The method of electron-beam welding

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of powder metallurgy, in particular to methods of processing of powder materials using processes of electron-beam welding, and can be used to restore worn surfaces of various products. On the surface of metal products creates a zone of melting electron beam with a linear scan in the form of several parallel lines. Surfaced material is fed into the zone of melting. Surfaced product reported moving. The surface is pre-cleaned by melting electron beam without feeding the fused material. The scan of the electron beam performs perpendicular to the direction of movement of the product. As the fused material, a mixture of powders, thermally reacting under the influence of an electron beam, or dispersion-strengthened composite powders. Thus, the method of electron-beam welding allows you to expand the technological capabilities of the method and to improve the physico-mechanical properties of fused products. 6 C.p. f-crystals.

The invention relates to the field of powder metallurgy, in particular it can be used for repairing worn surfaces of various products in order to protect the surface from the various effects (thermal, chemical, high loads and other), and to improve the physical-mechanical properties of the products by applying a protective electron-beam coating.

The known method of forming a protective coating (A. C. the USSR 1676771, MKI 23 To 15/00). The essence of this invention lies in the fact that on the protected surface of the metal sprayed powder protective material of intermetallic Ni3Al and then upravlyaut its electron beam in a vacuum to a depth not exceeding the thickness of this layer.

The disadvantage of this method of forming a protective coating is that the powder spraying process is the saturation of the coating gas, and subsequent melting electron beam in a vacuum this gas leads to increased porosity of the coating, which does not contribute to improvement of physico-mechanical properties of the fused product.

There is a method of electron-beam welding (proceedings of XI all-Union scientific-technical conference on electron beam welding, in Nikolaev. - Leningrad : Sudostroenie, 1991, S. 58-59), which create on the surface of a body of revolution zone melting by the electron beam, deployed in line generatrix, serves powder materialsthat of this method lies in the irrational use of the powder material and the power of the electron beam. When you expand the electron beam in a line along the land surface and the supply of the powder material in the zone melting is shielding the electron beam from the product, resulting in lower temperature zone melting, partial melting of the powder material, i.e., loss of deposited material and power of the electron beam. Moreover, these disadvantages of the known method does not allow to achieve complete melting and uniformity of deposition without increasing power of the electron beam beyond measure, from the point of view of admissible deformations of the product due to its excessive heat, which ultimately limits the technological possibilities of the method and does not contribute to the improvement of physico-mechanical properties of fused products.

There are various composites, refractory coatings (A. C. the USSR 617485, MKI 22 29/00; A. S. USSR 1172152, MKI B 22 F 9/16; RF patent 2055936, MKI 23 With 4/04; RF patent 2061784, MKI With 23 4/10). The above materials used for wear-, heat-resistant and other coated steel products in ways different from the proposed method of electron-beam welding. These products do not quite meet the challenging requirements to them when the sheet material for applying wear resistant thermal spray coating using powder dispersion-strengthened composite material, which allows you to form a coating composed of those particles of a hard phase and a binder material, which consists of a composite material.

However, it is known that plasma coatings are characterized by higher content of active gases. Dissolved gases can leave the metal lattice only by diffusion with the formation of spherical pores.

On the other hand, when the plasma coating of the specified composite material product is not possible to clean the sprayed surface from dissolved gases.

The disadvantage of the powder material is that when used in the plasma spraying process dispersion-strengthened composite material are not attained a high physico-mechanical properties of the coatings due to the presence of dissolved gases in the surface layer of the sprayed surface and the powder particles of the composite material due to the clear boundary between the surface - deposited coating and due to the reduced density of the coating, and therefore, plasma coatings of dispersion-strengthened composite materials cannot serve in the heavy usami (U.S. patent 4723586, MCI B 22 D 23/00), which includes the creation of a zone melting surfaced on the product by means of the plasma torch and the supply of fusible powder material in the zone of melting.

