Hydropower construction

 

The invention relates to hydraulic construction, namely hydropower facilities. In hydropower construction, consisting of loose dirt dam and protivoraketnykh spurs at the foot of the dike, protivorvotnye spurs made of rubble blocks, connected with hinges and retaining walls located between their root parts. Retaining walls made of stepped form of the masonry of two or more steps, reinforced reinforcing bars and rods. Use construction ensures less work in comparison with the known structures of hydropower installations and helps to restore green areas along rivers. 5 Il.

The invention relates to hydraulic structures, namely hydropower facilities.

Known hydropower construction, consisting of loose dirt dams with a combined slope mount and protivogrippoznogo device and gabions and precast concrete elements [1].

However, to accomplish such mounting requires considerable material and labor costs. In addition, a possible breach of the gabion mesh, protogenia, consisting of loose dirt dams with a combined slope mount and protivogrippoznogo device that is made in the form of short, flood-prone spurs of two or more layers of gabions and concrete elements. Spurs are located at the foot of the dam at a certain distance from each other [2].

However, the slope of the mount of the dam with possible coastal cave-ins and landslides does not provide stability to the slope of the dam. In addition, when the deep erosion of the riverbed may rupture gabion mesh warheads spurs, which destroyed all the mounting structure.

The purpose of the invention is the efficiency of the structure.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in hydropower construction, consisting of loose dirt dam and protiwaritmicakih spurs, spurs are made of rubble blocks, connected with hinges and retaining walls, arranged at the foot of the dam between the root portions of the spurs of the retaining wall is made of stepped form of masonry two or more layers of reinforced bars, anchored in a ditch and the base of the dam.

In Fig. 1 shows a cross-section of the dam with a continuation of the longitudinal axis of the spur from the rubble concrete is Fig.4 - section 3-3 of Fig.2, in Fig.5 - reinforcing grid with anchors.

Hydropower facility consists of loose dirt dam 1, spurs 2, made of rubble blocks 3, interconnected by means of hinge units 4. When this root portion is made of a rubble concrete block. At the foot of the dam between the root portions 5 spurs 2 is arranged in the retaining wall 6, consisting of stone prisms of the first stage 7 and the second stage 8. Vertical walls retaining walls 6 reinforced reinforcing bars 9, anchored in the slope 10 and the bottom 11 of the dam 1. Reinforcing bars 9 are attached to the root portions 5 spurs 2. The inner side of the reinforcing grids 9 retaining walls 6 hinged and attached gabion mesh 12 with the laying of its second half on the basis of steps 7 and 8. Spurs 2 are performed with gradients (0.05 to 0.1) and the direction against the flow angleconstituting from 10 to 30othe normal to the axis of flow in the river (Fig.2).

Bank protection structure is constructed as follows.

It falls dam 1 of the local soil and planned its slopes and crest, developed trenches spurs 2 and the retaining wall 6, are installed formwork for spurs 2 size rubble blocks 3, mount and grille 9 must be in the formwork root portion 5 of the spurs 12. Inside the formwork spurs 2 is installed fittings with swivel nodes 4 and embedded parts for fastening the reinforcing grids 9, after which the casing is filled monolithic concrete with the addition of up to 40% of river stone.

Around the anchors 11 also poured in situ concrete with the addition of stones, and anchor 10 strangled and strengthened boulders. After curing (after 2 days) formwork understand the basis and the vertical wall of the first stage 7 put gabion mesh 12 and attach it to a reinforcing grid 9. Inside the first stage is placed a filler in the form of a stone prism so that small fractions of gravel and crushed stone were lying at the base and side slope of the dam, and from the slope and the top step 7 lay the most coarse pebbles and cobbles. Top-level 7, stepping aside dams on the width of 1,0-1,5 m, set of reinforcing the grid 9 of the second stage 8 by attaching them to the anchors 10 and 11, as well as attaching them to the fixtures root parts 5 spurs 2. Grid 9 of the first 7 and second stage 8 are connected to each other by means of transverse rods 13 are laid on top of the first stage 7. On the inner side of the second stage stacked gabion mesh 12 is Aut in the form of stone paving. Above the top step 8 to the crest of the dam arrange a mount in the form of riprap and Ternovka.

Hydropower construction operates as follows.

The main burden of the flood flow is perceived short protiwaritmicakimi spurs 2 and retaining walls 6. And most of hydrodynamic and abrasive effects of the flow exerts on the head of spurs 2 (from rubble concrete blocks, connected with hinges).

