Removing naphthenic acids from crude oil and distillates

 

The invention relates to a process for recovering organic acids from the source of crude oil. Processing of raw materials containing naphthenic acid, conduct alkoxycarbonyl the amine and water under conditions which for a time and at a temperature sufficient for the formation of the emulsion amine salt type water in oil. Specified alkoxycarbonyl amine selected from the group consisting of alkoxysilane amines having the formula (A)in which m+n= 250, a R is a linear or branched alkyl group With8-C20and the formula (In) N(och2CH2)y-(CH2SNSN3O)p-{NHCH2CH2NH}x-(CH2CH2O)2-(CH2SNSN3O)q-N, where x = 13 and y+z = 26 and in which p+q = 015, from mixtures alkoxysilane amines with formula (A) and formula (In). Raw materials are selected from the group consisting of crude oil, mixtures of crude oil and distillates of crude oil. The specified separation of the emulsion into several layers, one of which contains the treated petroleum feedstock with a reduced amount of organic acids. Extract from the split operation SLV, containing water and salt alkoxysilanes Amin. The method allows to extract and remove naphthenic acids in comparison with the known method, which will convert them. 9 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il., table 1.

FIELD of INVENTION the Present invention relates to the removal of organic acids, particularly naphthenic acids from crude oil, mixtures of crude oil and distillates of crude oil with a specific class of compounds, the prior art reduction in the price of crude oil with a high total acid number (OCC) is about 50 US cents /OCC/ barrel. Therefore one of the objectives is to develop technologies to reduce OKC that allows the processing of cheap oil. Counter the objective is to increase the market value of crude oil with high OCC.

Modern approach in the processing of sour crude oil is mixing the acidic crude oil with sour oil feedstock so that OCC mixture was not higher than approximately 0.5. Most major oil companies use this approach. The disadvantage of this approach is limiting the number of sour crude oil that can be processed. In addition, known fo the slot. However, in this method in the treated petroleum feedstock formed emulsions, which are very difficult to destroy, and, in addition, unwanted remains of potassium or sodium moreover, such known techniques are limited by the range of molecular weight acids, which they are able to remove.

Due to the projected increase in the share of sour crude oil on the market (Chad, Venezuela, North sea) requires new technologies for further processing of crude oil and mixtures of crude oil with higher ACC. Heat treatment, hydrobromide suspensions and neutralization of calcium are some of the appeared promising approaches. However, these techniques do not remove acids from the raw oil. Instead, they convert the acid in the products, which remain in the oil raw materials.

U.S. patent 4752381 describes how the neutralization of organic acids in oils and oil fractions to obtain the neutralisation number less than 1.0. The method includes the processing of petroleum fractions by monoethanolamine to obtain the amine salt followed by heating for a time and at a temperature sufficient to obtain the amide. Such amines will not allow you to get the desired in accordance with izaberete reginout and removed.

U.S. patent 2424158 describes a method of removing organic acids from the raw oil. According to the patent using contact an agent that is an organic liquid. Describe appropriate amine is mono-, di - and triethanolamine, as well as methylamine, ethylamine, n - Isopropylamine, n-butylamine, secondary butylamine, tertiary butylamine, propanolamine, isopropanolamine, mutanolysin, secondary butanol, secondary mutanolysin and tertiary butanolate. Such amines, has been found ineffective in the invention of the applicant.

Summary of the INVENTION the Present invention relates to a process for recovering organic acids from the source of crude oil, comprising the steps: (a) processing the source of crude oil containing naphthenic acids, some alkoxysilanes amine and water, under conditions which for a time and at a temperature sufficient for the formation of the emulsion amine salt type water in oil, and specified alkoxycarbonyl amine selected from the group consisting of alkoxysilane amines having the following formula (a) and (b):where m+n = 250 and R is a linear or branched alkyl group from C8-C20.

( CH20)z-(CH2SNSN3O)q-N, where x = 13 and y+z = 26 and in which p+q = 015, from mixtures alkoxysilane amines with formula (A) and mixtures alkoxysilane amines with the formula (C); and the specified source oil feedstock selected from the group consisting of crude oil, mixtures of crude oil and distillates of crude oil; and
(b) the specified separation of the emulsion from operations (a) on several layers, and one of these layers contains processed oil feedstock with a reduced amount of organic acids;
() retrieve the specified layer from operations (b) containing the specified processed oil feedstock with a reduced amount of organic acid, and the layers containing water and salt alkoxysilanes amine.