However, the application of powder mixtures in the known method does not allow the surfacing with evenly distributed over the volume of the metal component of the dispersion-hardening refractory inclusions with the same phase composition in the deposited layer due to the significant volume of liquid metal bath, in which over a relatively long time is the interaction of the dispersion-hardening inclusions from molten metal, substantially superheated above its melting temperature. In addition, the high speed two-phase flow and a relatively large spot collision fusible powder material surfaced with product leads to significant irreversible loss of fusible powder material.

The closest in technical essence of the present invention is a method of electron-beam welding (RF patent 2118243, MKI 23 To 15/00). In this way on the surface of the fused product creates a zone of melting beam with a linear scan in the ial group serves in the zone of melting first-line scanner in the direction of movement of the product.

The disadvantage of this method is that it does not provide cleansing of the surface of oxide films and dissolved gases in the surface layer of the product zone melting, which does not ensure receipt of products to be welded with high physical-mechanical properties. The use of industrial powders does not satisfy the challenging requirements to the products during their operation.

The task of the invention is the expansion of technological capabilities of the method of electron-beam welding and the improvement of physico-mechanical properties of products to be welded due to the interaction with the fused powder mixture in the zone of melting, resulting in an exothermic reaction between the components of the mixture and mixed with a hardening component.

Electron beam welding - a process that is manageable: changing modes (power, number of passes and so on), changing the qualitative and quantitative ratios of the components of the fused material can widely to define the composition and structure of the fused layer that allows to obtain products with welding to meet different needs of their operation, for example, wear resistance, jarosch the throne-beam deposition on the surface of metal products creates a zone of melting electron beam with a linear scan in the form of several parallel lines, surfaced material is fed to the zone melting and surfaced product reported moving.

What's new is that clean the surface pre-clean reflow electron beam without feeding the fused material, and sweep the electron beam performs perpendicular to the direction of movement of the product, and cleaning and surfacing produce consistently, and as the fused material, a mixture of heat-sensitive powders, at least one component which is selected from the group of non-metallic carbides or non-stoichiometric carbides or nitrides of the transition metals of IV-V groups of the Periodic system with the contents of the nonmetal (0,35-0,75) mol or ferro-alloys or carbides of transition metals of IV-VI groups of the Periodic system, or powder dispersion-strengthened composite material on the basis of mixed refractory compounds of the type of the interstitial phase transition metals of IV-VI groups of the Periodic system with 30-60 wt.% metal bond, at least one of which is selected from the group of steel or cast iron or metals I, VI, VIII groups of the Periodic system.

The task is achieved by the fact that the surfacing and the powders were of the following composition, wt.%:

The boron carbide - 10-70

The titanium carbide - 10-70

Titanium - Rest

In addition, when welding on a product made of steel or cast iron, as the fused material, a mixture of heat-sensitive powder of the following composition, wt.%:

Bored iron, or bored Nickel or boron carbide or an alloy of iron-chromium-boron (FeCrB) - 10-90

Ferrotitanium or nickelide titanium or titanium (FeTi or NiTi or Ti) - Rest

When welding on a product made of steel or cast iron, as the fused material, a mixture of heat-sensitive powder of the following composition, wt.%:

The non-stoichiometric titanium nitride of 0.1 - 43

Iron - 0,1-94

Manganese, chromium, Nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, silicon, the nitrided ferrochromium, nitrated ferrovanadium - Rest

In addition, as the fused material, a mixture of heat-sensitive powder of the following composition, wt.%:

Nickel - 10-90

Aluminum - 5-90

The carbide of the transition material IV-VI groups of the Periodic system - Rest

When welding on a product made of steel or cast iron, as the fused material using powder dispersion-strengthened composite material trace of the VCO - Else

In addition, when welding on a product made of steel, as the fused material using powder dispersion-strengthened composite material of the following composition, wt.%:

The titanium carbonitride - 40-60

High speed steel - Rest

Known from the prior art materials used for wear-, heat-resistant and other coated steel products in ways different from the proposed method of electron-beam welding. These products do not quite meet the challenging requirements to them during their operation.

In the proposed method as fused material, a mixture of powders, thermally reacting under the influence of an electron beam, or powder dispersion-strengthened composite material. These alternative features in conjunction with other features of the invention provide the same technical result, namely: expanding the technological capabilities of the proposed method and the improvement of physico-mechanical properties of products to be welded due to the interaction with the fused powder mixture in the zone of melting, resulting in an exothermic reaction between componey using the method of electron-beam welding in the scope of the invention.

