The method of preparation of hydrocarbon fuel for gas turbine engine
The method relates to the field of cooking and feeding hydrocarbon fuel entering the gas turbine engine. Cooking fuel are overload it with gaseous nitrogen to nitrogen content in it 20...32 about. %, with an excess pressure above the mirror fuel tank of 0.8 to 1.4 MPa, followed by gaseous nitrogen through the layer of fuel while evacuating the cavity of the tank above the mirror fuel. In this way, the residual content in the fuel of oxygen of 0.1-0.3% water 0,0007-0,0009% and nitrogen 2-3%, it can be used at low ambient temperatures, without allocation of ice crystals, as well as to increase the fuel storage and the reliability of the first start-up after long-term storage. 1 Il., table 1. The invention relates to the field of cooking and feeding hydrocarbon fuel entering the gas turbine engine (GTE).Known method of preparing a liquid fuel for aircraft gas turbine engines, which consists in the fact that the fuel containing dissolved gas, such as air, is introduced into the chamber through the nozzles at a pressure of fuel in the chamber, an underpressure is created by continuous from the camera (see application France 2312279 A1, IPC 7 01 D 19/00, publ. 28,01.1977).However, this method does not provide the dehydration of liquid fuel that cannot afford to use it at low ambient temperatures, without allocation of ice crystals, which in turn reduces the reliability of the first engine start after long-term storage.There is also known a method of cooking liquid aviation fuel, which consists in its deoxygenation (removal of oxygen) and carried out using an inert gas, for example nitrogen, while the distillation light ends of the fuel is carried out at reduced pressure (see application France 2310789 A1, IPC 7 01 D 19/00, publ. 14.01.1977 year). However, this method does not provide the dehydration of liquid fuel and does not allow for the same reason to use it at low temperature.The objective of the invention is to improve the quality of fuel for long term storage of aircraft GTE and its use at low temperatures without producing ice crystals, reduce the reliability of the engine start.This technical result is achieved due to the fact that in the method of preparation of hydrocarbon fuel for long-term storage of gas turbine engine include a fuel with gaseous nitrogen to produce content in the nitrogen 20...32% vol. excessive pressure on the mirror fuel 0,81.4 bar. with subsequent supply of nitrogen gas through the layer of fuel while evacuating the cavity of the tank above the mirror fuel with primary pressure 100...20 mm RT. senior abs. in the course of 0.9-1 hour. The drawing shows a device implementing this method.The inventive method is implemented as follows.Tank 1 capacity of 0.81 m3filled fuel RT GOST 10227-85 at 75-80%. In the cavity above the fuel is nitrogen (TU-6-21-27-77) line 2 with a residual oxygen content of 0.5% vol. and a pressure of 0.8 to 1.4 MPa and maintained at this for 5-6 h with periodic stirring of the fuel pump with a capacity of 3.5-4 m3/h circuit 3. During this period of time the fuel is saturated with nitrogen before the content of dissolved nitrogen 20-32%. The nitrogen content in the fuel determine the chromatographic method according to GOST 22566-77. The method of selection of fuel on the analysis of medical syringe with a volume of 100 ml.In the tank 1 close line 2 nitrogen supply and open lines 4 nitrogen supply in reservoir performance 12-16 m /h and lines 5 and 6 of the vacuum cavity of the tank above the fuel with the help of ejector high pressure in the atmosphere. The flow of nitrogen into the reservoir 7 with a pressure of 0.8Analysis of nitrogen and oxygen is produced according to the relevant procedure.The results of the analyses of the two parties is given in the table.Bubbles of gaseous nitrogen contribute to the desorption process gases (nitrogen, oxygen) and water vapor from the fuel due to a sharp drop in pressure above the mirror of the fuel, i.e. the process of "cold boiling".Dissolved in the fuel gaseous substances (nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor) under the action of bubble formations of nitrogen manifold and a low pressure above the mirror fuel are allocated first to nucleate the formation of nitrogen, and then from the tank to the atmosphere. This process of dehydration, obezkislorazhivaniya and degassing the most effective (from experimental data) and allows you to bring the content in fuels to 0.1-0.3% of oxygen, 0,0007-0,009% of water and 2-3% nitrogen and, most significantly, this method allows you to drain the fuel from the dissolved water to a residual quantities of dissolved water, which can safely, i.e. without separating the ice crystals, to operate the fuel system of the CCD at extremely low temperatures (-50o(C) the environment.The estimated value containing the value is 0,0007-0,0009%. The lower limit of the residual nitrogen content in the fuel at -50oWith approximately 5 vol.