Quasar-way cutting nuclear submarines (options)

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the cutting of nuclear-powered submarines (NPS) and relates to a technology of performing explosive way for disposal, reconstruction and repair of nuclear submarines. The method of cutting submarines decommissioned from service at their disposal is to prepare the submarine for disposal, discharge active zone, cutting three-part unit, preparation for temporary storage and shipment by water in the temporary storage, cutting and cutting missile compartment, dismantling the equipment, machinery, pipelines, electric cables and cutting on scrap end compartments of nuclear submarines. When this operation is cut three-part unit, rocket and others, including end sections, produce afloat explosive way with the use of elongated shaped charges of different types, for example elongated cumulative quasar-charges. When cutting extra long three-part unit shaped charges are placed outside of this block on the adjacent compartments at a distance of not more than one white space. For cutting leaking compartments pre-adjust lifting facilities, such as pontoons, floating crane, catamaran, spazzolini or Out to be used when eliminating units ballistic missile submarines, being in operation, or repair of nuclear submarines, for example emergency. The technical result of the implementation group of the invention consists in the interchange bottlenecks, accelerate and cheapen the work on the cutting submarines, as well as to improve the environmental friendliness and safety of these activities. 3 S. and 8 C.p. f-crystals.

1. The technical field to which the invention relates

The invention relates to the field of blasting works and can be used when disposing of decommissioned nuclear-powered submarines (NPS) and the courts of nuclear technology maintenance (ATO), with the elimination of silo launchers (PU) ballistic missiles (BM) submarines remaining in operation (in the ranks of the Navy) during emergency situations and repairs associated with leaking hull and overload produced nuclear fuel.

2. Art

Our country is one of the pioneers of nuclear shipbuilding, however, creating a submarine recycling was not provided. Time passed and the problem of waste has declared itself in full force [1-6]. It was not planned to liquidate and SLBM launchers separately from the EPL, but the agreement with the USA put on the agenda of this issue.

The main directions in the recycling of nuclear submarines currently are [3]:

1. Ensuring the implementation of international treaties on the reduction and elimination of strategic offensive arms (start). Elimination of SLBM launchers are carried out in accordance with agreed procedures for two variants (tenderloin missile compartment and dismantling silos to systems).

2. Tenderloin reactor compartments of nuclear submarines in the three-compartment embodiment, convertive and transport them to the temporary storage afloat with the provision of radiation monitoring at the level of international standards. These works are of a temporary nature due to the lack of readiness of the entire infrastructure for complex utilization.

3. Disposal (cutting) for forage and nasal ends of the submarine to return the released material resources in the national economy.

There are several fundamentally different ways of solving the problem of disposal.

In [7] proposed the "innovative" method of cutting the hull consists in gcit further processing.

Another "latest safe resource-saving technology offers article [8]. The technology includes the following operations:

1) removal of fuel Rods from the reactors by means of standard;

2) decontamination of the reactor compartment and its equipment (removal from the surface of the thinnest radioactive film);

3) supercompensate of radioactive materials to the minimum volume and weight for the disposal of nuclear waste facilities;

4) fast full and safe cutting of submarine with a minimum expenditure of materials and energy.

"Technology unlike traditional allows you to cut with minimal cost "on the needles" all large surface and underwater ships of any class and to solve the problems of recycling of decommissioned nuclear ships during 1996-1997 under strict international control".

Contributed to the challenges and the Applicant [9-12], which demonstrated at Nerpa its technology (quasar technology) at the experimental cutting of PL and NC, gave impetus to the development of explosive technologies using quasar-charges with CC liquid aggregate state [12-14], including elongated cumulative (UKCS).

In the Patent [9] protected vari is adnych ships, depending on their location (on drying, afloat in the dock, on plausible docking uterus or political).

Advantages generally explosive technology and quasar technologies, in particular, in the context of this problem is manifested in its high performance, relatively low cost of explosive materials (VM), environmental (in comparison with gas-plasma cutting, cutting hull structures of complex configuration, regardless of the thickness of the cut of the obstacles, the state of its surface and dimensions, ability to conduct work under water, the ability to cut non-ferrous alloys, in simplicity and reliability charges, independence and mobility, there is no need for heavy equipment.