The present invention can accordingly include, or consist essentially of, consist of elements described here.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS:
Fig.1 is a histogram describing the reduction OCC of crude oil Griffin (Gryphone) using as a processing agent of the tertiary amine ethoxylates and in the range of molecular weight organic acids from 250 to 750. Shaded, header and the second amine. Molecular weight organic acids is shown on the X-axis, a ám, moles per gram - axis U.

Fig.2 is a flow chart, describing how to apply the method to existing refineries. (1) - water and alkoxycarbonyl Amin, (2) - the original crude oil, (3) - set for desalting, (4) - unit of regeneration, (5) - unit conversion of organic acids, (6) processed crude oil, purified from organic acids, (7) - lower phase of the emulsion and (8) products.

Fig. 3 is a flow chart, describing the application of the present invention in the wellhead. (1) full stream from the well, (2) primary separator, (3) gas (4) - oil raw materials, (5) is processed (refined) oil raw materials, (6) water and an organic acid, (7) contact column (8) - alkoxycarbonyl amine and (9) is water.

Fig. 4 - the device is suitable for the extraction alkoxysilane amines which have been used for the removal of naphthenic acids from the source of crude oil. (1) is the layer or phase containing alkoxycarbonyl Amin, (2) thermometer, (3) - outlet (4) - graded column to measure the height of the foam, (5) gas distributor (6) gas, (7) - failure zone foam and (8) - zone collection issleyodovanie amines of the following formula (A) and (B):

and
(B)H-(OCH2CH2)y-(CH2CHCH3O)p-{ NHCH2CH2NH}h-(CH2CH2O)z-(CH2CHCH3O)q-H,
add to the original oil raw materials for the removal of organic acids. Some types of crude oil contain organic acids, which in General belong to the category of naphthenic acids and other organic acids. Naphthenic acid is a generic term used to identify a mixture of organic acids present in the raw oil product. Naphthenic acids can be present alone or in combination with other organic acids such as sulfonic acid and phenols. Thus, the present invention is particularly suitable for the removal of naphthenic acids.

Important features alkoxysilane amines is that the amine is mixed with oil to be processed, and that CNS groups give the formed salts ability to dissolve in water or dispergirujutsja. Suitable alkoxysilane amines include dodecyltriethoxysilane. In the above formula m+n = 250, preferably 515, and m but10-C14. Suitable amines of the formula (I) include N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) Ethylenediamine. In this formula x = 13 and y+z = 26, where x, y and z are integers, p+q = 015, preferably 010. Preferably p+q= 0. You can use a mixture of amines of the formula (A) and a mixture of amines of the formula (In). In addition, you can also use a mixture of amines with formula (a) and formula (B).

In the present invention organic acids including naphthenic acids, which are removed from the source of crude oil or mixtures preferably have a molecular weight in the range of from about 150 to about 800, more preferably from about 200 to about 750. The present invention preferably allows, in essence, extract or essentially reduce the amount of naphthenic acids present in the original crude oil. The term "essentially" means the removal of all acids, except in trace amounts. However, it is not necessary to remove essentially all of the acid, because the price of the processed crude oil increases, even if removed only part of the naphthenic acids. Applicants have found that the number of 90% and more preferably at least about 95%.

Used in the present description, the term "original oil" ("feedstock") includes a mixture and the distillate of crude oil. Preferably the source of the oil feedstock is potenziani oil, but also it can be acidic fractions potenziani oil, such as vacuum gas oil. Original oil raw materials are treated alkoxycarbonyl an amine capable of forming an amine salt with an organic salts present in the feedstock. Usually alkoxycarbonyl Amin take in the quantity required to neutralize the desired quantity of acids present. Usually the number alkoxysilanes amine is in the range from 0.15 to 3 molar equivalents based on the amount of organic acid present in the oil feedstock. If you want to neutralize essentially all present naphthenic acid, then it is necessary to use a molar excess alkoxysilane Amin. It is preferable to use it in 2,5 times more than the amount of naphthenic acid present in the oil feedstock. The molar excess is used to remove the acid with a larger molecular weight. According to the present invention can remove naphthenic acids, molecular is about 750. Molecular weight remove naphthenic acids can increase or decrease with respect to these numeric values, as these intervals depend on the sensitivity of the analysis tools used to determine molecular masses remove naphthenic acids.