%.Thus, the requirements for toplevelbase equipment GTD for long-term storage at the lowest temperatures (-50oC), this method is carried out completely, in contrast to the known solutions. To compare the effectiveness of this solution the given data by a known method. As indicated above, at -50oWith fuel prepared by a known method, allocated free water in (g) in the form of ice crystals, leading to failure of the fuel equipment GTE, for the most common volume systems in 0.5 l and 5 l, respectively 0.15-0.35 and 1.5-to 3.5.As can be seen, the amount of released water (0,15-0,35; 1,5-3,5) g is inadmissible and therefore leads to failure.The amount of released nitrogen in (l) at -50oWith is 0.5(10-5)%=0.025 g; 5(10-5)%=0,25 L.This amount of excreted nitrogen (0,025-0,25) l in the fuel system is also unacceptable and can lead to failure.Thus, the effectiveness of this method is that with the lowest cost of nitrogen gas and time for nitriding, t is the fuel dissolved water, oxygen and the simultaneous creation of a vacuum above the mirror fuel, with the purpose of allocation of fuel nitrogen, provides the fuel with the lowest indicators of dissolving in water fuel, oxygen, and nitrogen.The most significant advantage is the almost complete dehydration of fuel that allows the use of fuel in the fuel system of the CCD at the lowest ambient temperatures without producing ice crystals.All of the above allows you to completely cancel the operation by freezing fuel and to increase the retention time of the fuel due to the low content of dissolved water and oxygen, as well as to increase the reliability of the first start-up after long-term storage of the CCD due to the minimum amount of dissolved nitrogen.The effectiveness of the proposed method compared to known is that the proposed method allows to prepare the fuel for all kinds of tests GTD, conservation GTD for long-term storage, and fuel is the lowest dissolved oxygen and nitrogen, and especially water, differs from known methods in the industry and obtained on an industrial scale is vodorodnogo fuel for long term storage gas turbine engine, including mixing it with nitrogen gas and the vacuum cavity above the mirror fuel tank, with a glut of fuel with gaseous nitrogen to produce the content of nitrogen in it 20. . . 32. %, with an excess pressure above the mirror fuel consumption of 0.8 to 1.4 MPa, followed by gaseous nitrogen through the layer of fuel while evacuating the cavity of the tank above the mirror fuel pressure 100. . . 20 mm RT. senior abs. in the course of 0.9. . . 1 h
FIELD: mechanical engineering; gas-turbine engines.
SUBSTANCE: system is designed for utilization of fuel leaks in drain systems of gas-turbine engines. Proposed system contains drain tank divided into upper and lower spaces by spring-loaded flexible partition. Upper space is connected through check valve and drain valve with nozzle manifolds, through other check valve, with atmosphere, and through third check valve, with fuel pump input. Lower space is connected with high-pressure source through pressure selector. Fuel-air medium sensor is installed under check valve communicating with atmosphere. Selector is made in form of electromagnetic valve with spool device. Check valve connected with fuel pump is located lower than minimum permissible fuel level in tank, level being set by program. Such design of drain system precludes getting of air to fuel pump input and meets ecological requirements as to effective combustion of fuel owing to return of fuel from drain tank into fuel tank at steady state operating conditions of engine.
EFFECT: provision of pollution-free engine.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; engines.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for draining fuel leaks from manifold and returning fuel into engine fuel system. Proposed device contain drain tank connected with drain fuel source, ejector with working nozzle, outlet and receiving chamber, drain tank shutoff valve, float installed in drain tank and connected with shutoff valve. Constant pressure valve connected with ejector outlet is installed at inlet of ejector working nozzle. Throttling needle with spring and piston is installed in working nozzle of ejector. One space of piston being connected with drain space and the other, with ejector outlet.
EFFECT: prevention of cavitation in ejector and getting of air into fuel system.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices and methods of combustion of fuel-air mixture in air-jet engines, small-size gas-turbine engines and gas-turbine plants. Proposed low-pressure nozzle contains annular atomizing edges, body accommodating central air swirler, channel to feed fuel with auger swirler, and outer air swirler arranged on nozzle body. Channel to supply swirled high-pressure air is arranged around fuel feed channel. Two-tier jet outer air swirler is provided with outer and inner inclined holes, air vortex stabilizer and annular outer and inner atomizing edges. Method of fuel atomizing by low-pressure nozzle comes to delivery of fuel and pressure feeding of air through central swirler and outer swirler. Fuel is fed between two swirler air flows formed by central swirler and channel to supply swirler high-pressure air. Flows of air and fuel getting to annular atomizing edges of nozzle form finely dispersed fuel air-mixture. Drops of mixture are atomized by air jets of outer swirler first on its inner annular atomizing edge, and then on outer edge. Said peculiarities of proposed invention increase payload capacity of aircraft, reduce exhaust of harmful substances.