The claimed technical solution is based on the effect of energy concentration of the electron beam in the microvolume liquid metal bath surfaced products. The interaction of the electron beam in a vacuum with an overlaid product removes dissolved gases and the oxide film with zone melting and interaction with fused mixture of powders in the zone of melting leads to exothermic interaction between its components and mixed with a hardening component.

An electron beam that is deployed in a line perpendicular to the direction of movement of the product, improves the manufacturability of the proposed method.

Scanning the electron beam on the scanning lines allows the beam repeatedly, with a frequency of 400 Hz, to influence the microvolume liquid metal bath to complete the process of melting metal component supplied powder material in the zone melting and averaging the phase composition of the microvolume liquid metal bath. The microvolume melt with refractory reinforcing component, leaving the area of impact of the electron beam due to the movement of zone melting, crystallizes at high speed from sstuwa refractory component, being both the center of crystallization, no time to interact with the melt. These circumstances provide a fine-grained structure of an overlaid layer, i.e., improve the physico-mechanical properties of fused products and expand the technological capabilities of the method.

Using the mixture of powders, thermally reacting under the influence of the electron beam, allocated additional heat in the zone of melting due to the exothermic reaction between the components of the mixture, which allows increasing the power of the electron beam to provide a surfacing products with the maximum content of the dispersed refractory component in the fusible layer with a given phase composition. Used initial mixture of powders thermally reacting under the influence of the electron beam, are not dispersion-hardened powder, and represent typical mechanical mixture of different kinds of powders. To provide educational opportunities deposited layer of dispersion-strengthened composite material surfaced on the product you want to use a mixture of powders thermally reacting under the influence of the electron beam in the specified aspect] is alausa or synthesis ligament composite material. It also ensures the achievement of the technical result of the claimed technical solution, i.e. expanding the technological capabilities of the method and the improvement of physico-mechanical properties of the fused product.

When used as a facing material powder dispersion-strengthened composite material, which is distributed uniformly dispersed particles of refractory compounds in the metal matrix of the same phase composition, allows relatively high speed to average the phase composition of the microvolume liquid metal bath due to the high speed of diffusion processes between the same metal phases of the individual particles fused powder. In addition, the manufacture of fused metals that are present in the fused powder material, provides welding without boundary between the fused product and surfaced layer. These circumstances contribute to the achievement of the technical result of the invention, namely: expanding the technological capabilities of the method and the improvement of physico-mechanical properties of the fused product.

Experimentally content refractory dispersion-hardening component in the fused layer (ligament on the base of iron or iron alloys) exceeds 60 wt.%. This is due to limitations of the technological capabilities of the method due to the fact that the content of the metal component is less than 40 wt.% do not provide complete wetting of refractory dispersed inclusions in an overlaid layer, and it does not achieve the target.

The ratio of the components to fuse the powdered material is chosen taking into account surfaced products with high physical-mechanical properties and operating conditions of the product.

When using thermally reactive powder mixtures containing non-metallic carbide, such as boron carbide, in the following ratio of components in the mixture, wt.%:

The boron carbide - 10-70

The titanium carbide - 10-70

Titanium - Rest

provided surfacing product manufactured from titanium alloy with the receiving layer of the following composition, wt.%:

Bored titanium - 10-60

The titanium carbide - 10-70

Titanium - Rest

It was established experimentally that the wear resistance of titanium alloys increases with increasing the content of dispersed strengthening phase. When the content is less than 10% not provided a substantial increase in the wear resistance of titanium alloys. If soderasens products with high physical-mechanical properties is impossible due to incomplete wetting of the refractory dispersed inclusions in an overlaid layer. To achieve technical results in the content of the hardening phase in titanium alloys in the range from 10 to 70 wt.%.