Alkoxysilane amines can be added separately or in combination with water. If they are added in combination with water, it is possible to prepare a solution alkoxysilanes amine and water. It is preferable to add from 5 to 10 wt. % of water based on the amount of crude oil. Regardless of type, whether Amin together with water or before adding water, oil raw materials are treated in the course of time and at a temperature at which the emulsion is formed salts of organic acids and alkoxysilanes amine type water in oil. The contact time depends on the nature of the processed source of crude oil, the content of acid and the amount added alkoxysilanes Amin. The reaction temperature is any temperature at which the reaction takes place between alkoxycarbonyl Amin and naphthenic acids contained in the processed oil feedstock. Usually the process is carried out at a temperature of about Odo 80oC. the contact Time is in the range from about 1 minute to 1 hour and preferably from about 3 to about 30 minutes. The pressure varies from atmospheric, preferably from about 60 pounds/inch2(413,1 kPa) and more preferably from about 60 pounds/inch2(413,1 kPa) to about 1000 pounds/inch2(6895 kPa). For more heavy oil feedstock desirable higher values of temperature and pressure. In the case of manual add oil feedstock containing salt, then mix with water at a temperature and for a time sufficient for the formation of the emulsion. The time and temperature remain the same as adding and stepwise addition of water. If the addition takes place simultaneously, the mixing is performed by adding, at a temperature and for a time specified above. When added together, there is no need to produce stirring for an additional period of time relative to the period of time during which the formation of salts. Thus, the processing of the original raw oil includes both the contacting and mixing to form an emulsion, for example smesi the tyano Institute and the higher viscosity of 200 centipoise (0,2 ns/2) at 25oWith preferably be processed at temperatures above 60oC.

As soon as the emulsion of the type water-in-oil is formed, it is divided into several layers. Separation can be achieved by means known to specialists in this field of technology. For example, centrifugation, gravity sedimentation and electrostatic separation. The separation of form multiple layers. Usually get three layers. The top layer contains oil feedstock from which the removed acid. The middle layer is an emulsion containing salts of acids with high and medium molecular weight and alkoxysilanes amine, while the bottom layer is an aqueous layer containing salts of low molecular weight acids and alkoxysilanes Amin. The top layer containing the processed crude oil, is easily removed by methods known in the art. Thus, in contrast to the processing used in the past, in accordance with which the acid was converted into products that remained in the raw material, the present method removes acids from the raw oil. Layers containing naphthenic acids, may have potential value as specialized products.

Additionally, although not obligations shall Writely, such as alcohols.

The method can be carried out using existing facilities for desalination.

Fig. 2 represents the application of this method in a refinery. The method is applicable both in the process of mining and refining. The flow of the acidic oil is treated with the required amount of alkoxysilane amine by adding the amine to the wash water and mixing in a static mixer at low shear force. Alternatively you can first add alkoxycarbonyl Amin, stir, and then add the water and stir. The treated feedstock is then subjected to emulgirovaniu or division in the plant for desalination, where the applied electrostatic field or other means of separation. Oil reduced OKC removed from the top and subjected, if required, for further processing. The bottom water and the emulsion phase is extracted together or separately, preferably together, and sent to waste. They can also be processed separately to extract the processing Amin. Similarly, the extracted aqueous solution of amine can be used again and get a cyclical process. The flow of naphthenic acids can also be sent to waste.