It should be borne in mind that when blasting operations (BP) is almost impossible to do a single VM type: required different concentrated and dispersed (extra long) charges, various explosives, including electric detonators, etc. Each of these products, are produced on different plants and each of them, along with General safety requirements, comply with their specific requirements in terms of x is s all elements of technology, including the manufacture of EXPLOSIVES (WIMI or quasar-BB), different charges (Kvazar-charges), detonating cord (Kvazar-LH), intermediate and more detonators (Kvazar-PD and quasar-DD, respectively), on-site blasting, which allows to exclude from processing chain organization BP operations such as fabrication of EXPLOSIVES and explosive charge acceptance, loading, transportation to the place of business BP, unloading, storage and protection. In addition, for installation in a partial barrier membranes UCCS you can use workers that are not explosives.

The known method [15] , which includes the division of the corps chemical-mechanical cutting using elongated elements with shaped notch (actually UCCS) to pieces, sorting and recycling of parts; emit radioactive metal and punish him decontamination by placing it in the molten state, thus separating the metal, slag and gases and utilize them to their destination: the metal in primary production, slag steklovata for burial, and the gases are cleaned on Petryanov filters.

Known another way [16] explosive cutting of hull structures of PL using outlinemodule axis of the compartment PL, pre-filled with water.

It should be noted that the explosive method of cutting using elongated quasar-charges, as they had not called our followers and some publishers (mechanical cutting using liquid mixtures, cutting directional explosion contact the UCF (CUCS) using liquid explosive mixtures, low-temperature chemical-technological cutting of ship designs), is increasingly isolated from the total number of possible ways of dividing the metal structures. So, in [17], is devoted to the comparison of different ways of cutting the hull at its disposal on SRH Navy, it is noted that in the context of the decline of the primary production and the economic crisis, the preference in the choice of methods of cutting should be given to those methods that provide the minimum set-up costs and operating costs. From this point of view, the most promising acceptable and economically viable in modern conditions the way technology is cutting with a liquid explosive mixtures.

The work of [18] draws attention to the fact that the applied technology of sadarangani should be considered from the point SREI, containing radioactive substances, high temperature thermal cutting (using acetylene, propane-butane and so on), as well as plasma and laser cutting, using for these purposes the standard industrial explosives (RDX and others) with long charges cannot be recommended due to the formation in the atmosphere of radioactive aerosols, contributing additional personnel exposure and pollutants OPS". And again: "the basis of this technology can be put to environmentally safe industrial method of cutting and disposal of nuclear submarines [15], which uses low-temperature chemical-mechanical cutting of ship designs...".

Head organization in Russia in the development process and design documentation for submarines (PL) and surface ships (NC) with nuclear power plants (NPP) is a scientific-research and design-technological Bureau (nptb) "Onega". He developed fundamental technology for utilization of nuclear submarines is reduced [4] to unload the active zone, the cutting of the reactor compartment together with two adjacent compartments (three-compartment unit), which send in paragraphs long (temporarily) stored cepelinai technology [4], our adopted for the prototype, the scheme of the complex utilization includes the following steps: preparing the submarine for disposal; discharge active zone; production of nuclear submarines on the frame; cutting three-part unit; preparation of a three-part unit to the temporary storage; clipping and cutting missile compartment; the dismantling of equipment, machinery, pipelines, electric cables; cutting the body into large sections, cutting sections and equipment, cutting electric cable on the secondary raw materials; the descent three-part unit on water for transportation to the temporary storage.

Disposal of nuclear submarines can run and adnoidectomy option, when cut out and one reactor compartment. In both variants (three-compartment or odnootsechnyh) on cut blocks second weld watertight bulkhead and the fairing. Held on GMP "Star" in 1996 experienced utilization of nuclear submarines allowed to determine bottlenecks in the execution of the State program. Major bottlenecks were [4]:

1) insufficient number and berth equipment;

2) lack of specialized sections for cutting scrap metal and recycling of cables;

3) lack of equipment and outdated mee radioactive waste;

5) obsolete equipment for the unloading of spent nuclear fuel.

The main scope for utilization of nuclear submarines is on the stocks. Here the order is cut into four blocks dismantling lightweight and durable buildings in large sections and unloading equipment. The time spent by the ship on the stocks depends on the size of the disassembled sections and presence on the stocks of high-performance cutting equipment.

When disposing of the bulk of the work falls on cutting metal structures. On GMP "Asterisk" [4] after testing a number of modern technological processes, including laser and waterjet cutting, it was determined that the most expedient is the use of mechanical and gas cutting. The slipway and the plot of thermal cutting machine equipped with high-performance gas-cutting equipment, imported from the USA under the Nunn Lugar program. Plot mechanical cutting is staffed stationary guillotine shears firm Harris and two hydraulic scissors firm "La bounty, mounted on a crawler excavators by "Boat-Piller".