EFFECT: reduced energy losses and expenses.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: rocketry and aeronautical engineering; fuel systems of flying vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: device proposed for realization of this method includes fuel tanks connected in succession by means of pipe lines; sequence of fuel utilization is estimated by intensity of heating of fuel contained in them.
EFFECT: reduction of temperature at engine plant inlet.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: metered delivery of fluid medium from supply source to users.
SUBSTANCE: proposed meter includes metering valve sliding in body at working stroke C; this valve has inlet hole for receiving fluid medium from supply source and outlet for discharge of fluid medium to user. Meter is provided with passage for fluid medium for performing washing motion of fluid medium over contact surfaces of valve and body. Passage is formed by helical groove at width L and screw pitch P. Besides that injector is proposed which is fitted with this meter.
EFFECT: avoidance of accumulation of contaminants during flow of fluid medium through meter.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; turbomachines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel injection system contains high-pressure pump for delivering fuel at high pressure from fuel tank, fuel nozzles arranged in combustion chamber of turbomachine and metering device located between said high-pressure pump and fuel nozzles to control rate of fuel getting into fuel nozzles from high-pressure pump. Metering device contains delivery valve operated in accordance with two delivery levels by metering valve to which fuel is delivered from said high-pressure pump. Electrically controlled shutoff valve is provided additionally to cut off fuel delivery to said fuel nozzles.
EFFECT: possibility of limiting heating of fuel and setting optimum dimensions of system components.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: devices for mixing of fuel components including gaseous and liquid fuel, water vapor and air before their supply to the combustion chamber.
SUBSTANCE: the mixer of fuel components has a fuel supply manifold and a system for preparation of the fuel-containing mixture including a device of multi-point fuel injection. The system for preparation of the fuel-containing mixture is made in the form of a single Venturi tube, the device of multi-point fuel injection installed in the Venturi tube up to its critical section is made in the form of a tore-shaped stream-lined manifold with openings on the outer and inner surfaces. The tore-shaped manifold of multi-point injection is tear-shaped.
EFFECT: simplified and lightened construction of the mixer, reduced friction loss.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: gas-turbine plants.
SUBSTANCE: system comprises nozzle provided with internal axial space that is terminated by the outlet port for fuel-air mixture at one of its ends. The nozzle has first stage for supplying fuel provided with several first fuel supply openings that enter the internal space, are arranged around the axis of the nozzle, and are connected with the inlet fuel zone through fuel supply passages, and at least one passage for air supply that enters the internal axial space and is connected with the inlet air zone. The nozzle is additionally provided with at least second stage for fuel supply provided with several second fuel supply openings that enter the internal space, are arranged around the axis of the nozzle, and are connected with the inlet fuel zone of the nozzle through the fuel supply passages. The fuel supply passages are in part in coincidence with the fuel supply passages of the first stage.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of fuel-air mixture.
18 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; turbomachines.
SUBSTANCE: fuel system of turbomachine combustion chamber has fuel-feed nozzle providing spraying of fuel in combustion chamber, and mixing-and-deflecting unit arranged symmetrically relative to axis of fuel-feed nozzle and designed to form mixture of fuel oxidizer with fuel and its atomizing in said combustion chamber. Mixing-and-deflecting unit has first swirler and, at least, second swirler arranged with relative displacement along said axis and separated by venture device arranged coaxially relative to fuel-feed nozzle. First swirler is rigidly fastened to said fuel-feed nozzle and is arranged at constant distance from nozzle in radial direction. Distance is chosen so that fuel atomized by fuel-feed nozzle cannot get onto said first swirler.
EFFECT: provision of good atomizing of fuel under all conditions.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises injecting compressed air into the system for supplying fuel to the nozzle. The compressed air is injected directly to the fuel injection head downstream of the valves. The injecting is controlled by the signal characteristic for a given stage of operation of the turbine machine. The compressed air is taken at the exit of the compressor, is collected in a tank, and then is injected to the head through the internal pipeline.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
12 cl, 8 dwg