When using a mixture of heat-sensitive powders containing alloy, for example, ferroboron, ferrotitanium alloy of iron-chromium-boron, in the following ratio of components in the mixture, wt.%:

FeB NiB, FeCrB, B4C) 10-90

FeTi, (NiTi), Ti - Rest

there is the possibility of obtaining products with different surfacing of cast boron layers. Depending on the components of a mixture of heat-sensitive powders can be represented in the following form: FeB+Ti, FeB+FeTi, FeB+NiTi, FeCrB+Ti, FeCrB+FeTi, FeCrB+NiTi.

The content of each component is calculated by the equation of the chemical reaction, for example,

xFeB+yFeTi-->TiB2+Fe+Q (1)

and when the ratio of components in the mixture, wt.%:

Ferroboron - 50

Ferrotitanium - Rest

provided surfacing product, made of steel or cast iron, with the receiving layer of the following composition, wt.%:

The titanium diboride - 33

Iron + titanium - Rest

Surfacing other layers of these compounds is similar, using equation (1).

The increase in the number of boron-containing components in poroshilova particle FeB, Fe2In and Fe due to reduced fluidity of the melt. Reducing the number of boron-containing components in the powder mixture below the specified value leads to the structure of the fused coating of eutectic constituents and discovereth compounds that reduce the hardness and wear resistance.

When using a mixture of heat-sensitive powders containing non-stoichiometric nitride or carbide of the transition metal of the IV-V groups of the Periodic system, for example, non-stoichiometric titanium nitride, containing nonmetal in him 0.35 to 0.75 mol, it is possible to obtain products with applying a dispersion-hardening inclusions of titanium carbonitride. The content of non-0.35 to 0.75 mol in non-stoichiometric titanium nitride is governed by the terms of its receipt, and the ratio of other components in the mixture is selected after the calculation of chemical reaction according to the following equation, for example:

TiN1-x+xC-->TiCxN1-x+Q (2)

where x=0.35 to 0.75 mol.

Carbon for reaction (2) is taken from another component of the mixture, for example, cast iron chemical reactions:

[TiN0.5]+0.5 S[cast iron]-->[TiC0.5N0.5]+(Festeel) (3)

To obtain definitely is C, chromium, Nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, nitrated ferrovanadium, nitrided chromium, silicon and others, some alloying elements may be in the form of carbon ferroalloys, for example, ferrochrome with a carbon content of 8-9 weight. %. Similarly alloyed with non-stoichiometric carbide metal IV-V groups of the Periodic system.

When using a mixture with non-stoichiometric titanium nitride in the following ratio of components of the mixture, wt.%:

The non-stoichiometric titanium nitride of 0.1 - 43,0

Iron - 0,1-94,0

Manganese, chromium, Nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, silicon nitrided ferrochromium, nitrated ferrovanadium, carbon ferrochrome - Rest

provided surfacing product, made of steel or cast iron, with the receiving layer of the following composition, wt.%:

The titanium carbonitride - 0,1-53,0

Steel or cast iron - Rest

The top content of the non-stoichiometric titanium nitride in the mixture is determined by the maximum carbon content in cast iron and carbon alloy, and the lower the feasibility of obtaining products with high physical-mechanical properties.

When used as a facing material mixture termorio the metal IV-VI groups of the Periodic system Else

provided surfacing product of steel with the receiving layer of the following composition, wt.%:

The carbide of the transition metal of the IV-VI groups of the Periodic system - 10-70

Aluminide Nickel - Rest

The top content of the carbide of the transition metal in the fused layer is limited by the technological capabilities of the method, and the lower the feasibility of obtaining products with high physical-mechanical properties.

When used for welding powders dispersion-strengthened composite material on the basis of mixed refractory compounds of the type of the interstitial phase transition metals of IV-VI groups of the Periodic system: carbonitrides, oxinitrides, oxycarbides, oxycarbonate, boronitrides, siliconnitride, 30-60 wt.% metal bond, for example, carbonitrides of titanium and high-speed steel, it is possible to obtain products with the welding of titanium carbonitride and high speed steel. While the content of the metal bond material is governed by the condition of its receipt.

When welding on a product made of steel, as the fused material using powder dispersion-strengthened composite material the trail of the University Else

It was established experimentally that, if the content of the refractory component in the fusible layer exceeds 60 wt.%, the achievement of high physical-mechanical properties impossible.