The location of the spurs with the slope and the direction against the flow and execution of retaining walls of stepped form provide a deflection surface of the coastal jet stream from the dam towards the river, as spurs 2 operate as weirs and flow through them is set perpendicular to their axes. And coastal benthic stream is split about the headroom spurs 2 and enters the gaps between spurs 2, forming a zone of turbulence flow with a sharp drop in its speed, resulting in these areas is the deposition of bottom sediments, i.e. the areas between spurs 2 work on sedimentation. Small Padmini channel will occur at the heads spurs 5, and in crater erosion under the action of its own weight will fall head flexible part of the Institute of repose collapse of underlying soils, for this length l2the head of spurs 2 should be not less than 2hpthat is l22hp- the maximum possible depth of scour below the base block 3. In this case, streambed scour will not extend further towards the dam 1 because of the flexibility and strength of the blocks 3.

Retaining wall 6 of the filter stone steps 7 and 8 in combination with a concrete spurs 2 provides resolution of flow patterns and dispersion of his strike force along the entire mounting dam 1. Retaining walls 6 and work as a protective mounting, and as a drainage device, the flow of water passes through them into the body of the dam 1 and back from dam 1 in the riverbed. This ensures repayment of the excess energy of the flood flow and deposition of sediment between the spurs. The root of spurs 2 merges with retaining walls, and its length 1 must not be less than the total width of the retaining walls, and l1l2, l2- the length of the flexible head portion spurs 2. The maximum height of the spurs in the root of h1equal to the height of retaining walls hnthen there is h1=hn=(0,75. . .1,0) HmaxHmax- maximum depth of flood flow calculation obespechenie is echeveste against shearing forces of the flood flow. The width of the steps 7, 8, retaining walls 6 and the degree of reinforcement is determined from the condition of stability from possible collapse or landslide) the coastal escarpment to the dam and taking into account the hydrodynamic effects of the flood flow. In the case of run dam 1 of clay soils at the base of retaining walls 6 on the border with the inner side of the dam must be provided by the inverse filters of sand-gravelistoe soil.

The number of steps retaining walls 6 may be more than two, depending on local conditions, their location and hydrodynamic characteristics of the flood flow.

This shore protection structure is designed to foothill and mountain meandering river reaches with gradients i=0,001-0,02 and steep banks, subject to slumping and landslides under the influence of flood flows.

Dam with retaining walls and protiwaritmicakimi spurs provides reliable protection of the coastal zone (which can be located settlements, industrial and agricultural enterprises, roads etc) from erosion and collapse under all possible hydrodynamic and abrasive effects of the flood flow.

Sources of information 1. Author svideteli

Bank protection structure consisting of loose dirt dam and protiwaritmicakih spurs, characterized in that the spur is made of rubble blocks, hinge-connected and retaining walls, arranged at the foot of the dam between the root portions of the spurs of the retaining wall is made of stepped form of the masonry of two or more steps, reinforced reinforcing bars and mesh, anchored in a ditch and the base of the dam.

 

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The invention relates to the construction can be used to reinforce slopes, cones overpasses, slopes coastlines and beds of water bodies, as well as for the reinforcement of the foundations of roads, airfields, industrial and civil construction

FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.

SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.

EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for river channel bed reinforcement.

SUBSTANCE: means includes netted metal cylinders connected one to another to form integral reinforcement structure. Netted cylinders are made as cylindrical frames filled with shrubs or tree branches and secured by anchors to preliminary prepared base. Lower part of structure is deepened for depth increasing depth of possible bed erosion. Cylindrical frames may be oriented in transversal or longitudinal direction relative stream direction and may be formed of mesh grid wound around metal rings and connected to them or of rigid net having wire twisted in two-for-one manner between cells.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of bed protection against erosion, increased service life, reduced cost for structure erection and maintenance.

5 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for river or channel banks and slopes consolidation.

SUBSTANCE: wall includes gabions formed of net and stones and laid in layers. Gabions are made as parabolic cylinders oriented transversely or along flow direction and connected one to another so that gabion ridges of upper layers are offset relative that of lower ones to which they are connected. Wall is covered with concrete from one side. Parabola in the base of parabolic cylinder is described by the following equation: Y = (4·hg·X2)/Bg , where X and Y are parabola abscissa and ordinate, hg and Bg are correspondingly gabion width and height, here Bg = (2 - 4) hg. Wall may be reinforced with reinforcing cage from another side. In particular cases net may have cross-section of stepped shape with decreasing steps width in upward direction or L-shaped cross-section.

EFFECT: increased reliability, reduced cost for foundation building, increased service life.