In the process of extraction of the present invention would be particularly applicable in the wellhead. In the wellhead original oil feedstock typically contains the associated water and gases. Fig.3 illustrates the applicability of the present invention in the wellhead. As shown in Fig.3, the full flow from the well containing the original crude oil, water and gases pass to a separator and separated into a gas stream, which is removed, the flow of water, which may contain minor amounts of the source of crude oil, and the flow of the source of crude oil (from which you have removed the water and gases), which may contain minor amounts of water. The flow of water and oil then served in the contact column. Alkoxycarbonyl amine can be added or oil or water and to perform processing according to the present invention and mixing in the contact column. The flow of water and oil feedstock is passed through the contact tower countercurrent in the presence alkoxysilanes amine for the formation of a stable emulsion of the type oil-in-water. Unstable emulsion receive under mild stirring, adding sour crude oil to the aqueous phase in a sufficient ratio to obtain a dispersion of oil in nepreryvnoy to minimize the formation of a stable emulsion of the type water-in-oil. Use a ratio of oil phase to aqueous phase of from 1:3 to 1:15, preferably from 1:3 to 1:4 based on the weight of the oil and water phases. A stable emulsion is formed, if the ratio of oil and water phases is 1:1 or less. The number alkoxysilanes amine is in the range from 0.15 to 3 molar equivalents based on the amount of organic acid present in the original crude oil. The aqueous phase represents or the flow of water, if alkoxycarbonyl amine are added directly to the oil feedstock, or alkoxycarbonyl amine and water, if alkoxycarbonyl amine is added to the water stream. Usually the desired droplet size of 10 to 50 μm, preferably 20-50 μm. The contacting of crude oil and water alkoxysilanes amine must be undertaken within a period of time sufficient for the dispersion of oil in an aqueous solution alkoxysilanes amine, and preferably should provide a dispersion of at least 50 wt. %, more preferably at least 80 wt.% and most preferably 90 wt.% oil in water solution alkoxysilanes Amin. The contacting is usually carried out at a temperature in the range of from about 10 to about 40oC. When temperateness acid are separated from the droplets of crude oil as they rise from the bottom of the contact column. Processed oil feedstock are removed from the top of the contact column, and the water containing salts of naphthenic acids and alkoxysilanes amine, (lower layers) is removed from the bottom of the contact column. Thus, refined oil feedstock with the remote from him naphthenic acids extracted from the wellhead. Then, the treated oil raw materials, if required, can be processed, e.g., electrostatically, to remove any remaining water and naphthenic acids.

Water and organic acid salts alkoxysilanes amine, as a by-product that is removed from the contact columns can be re-injected into the ground. However, given the cost alkoxysilanes amine, preferably prior to re-injection to carry out the extraction operation.

Retrieved alkoxycarbonyl amine can be reused in the process, creating a cyclical process.

If you want to regenerate organic acids including naphthenic acids, and alkoxysilane amines, you can use the following method. The method includes the steps: (a) processing layer remaining after the removal of the specified layer of the treated petroleum feedstock, including the specified emulsion layer, an acidic solution, wybir the receipt of naphthenic acids and amine salt of the specified mineral acids, if you use a mineral acid, or amine bicarbonate, when using carbon dioxide; (b) separation of the upper layer, containing naphthenic acids, and the lower aqueous layer; (C) adding to the bottom water layer of inorganic bases, if the operation (a) use of mineral acid, or, if the transaction (a) use carbon dioxide, is heated at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to raise pH8; (d) a purge gas through the water layer to obtain a foam containing the specified alkoxysilane amines; (e) selection of the specified foam for obtaining alkoxysilane amines. The foam can then precipitate or it will settle over time. For the formation of foam can be used any inert or not reacts in this process the gas, however, it is preferable to use the air. Suitable gases can easily be tailored by experts in this field. If it is desirable to besiege the foam, it is possible to use known to specialists in this field chemicals or other known mechanical methods.

In the method used to extract alkoxysilane amines, for the conversion of salts afternova raw materials, you can use mineral acid. The acid can be selected from sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid and mixtures thereof. In addition to the emulsion salts alkoxysilanes amine can add carbon dioxide under pressure. In any case, the addition of acid is continued until until the pH reaches about 6 or less, preferably about 4 to 6. The addition of acid causes the formation of the upper layer, containing oil and naphthenic acid, and the lower water layer. Then the layers separated and the aqueous layer add inorganic base such as ammonium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide or a mixture to achieve a pH above about 8, if you have used a mineral acid. In the alternative case, the aqueous layer was heated at a temperature and for a time sufficient to obtain a pH of more than about 8, if used carbon dioxide. Typically, the layer is heated from about 40 to about 85oC, preferably about 80oC. Gas, for example air, nitrogen, methane or ethane, and then blown through the solution at a rate sufficient to form a foam containing alkoxysilane amines. The foam is then extracted and precipitated to obtain alkoxylated re-upload.

