts or layering of emulsion, and also - possible combination of same, quality estimate of workability level of dispersing-stabilizing admixture of lubricating oil is determined, as well as dispersant type.
EFFECT: decreased time consumption, increased information capacity of determination.
FIELD: analytical methods.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use as a means of metrologically supporting measurement techniques in determination of total alkaline number of motor oils and lubricating materials. This means is represented by composition containing 75-84% liquid hydrocarbons, 0.05-6% water-soluble alkali component, and 15-20% aliphatic alcohol. Use of standard specimen allows performing reliable estimation of quality of motor oils and lubricating materials by accessible acid-base titration technique requiring no special instrumentation equipment.
EFFECT: simplified analytical procedure.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises heating, mixing, aerating and degassing of lubricant in the device for investigating the lubricants. The aerating of the lubricants is provided by their flowing through the opening of alternative cross-section where pressure drop is generated. The degassing is provided by the use of the degassing unit where, under the action of centrifugal forces, the dissolved gas is removed from the lubricant. The processes are controlled by video surveying of generation, change of sizes, shape, and concentration of gas bubbles in the lubricant as well as by readings of temperature and pressure gauges. The device comprises oil tank for temperature control with mechanical mixer, heater, and temperature gauge and pipeline with valve. The device is additionally provided with pump, throttling valve, and degassing unit. The safety valve, pump, and throttling valve are connected in series through pipeline sections. The pipeline sections provided with throttling valve and degassing unit are made of a heat-resistant transparent material and provided with temperature and pressure gauges and digital video cameras connected with the computer.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: technology for diagnosing status of motor oil, possible use for determining quality of motor oil during operation and its fitness for further use.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method for determining content of liquid in motor oil, motor oil is heated up and by intensiveness of characteristic air bubbles, presence of liquid is evaluated, while firstly a template made of wire in form of mesh is applied to crucible of Cleveland machine, heated up with heating speed 6°C per 1 min up to 100°C, in range of temperatures 120-140°C heating is decreased down to 2°C per 1 minute, then position of cells in contour, formed by air bubbles in template, is visually memorized, further, contour is transferred over a squared paper, by squares, value of area of contour surface is calculated by its value, percentage of liquid is determined using standard depending on base for motor oil.
EFFECT: increased precision of detection of presence of cooling liquid in oils and its percentage.
3 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparing a mixture of oil to be tested with a standard oil, in mass%, 90:10, 50:50, and 10:90, sampling each mixture, allowing the samples to stand at a high temperature of 125±2°C for 24 hours, cooling the samples down to the room temperature with subsequent allowing the samples to stand at a low temperature for 8 hours, allowing the samples to stand at the room temperature for 240 hours, and performing the visual assessment of physical condition of the samples after each stage.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
3 ex, 7 tbl
FIELD: car industry; aircraft industry; other industries; methods of determination of the dispersion-stabilizing properties and pollution of the working oils.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the express method of determination of dispersion-stabilizing properties and pollution of the working oils. The method of determination of the dispersion-stabilizing properties and pollution of the working lubricating oils is realized by application on the filtering paper of the drip of the tested oil. After expiration of the preset time determine dimensions of the concentric zones the received chromatogram, and in compliance of their ratio judge about the functionability of the additive compound with the help of the formula. For each type of the oils (diesel, petrol or others) at first determine the temperature at which the additive compound demonstrates its maximum activity, and then this thermal regime use for obtaining of the chromatogram from the first drip descending from the drip-former on the filtering paper in the stationary and field conditions. The composition of the mechanical impurities in the test oil is determined in compliance with the core of the chromatogram using the magnifier of the image by separation of the really present in the oil of the different types of the pollutants and, thus, generalizing the outcomes of the evaluations of each type of the impurities present in the oil determine the composition of the impurities and the total pollution of the lubricating oil. The invention allows to receive the high accuracy of the evaluation both in the field and stationary conditions of the real activity of the disperse-stabilizing additive, and also - of the composition and concentration of the mechanical impurities in- the working lubricating oils-.
EFFECT: the invention allows to receive the high accuracy of the evaluation both in the field and stationary conditions of the real activity of the disperse-stabilizing additive, and also - on the composition and concentration of the mechanical impurities in- the working lubricating oils-.
2 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining industry, possible use for predicting tribotechnical properties of lubricating materials for drill bit supports at the stage of laboratory testing.
SUBSTANCE: in the method for testing lubricating materials, destruction activation energy of metallic surface before and after application of lubricating material is estimated and difference ΔG of produced activation energy values is determined. Tests of lubricating materials are conducted in range of temperatures matching operational temperatures. Type and the degree to which lubricating materials influence the metallic surface are determined respectively on basis of sign and modulus of value ΔG: ΔG<0 indicates softening effect, ΔG>0 indicates reinforcing effect, and ΔG=0 indicates neutral effect of lubricating material under examination on the metallic surface.
EFFECT: possible estimation of influence of boundary layers of lubricating material in strength properties of metallic surfaces.
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in invention, parameter "total impurity" is defined by change of running oil optical density with regard to fresh oil against three spectral ranges by polychromatic optical radiation transmission through oil and recording of transmitted through oil radiation intensity in three spectral ranges - red, green and blue. In addition, diagnostic parameter "chemical destruction" of oil is used to monitor oil performance. Instrument includes optical source, flow-through cell, optical radiation receiver and signal processing unit. Besides, source contains polychromatic radiation source and receiver includes photo sensor, which records optical radiation intensity simultaneously in three spectral ranges.
EFFECT: invention improves self-descriptiveness and reliability of on-line oil performance monitoring.
6 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: physics, measurements.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to technology for determination of temperature resistance of lubricant oils. In method for determination of lubricant oil temperature resistance, oil sample is taken, divided into equal portions, each of them is heated at atmospheric pressure without air access with condensation of vapors and condensate drain, besides for each subsequent part of oil sample, test temperature is increased by a permanent value, afterwards light flux absorption ratio Ka is determined, graphical dependences on temperature are built, and temperature resistance is detected, moreover, after testing sample is weighed, value of evaporated mass G is identified as difference of oil sample mass before and after test, evaporation ratio KG as ratio of evaporated oil sample to remained mass, coefficient of conversion energy Ec as sum of light flux absorption coefficients Ka and evaporation KG, then graphical dependences of energy conversion ratio Ec on test temperature are built, and temperature resistance of tested lubricant oil is determined by temperatures of destruction process beginning and completion.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of determination.
1 tbl, 1 dwg