5 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly for river and channel banks consolidation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves laying gabions filled with stones on prepared base located on slope along river bed. Gabions are made as gabion mats consist of connected elliptical tubular members. Tubular member bases are described by the following equation: (4·X2/B

2g
)+(4·Y2/h2g
)=1, where X, Y are abscissa and ordinate of parabola defining tubular member base; Bg and hg are gabion width and height correspondingly, Bg = (1 - 2)hg. Gabion mats are preliminarily made with the use of matrixes filled with stones and made as two nets, namely upper and lower ones. Neighboring tubular members are sewed up in straight line by connection wire. Gabion mats are connected one to another to form single unit having apron. Apron is anchored to slope. Connection wire is twisted by wire twisting means. Gabion mats may be laid on slope with longitudinal or transversal tubular members orientation relative stream direction. In particular cases gabion mats are laid on slopes so that tubular member orientations alternate in staggered order. Gabion mats also may be laid on slope on gravel base having thickness of hb > hg/2, where hb is gravel base height, hg is gabion height.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of slope protection against erosion, increased service life.

5 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used as bank strengthening structures in river and canal courses. Proposed fastening contains gauze metal cylinders with filled-up inner space connected to form solid fastening. Gauze cylinders of parabolic form are made by winding gauze over bush of tree branches laid on prepared base of slope and are secured on slope by anchors over line of contact of gauze and base. Lower part of fastening is dipped to depth exceeding depth of expected degradation. Parabolic cylinders can have crosswise or longitudinal orientation relative to direction of stream. Said parabolic cylinders can be made of woven gauze or rigid gauze with double twisting of wire between meshes.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of protection of banks, increased service life of construction, reduced construction and service expenses.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly for ground consolidation, namely for embankment slopes protection.

SUBSTANCE: coating is formed of polymeric fiber material and of fertile ground mixed with perennial grass seed. The coating is formed as mats sewed or joined with the use of heat. The mats are filled with mixture including fertile ground, perennial grass seed and polymeric wool taken in amount of 3-5% of fertile ground mass. Fiber material thickness is 2-5 mm, fiber density of the material is 0.01-0.12 g/cm3. Diameter of fiber material and wool fibers is 5 - 40 μm.

EFFECT: reduced cost, increased reliability of slope protection.

1 ex

FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for slope and river or channel bank consolidation.

SUBSTANCE: support wall includes gabions made of gauze and filled with stones. The gabions are laid in layers. Support wall is fastened with gauze anchors to ground embankment from another wall side. Gabions are made as parabolic cylinders connected one to another so that ridge of each upper gabion is offset relative that of previous lower ones to which above upper gabions are connected. Support wall base is protected against erosion by flexible reinforced concrete apron. The wall is covered with concrete coating from working side thereof. Gauze anchors may be continuous or discrete. Number of continuous anchors is more than one.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity and reduced cost.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: securing of slopes or inclines, particularly for ground slopes and water pool banks stabilization, for artificial water pool building and reconstruction, for minor river recovery and erosive slope consolidation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves performing masonry works of building members by laying building member layers in alternation with fabric layers. The building members are rough stones, which are connected one to another by fabric impregnated with binding material to provide elastic connection areas between stone layers. Ground stabilization device comprises masonry formed of building members alternated with fabric layers. The building members are rough stones, which are connected one to another by fabric to form elastic connection areas between stone layers.

EFFECT: increased environmental safety, improved appearance and technological effectiveness, increased elasticity of stone connection.

16 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: hydraulic and irrigation building, particularly to protect banks of rivers, channels, dam slopes and other structures against erosion.

SUBSTANCE: bank-protection structure consists of shafts fixed in gabions from lower ends thereof. The gabions comprise nets filled with stones and have cylindrical shapes built below eroded zone level. The shafts are vertically installed in the foundations in one or several rows. The shafts are spaced apart and installed in direction parallel to river flow. The shafts are trees or reinforced concrete posts fixed inside the gabion by stones. The cylindrical gabions are connected to net laid along river flow in horizontal plane. Space between vertical shafts and bank may be filler with trees or bushes. Cylindrical gabion tops may be covered with concrete.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of bank protection and extended service life of bank-protection structure.

6 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic and irrigation building, particularly to protect banks of rivers, channels, dam slopes and other structures against erosion.

SUBSTANCE: bank-protection structure consists of transversal heels created as shafts fixed in gabions from lower ends thereof. The gabions comprise nets filled with stones and are formed as cylindrical foundations built below eroded zone level. The shafts are installed in the foundations in one or several rows. The shafts are spaced apart and installed in direction transversal to river flow. The shafts are trees or reinforced concrete posts fixed inside the gabion by stones. Depth of gabion embedding in ground increases in direction from the bank.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of bank protection and extended service life of bank-protection structure.

5 cl, 6 dwg

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