Hereinafter the invention will be illustrated in the following examples, which are not restrictive.

EXAMPLE 1
In this example as a model of oil used a mixture of "ISOPAR-M/Solvent 600 Neutral/Aromatic 150 in the ratio of 40/30/30, "ISOPAR-M" is isoparaffin distillate, Solvent 600 Neutral - solvent 600 neutral - basic oil, and Aromatic 150 distillate aromatic hydrocarbons. 5--Holloway acid used as a model naphthenic acid.

2 wt.% acid dissolved in the model oil and subjected to the operations described above using dodecyltriethoxysilane amine (R=C12and m+n=5). Mixing time was 15 minutes at room temperature. Total acid number in the model of oil fell from 4.0 to 0.2. Liquid chromatography high resolution (HPLC) showed 99% removal 5--holonovel acid from the treated oil.

EXAMPLE 2
In this example, the used oil from the North sea (Griffin) with ACC of 4.6. Given alkoxycarbonyl amine used in the above mass. % add the water and the degree of processing of the amine Results in the table.

EXAMPLE 3
Alkoxycarbonyl ammonium salt of aptenodytespatagonica. A solution containing 30 wt.% salt, cooked in water to create a model emulsion containing alkoxycarbonyl ammonium salt of naphthenic acid.

100 ml of a solution of organic salt was placed in a separating funnel and was added concentrated sulfuric acid to bring the pH to 6. Immediately watched the allocation of naphthenic acid in the form of a water-insoluble oil. The lower aqueous phase separated from the oil phase and added ammonium hydroxide to obtain a pH of 9.

The aqueous solution introduced into the device for the formation of foam, as shown in Fig. 4. The air was barbotirovany through the inlet hole in the bottom. Got rich foam and collected in the cell collection. The foam has settled after settling, leaving a yellow liquid, which was a concentrate of dodecyldimethylamine.

EXAMPLE 4
Crude oil from the North Sea, the Gryphon was subjected to the process of emulsion fractionation as described in Example 2. The lower emulsion phase was extracted and used as follows:
100 ml of the emulsion was collected in a separating funnel and was added concentrated sulfuric acid to bring the pH to 6. Watched immediate allocation of naphthenic acid in the form of a water-insoluble mariabruna Fourier transform (FTIR) and13NMR to confirm the presence of naphthenic acids. Analysis by liquid chromatography high resolution (HPLC) showed the extraction of naphthenic acids with a molecular mass of from 250 to 750. The ammonium hydroxide was added to the aqueous phase to achieve pH 9. The aqueous solution introduced into the device to obtain the foam shown in Fig.4. The air was barbotirovany through the inlet hole in the bottom to obtain stable stable foam, which was collected in the cell collection. The foam has settled after settling, leaving a yellow liquid, which was a concentrate of dodecyldimethylamine.

EXAMPLE 5
Crude oil from the North Sea, the Gryphon was subjected to the process of emulsion fractionation as described in Example 2. Separated lower phase of the emulsion and used as follows:
100 ml of the emulsion was placed in the autoclave was added solid CO2and stirred emulsion at the rate of 300 rpm at 80oS and 100 pounds/inch2(689,4 kPa) for 2 hours. The product was centrifuged for 20 minutes at 1800 rpm to separate from the aqueous phase naphthenic acids, insoluble in water. The oil phase was analyzed using infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transform (FTIR) and13NMR for podtverdil removing naphthenic acids with a molecular mass of from 250 to 750.

The lower aqueous phase had a pH of 9, indicating a regeneration of the organic amine. The aqueous solution introduced into the device for the formation of foam, as shown in Fig.4. The air was barbotirovany through the inlet hole in the bottom to obtain stable stable foam, which was collected in the cell collection. The foam has settled after settling, leaving a yellow liquid, which was a concentrate of dodecyldimethylamine.