The introduction of modern equipment and increase the. amitim that same expensive equipment is supplied and the other two major companies (Nerpa and DVS "Star") and that the implementation of the programme of dismantling nuclear submarines are also targeted Projects funded by the governments of Norway, France and the UK.

However, the implementation of Decisions, Regulations, Programs are extremely unsatisfactory, the rate of utilization is very low and the main among the many cited reasons for this state of Affairs is insufficient funding [3].

The authors of the present invention believe that the implementation of the proposed technical solutions will help to expand the first three (of the five above) bottlenecks [4] and will help in addressing the second and third main trends in the utilization of NPS [3].

Now let us turn to the first direction of work is the elimination of SLBM launchers.

As already noted, the problem arose in connection with the forthcoming implementation of decisions on Contract-91 with the United States on the reduction and elimination of strategic offensive arms (start).

To solve the specified problem niptb Onega has developed fundamental technology for the removal of rocket launchers mines got named is Erno into two equal parts, must remain under the open sky near the submarine to complete Procedures...";

2) dismantling the top of the coamings mines together with part of the hull, including parts of annular ribs between the mines and other fixings;

3) dismantling of the add-on missile compartments.

In accordance with the technology [19] operations performed on the bench with the use of flame cutting.

First it is noted that the slipway is one of the bottlenecks even on a basic enterprises of the Navy and the execution priority on the elimination of SLBM launchers can significantly slow down the solution of problems of disposal of nuclear submarines, and already for a long time waiting for their fate and staying often in disrepair.

The authors of the present invention believe that the technical solution can help here and in the solution of the State problem.

And another area of application of our technical solutions associated with renovations. In the paper [17] one can read: "From a technological point of view, work on cutting the ship designs are not much different from the usual maintenance operations at shipyards. They run on the same slave who designs x refers to secondary operations while in the disposal of ship hulls (ships) this work is a major technological operation. Basic it is and in case of emergency refueling.

3. The essence of the invention

The purpose of interchange bottlenecks, accelerate and reduce the cost of operations, improve their environmental and safety features of the problem of disposal (cutting) and repair, particularly of emergency, nuclear submarines, as well as tasks on the elimination of silo launchers with remaining in the ranks of the submarine to perform not on the stocks and afloat, for example in the liquid pool, the mooring wall of the main base or in the Gulf, the Bay outside the main base, using the energy of the directed blast elongated shaped charges.

So, the proposed variant of the method of cutting nuclear submarines decommissioned (overage) at their disposal, consisting in preparing the submarine for disposal, discharge active zone, cutting three-part unit, preparation for temporary storage (Convertable) and sending water in temporary storage, cutting and cutting missile compartment, dismantling the equipment, machinery, pipelines, electric cables and cutting on scrap end compartments (the resultant storage carry out the special quay before it is cut and combine over time to unload the active zone, the operation of cutting out fragments of ship design (three-part unit, rocket and others, including end compartments) produce afloat explosive method using a water-resistant elongated shaped charges (UCF), the main (big) part of the length of which (about 2/3) are placed on the body cut (partial) fragment of ship design (cover, unit, partition) below the waterline, when the clipping three-part unit installation place outside of this block on the neighboring (adjacent) with him compartments within (within) one of an em space, as for cutting depressurized while compartments pre-adjust lifting facilities (pontoons, floating crane, catamaran, Hulk, spazzolini, specially constructed for this purpose hardware such as a special type vessel SS "Karpaty") or install drowned floating berth in the space provided for blasting.

For utilization of expensive metal alloys, for example 09*1625G of weld seams on the hull of the submarine elongated shaped charges are placed parallel to the seams (on either side) or on their joints and grooves.

The number is used for all the variants of the invention the elongated cumulate (shape and geometrical dimensions, the corner solution of cumulative extraction), and housing material (shell) UCF (copper, aluminum, polymer, bezobolochnye, lined with cumulative extraction), state of aggregation (solid, liquid) and the type of explosives (HMX, RDX, TNT-RDX in different proportions, elastica, plastic, ballistite, with various additives, GW, JEWS, WIMI and other liquid EXPLOSIVES, formed on the place of business BP or manufactured, including various additives, for example stabilizers). Known today charges are named: ukz, HPU, DUZ, COOKS, SCS, SKS ("Diamond"), SCLB, UCCS etc.

One of the differences of the proposed method is that the UCF laid on the previously dismantled cable routes, pipelines, passing within a solid body, and out of it.