So, when using powder dispersion-strengthened composite material based on titanium carbonitride composition TiC0.5N0.5(30-60) wt.% a bunch of high-speed steel is surfacing product of steel or cast iron with the receiving layer of the following composition, wt.%:

The titanium carbonitride - 40-60

High speed steel - Rest

The bond content in the fused layer is governed by the terms of the production of dispersion-strengthened composite material.

The proposed method is as follows.

Take a metal product, place it in a vacuum chamber of an electron-beam welding, which uses industrial plant for electron beam welding of type ELU-5, is additionally equipped with a powder dosing device and the device pitch and beam control, which is the standard generator providing at one output of the sawtooth, and the other rectangular voltage, podelyatsya material and form a hardening of the product. Thus is formed a linear scan of the electron beam in the form of parallel lines. Then, the prepared heat-sensitive mixture is loaded into the hopper of the dispenser, which is installed inside the chamber, the vacuum chamber to a residual pressure no higher than 510-3mm RT.article and include the electron gun power supply, as well as devices scan and beam control. Drill down scanning electron beam perpendicular to the direction of movement of the zone of melting.

Surfaced product reported moving through the device move product installation ELU-5 and pre evenly upravlyaut the surface before formation of the liquid metal bath to recover or harden the surface of the product.

The mixture of powders is served in a number using the dispenser in the zone of melting. Under the influence of the scanning electron beam in the microvolume liquid metal bath is an exothermic reaction in a mixture with formation of a dispersion-strengthened composite material. After overlaying the product set is disconnect from power supply, the vacuum chamber sleuth atmospheric air and discharged from the chamber voltage is arousih powders, one of the components selected from the group of non-metallic carbides, and the other from the group of carbides of transition metals of the following composition, wt.%:

The boron carbide - 20

The titanium carbide - 15

Titanium - Rest

Napravlyayut product of a titanium alloy grades DT8. Under the influence of the scanning electron beam in the microvolume liquid metal bath is an exothermic reaction in a mixture with formation of a dispersion-strengthened composite material. According to the results of chemical, x-ray and metallographic analyses of the deposited layer is a dispersion-strengthened composite material of the following composition, wt.%:

The titanium diboride - 15

The titanium carbide - 15

Titanium - Rest, HRC 55.

The product produced by the surfacing may be operated in the gas-abrasive and cavitation wear.

Example 2.

As the fused material take a mixture of heat-sensitive powders, one component of which is selected from the group of ferrous alloys of the following composition, wt.%:

Ferroboron (brand FB) - 59

Ferrotitanium (brand PTI 65) - 41

Napravlyayut product of steel 3. Under the influence of electronically scanning espersso-reinforced composite material. According to the results of chemical, x-ray and metallographic analyses of the deposited layer is a dispersion-strengthened composite material of the following composition, wt.%:

The titanium diboride - 38

Iron - Rest

Product data coating can operate in conditions of impact-abrasive wear.

Example 3.

As the fused material take a mixture of heat-sensitive powders, one component of which is selected from the group of nitrides of transition metals of the following composition: 68,36 g of iron powder with chemical composition: 3.5; Si 0,61; Mn 0,52; Cr 0,85; Ni 1,74; R 0,17; S 0,045; Fe rest; 16,54 g of the alloy with the chemical composition: 5; Si 5,5; Ni 3,98; Mn 2,19; Cr 51,8; Fe rest; 15 g of non-stoichiometric titanium nitride composition TiN0.37; 65 g of iron powder, 1 g FeV (40% V), 1 g FeMo (60% Mo), all particle size of 50-200 μm.

As a result of electron-beam welding product of steel 3, held on the above described way, get deposited layer, which is then examined by chemical, x-ray and metallographic analyses. According to a study in the deposited layer is a dispersion-strengthened composite material next comp Ni 0,68; V 0.3; Mo 0,4; Mn 0.26; S 0,01; P 0,032; Fe - rest. HRC - 52. The product produced by the welding can be operated in conditions of impact-abrasive wear.