EXAMPLE 6
In this example as a model of oil used a mixture of "1SOPAR-M/Solvent 600 Neutral/Aromatic 150 in the ratio of 40/30/30/, 5--Holloway acid used as a model naphthenic acid, and N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)Ethylenediamine (y= z=1, x=1). Sour oil was treated with equimolar amount (based on the number of 5--holonovel acid) N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)Ethylenediamine, added to the processed oil 5 wt. % of water and mixed. For the Department of naphthenic acid in the form of its salts in the lower emulsion phase used centrifugation.

Total acid number (OCC) the model of sour crude oil decreased from 2.9 to less than 0.2.

EXAMPLE 7
In this example, the used oil from the North Sea, the Gryphon (OCC=4,6). Amin used when the trace is eacli = 25oWith
Reaction time = 5 minutes
The volume of wash water =10 wt.%
Mixing the wash water is careful turning the mixture of oil/water for 10 minutes.

Separation - centrifugation at 1800 rpm for 30 minutes.

Reduced OKC from 4.6 to 1.5 at about 96% of the output of the oil being processed.

Analysis by liquid chromatography high resolution (HPLC) untreated and subjected to emulsion fractionation of the oil showed the extraction of naphthenic acids with a molecular mass of from 250 to 750.


Claims

1. The method of extraction of organic acids including naphthenic acids from crude oil or blends of crude oil and distillates of crude oil, including the processing of the reagent based on the amine, characterized in that the reagent is used alkoxycarbonyl Amin, mixed with water, under conditions which for a time and at a temperature sufficient for the formation of the emulsion amine salt type water in oil, and specified alkoxycarbonyl amine selected from the group consisting of alkoxysilane amines having the following formula (a) and (b)

where m+n = 2< -(CH2CHCH3O)p-{ NHCH2CH2NH}x-(CH2CH2O)z-(CH2CHCH3O)q-H, where x = 13;
y+z = 26;
p+q = 015,
mixtures of alkoxysilane amines with formula (A) and mixtures alkoxysilane amines with the formula (In), with subsequent separation of the resulting emulsion on several layers, and one of these layers contains processed oil feedstock with a reduced amount of organic acids, and extraction of the specified layer containing the specified processed oil feedstock with a reduced amount of organic acid, and the layers containing water and salt alkoxysilanes amine.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the specified water is added simultaneously with the specified alkoxycarbonyl Amin or after him.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the number alkoxysilanes amine is 0.15 to 3 molar equivalents based on the amount of organic acids present in crude oil.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that it is carried out at a refinery, and the separation is carried out in an installation for the desalination of obtaining phase containing obrabotan what about Amina.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that it is carried out in the wellhead and said source of oil raw materials contained in the full stream from the specified wellhead, the method includes passing the specified full flow in the separator for receiving the gas flow stream, the source of crude oil containing organic acids, and water flow contacts in a counter specified source of crude oil with the specified flow of water in the presence of alkoxysilanes amine for a time and at a temperature sufficient for the formation of amine salts, and the specified alkoxycarbonyl amine selected from the group consisting of alkoxysilane amines, having formulas (a) and (b), or mixtures of alkoxysilane amines with formula (A) and mixtures alkoxysilane amines with the formula (In).

6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the extraction alkoxysilanes amine layer or phase containing the salt of organic acids and alkoxysilanes amine, optionally in contact with an acid selected from the group comprising mineral acid, or carbon dioxide, in amounts and under conditions sufficient to produce organic acids and aqueous layer, followed by separation of the upper skogo base when using mineral acids, or is heated at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time with the use of carbon dioxide to increase the pH of the layer to a value more than or equal to 8, by blowing gas through the water layer to obtain a foam containing the specified alkoxycarbonyl Amin, and removing the specified foam containing the specified alkoxycarbonyl Amin.

7. The method according to p. 6, characterized in that the regeneration is used in the refinery, and extracted alkoxycarbonyl amine is recycled back into the process.

8. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the ratio of water to the stream source of crude oil is 1:3-1:15.

9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the amount of water is 5-10 wt.% in relation to the number specified source of crude oil.

10. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the amine is a mixture of amines of the formula (a) and formula (In).

 

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