Other differences of the proposed method is that the separated (cut) the explosion of a large fragments of ALL (shells, blocks, compartments, partitions later on the beach at specially organized parts of the cutting hull structures (e.g., [17]: a plot of preliminary cutting and plot the final processing of the metal housing and turning it into marketable products) doreset explosive, Lee, is it afloat blasting can be conducted at sea state up to three points.

The proposed variant of the method of cutting nuclear submarines remaining in the ranks of the Navy, with the elimination of launchers of ballistic missile submarines (PU SLBMs), consisting in the dismantling of the rocket silos, unloading and cutting into parts, dismantling the top of the coamings mines and other fixtures and dismantling add-on missile compartments, characterized in that the dismantling of all of these elements and the cutting shafts carried out afloat explosive ways using oblong shaped charges (UCF). As the UCF can be used any of known such charges: ukz, HPU, DUZ, COOKS, SCS, SKS ("Diamond"), SCLB, UCCS and other Cutting shafts can be carried out in any other way, for example by gas-cutting or mechanical cutting.

Other distinctive features of the proposed solution are:

- dismantling mines are in order, providing stability and unsinkability submarines;

- dismantling of mines conducted at either of the two possible positions of the caps mines: open or closed; when the open position of the cover the possible undermining of the explosive charge more weight, and when using the t and the dangers of air pollution;

- when removing the add-in trim panel is removed by the explosion, and a set of add-ins - gas cutting;

operations of dismantling and cutting explosive way produced outside of the main base, for example in the Gulf or the Bay at sea state up to three points, or the mooring wall of the main base, or in a liquid pool.

It should be noted that the Applicant (SPC quasar-BB") initiated this task explosive method afloat. With the participation of its representatives, in St. Petersburg, the leading organizations of the country (Central design Bureau for marine engineering "Rubin" and nptb "Onega") was signed Protocol [20], recorded achieve SPC quasar-BB" in this area, incorporating it as the parent organization in the State defense order for 1997 (GOZ-97) and the distribution of responsibilities between organizations. Protocol [20] was one of the reasons the development of terms of reference (TOR) [21] for development work (R & d). The purpose of OCD is [21]: "...the development of technical and technological documentation and feasibility assessment of implementation of the Procedures. . . " according to the variant 56 (removal afloat missile submarine mines projects A, B, BD, BK) using charges filled with liquid vzryvchatosti proposed technical solutions and claims for recognition of their inventions.

The proposed variant of the method of cutting the EPL when they repair, consisting in cutting elements hull structures, characterized in that the cutting elements hull structures carry out repair facilities (RPOs, CRP, CPM, GRB), afloat (the mooring wall or directly into the sea), using explosive technology based on cutting of metals elongated shaped charges (ukz), including water-resistant. The proposed method can be used for planned maintenance and emergency at sea, when, for example, a broken blade of one of the screws and it should be cut.

Thus, all variants of the proposed method of cutting APL (for disposal, the elimination of SLBM launchers and repair) can be performed in an explosive manner afloat using the UCF.

4. Information confirming the possibility of inventions

Blasting cutting metal using oblong shaped charges have long been tested in the decision of the individual, including the unique challenges in space, on water, under water. One of the clearest examples of this kind is the tenderloin in marine conditions afloat reactor compartment (dimensions HHA made in extremely dangerous for people's health zone extremely safe stay in which was no more than 10 minutes.

Note that clipping using the UCF in this case was the finishing operation; previously around the perimeter of the reactor was prepared for the end of the operation gas-cutting and explosion ukz, it was necessary at the same time (no distortions) to doreset left fastening.

Sources of information

1. International scientific seminar "Problems of decommissioning and disposal of nuclear submarines", 19-22 June 1995 // Abstracts. -M., 1995, S. 73.

2. N. I. Shumkov. Problems of decommissioning and disposal of nuclear submarines // Abstracts of the Intern. the workshop 19-22 June 1995, S. 6-7.

3. Y. K. Ivanov. The problem of disposal of nuclear submarines and environmental protection // Abstracts of the Intern. scientific seminar, 19-22 June 1995, S. 45-46.

4. N. I. Kalistratov, B. C. Nikitin. Dismantlement of nuclear submarines // ship repair Technology, 1999, 1, S. 37-41.

5. C. A. Voinov, A. I. Danilov, V. D. Mackiewicz. About ways to solve the problem of recycling of ships / Shipbuilding, 1994, 2-3.