Example 4.

As the fused material take a mixture of heat-sensitive powders, one component of which is selected from carbides of transition metals in the following ratio, wt.%:

Nickel - 45

Aluminum - 5

Tungsten carbide - Rest

Napravlyayut product of steel 20X13. According to the results of chemical, x-ray and metallographic analyses of the deposited layer is a dispersion-strengthened composite material of the following composition in weight. %:

Ni3Al - 50

WC - Rest, HRC 55

The product produced by the welding can be operated under conditions of gas-and-abrasive and cavitation wear. The coating can be used as thermobalance and heat-resistant.

Example 5.

As the fused material take the powder dispersion-strengthened composite material of the following composition, wt.%:

The titanium carbide - 35

High speed steel (grade R6M5) - Rest

Napravlyayut product of steel 3. According to the results of chemical, roentgenology material of the following composition, weight. %:

The titanium carbide - 35

High speed steel (grade R6M5) - Rest

Example 6.

As the fused material take the powder dispersion-strengthened composite material of the following composition, wt.%:

The carbonitride composition TiC0.5N0.5- 50

High speed steel - Rest

Napravlyayut product of steel 45 and the results of chemical, x-ray and metallographic analyses of the deposited layer is a dispersion-strengthened composite material of the following composition in weight. %:

The carbonitride composition TiC0.5N0.5- 50

High speed steel 50 HRC 72

The product may be subjected to heat treatment. It can be operated tools for cutting metals, rollers-rolled, hot metal, rock cutting tool. Other products with the surfacing of dispersion-strengthened composite material, in particular oxynitride titanium or zirconium, copper or Nickel ligament, is used as the fused material can be used as decorative or as a mold for continuous casting.

Thus, the proposed method E. the practical properties of products to be welded.

1. The method of electron-beam welding, in which the surface of metal products creates a zone of melting electron beam with a linear scan in the form of several parallel lines, facing material is fed to the zone melting and surfaced product report moving, wherein the facing surface is pre-cleaned by melting electron beam without feeding the fused material, and sweep the electron beam performs perpendicular to the direction of movement of the product, and cleaning and surfacing produce consistently, and as the fused material, a mixture of heat-sensitive powders, at least one component which is selected from the group of non-metallic carbides, or non-stoichiometric carbides, or nitrides of transition metals of group IV and V of the Periodic system containing nonmetal them 0.35 to 0.75 mol, or ferro-alloys or carbides of transition metals of IV-VI groups of the Periodic system, or powder dispersion-strengthened composite material on the basis of mixed refractory compounds of the type of the interstitial phase transition metals of IV-VI groups of the Periodic system with 30-60 weight. % metal bond, edge is.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the surfacing of a product made of titanium alloy, as the fused material, a mixture of heat-sensitive powder of the following composition in weight. %:

The boron carbide - 10-70

The titanium carbide - 10-70

Titanium - Rest

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the surfacing of a product made of steel or cast iron, as the fused material, a mixture of heat-sensitive powder of the following composition in weight. %:

Bored iron, or bored Nickel or boron carbide or an alloy of iron-chromium-boron (FeCrB) - 10-90

Ferrotitanium, or nickelide titanium, or titanium (Fe-Ti, or NiTi, or Ti) - Rest

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the surfacing of a product made of steel or cast iron, as the fused material, a mixture of heat-sensitive powder of the following composition in weight. %:

The non-stoichiometric titanium nitride of 0.1 - 43

Iron - 0,1-94

Manganese, chromium, Nickel, molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten, silicon, the nitrided ferrochromium, nitrated ferrovanadium - Rest

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as the fused material, a mixture of heat-sensitive powder of the following composition in weight.steel

6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the surfacing of a product made of steel or cast iron, as the fused material using powder dispersion-strengthened composite material of the following composition in weight. %:

The carbide of the transition metal of the IV-VI groups of the Periodic system - 10-60

Steel or cast iron - Rest

7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the surfacing of a product made of steel, as the fused material using powder dispersion-strengthened composite material of the following composition in weight. %:

The titanium carbonitride - 40-60

High speed steel - Other

 

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