6. R. A. Shmakov. The problem of disposal of nuclear submarines of the first generation // Shipbuilding, 1994, 1, p-41.

8. A. I. Kurchatov. Sea "Chernobyl Russia // al-Quds (the Holy city). Russian-Palestinian voice, 3 (58), October 1995.

9. LLP "Scientific-production center "Kvazar-VV". Quasar-a method of cutting metal structures (options) // RF Patent 2084818, 1995.

10. LLP "Scientific-production center "Kvazar-VV". Quasar-way explosive cutting submarines, surface ships and vessels (options). // RF patent 2138770, 1997.

11. Y. A. Kaganer. L. A. Susko. Quasar-blasting technology and its use in the cutting of vessels for scrap // Shipbuilding, 4, 1997, S. 67-69

12. LLP "Scientific-production center "Kvazar-VV". Elongated shaped charge // Patent RF 20947441, 1995.

13. LLP "Scientific-production center "Kvazar-VV". The explosive charge quasar-charge and method of blasting quasar-way" // Patent RF 2084806, 1995.

14. LLP "Scientific-production center "Kvazar-VV". Elongated shaped charge explosives "quasar" // Patent RF 2065559, 1993.

15. Association Medicine-Ecology-Conversion" (Saint-Petersburg. ). The way industrial disintegration of ships and vessels with nuclear power plants // Patent RF 2069398.

16. The application for the patent of the Russian Federation 96110795 with prioribus ship at its disposal on SRH Navy / ship repair Technology, 1999, 1, S. 41-46.

18. E. P. Glushkov. A. A. Miroshnichenko. Problems of radiation safety for disposal warships / ship repair Technology, 1999, S. 51-52.

19. The principal technology for performing Procedures. . . " NAGI. 000.0422.00.006 niptb Onega".

20. Protocol technical meeting on development of technical documentation on the implementation Procedures..." option 56 (destruction of rocket launchers mines) on PLA projects A, B, BD and BT explosive method 4-m-Pb., 7.02.97.

21. Technical specification for development work on the development of technical documentation for the implementation of option 56 "Procedures..." afloat for NPS projects A, B, BD and BT using explosion. GGK-T-83. I 2-1/17 from 28.06.97.

22. C. F. Babanin, P. O. Prokofiev. Prospects for the use of energy directed blast for cutting hull.// Shipbuilding, 1, 1993.

1. The method of cutting nuclear submarines decommissioned at their disposal, consisting in preparing a nuclear submarine to the disposal, discharge active zone, cutting three-part unit, preparation for temporary storage and shipment by water in the temporary storage, to cut and section the scrap end compartments of nuclear submarines, characterized in that the operation of cutting three-part unit, rocket and others, including end sections, produce afloat explosive way with the use of elongated shaped charges of different types, for example, elongated cumulative quasar-charges, and for cutting three-part elongated block shaped charges are placed outside of this block on the adjacent compartments at a distance of not more than one white space, and for cutting depressurized while compartments pre-adjust lifting facilities, for example, pontoons, floating crane, catamaran, spazzolini or install drowned floating berth in the space provided for blasting.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the operation of cutting an explosive way to make both the outside of the main base, for example, in the Gulf or the Bay at sea state up to three points, and in the main database at the quay or in the liquid pool.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the elongated shaped charges are laid on the previously dismantled cable routes and pipelines nuclear submarine, passing within a solid body, and out of it.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the separated Ohm, for example, flame cutting, fragments of a given size.

5. The method of cutting nuclear submarines remaining in operation, when the elimination of launchers of ballistic missile submarines, which consists in dismantling, unloading and cutting into two approximately equal parts of rocket mines, dismantling the top of the coamings mines and other fixtures and dismantling add-on missile compartments, characterized in that the dismantling of all elements and the cutting shafts carried out afloat explosive way with the use of elongated shaped charges of different types, for example, elongated cumulative quasar-charges.

6. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the operations of dismantling and cutting explosive way to make both the outside of the main base, for example, in the Gulf or the Bay at sea state up to three points, and the mooring wall of the main base or in the liquid pool.

7. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the dismantling of the mines are in order, providing stability and unsinkability nuclear submarine.

8. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the dismantling of the mines are in the closed position, their lids.

9. The method according to p. 5, characterized in that the dei repair, in particular, emergency, consisting in cutting elements hull structures, characterized in that the cutting elements hull structures carried out afloat explosive way with the use of elongated shaped charges of different types, for example, elongated cumulative quasar-charges.

11. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the blasting lead directly into the sea, in the Bay or the Bay outside the main base at sea state up to three points or liquid pool or the mooring wall of the main base.

 

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