Fire resistant fabric

 

The invention relates to the manufacture of protective textile materials and relates to fire resistant fabric containing unequal major and weft threads, the main thread contain staple fiber or filament and have a limiting oxygen index equal to at least 27, and the weft yarn contain natural fibers, and the ratio of the density of threads in the warp and weft in the fabric is at least 1.0 in. This fabric has a high resistance to fire. 3 C. and 15 C.p. f-crystals, 1 table.

Fabric, made of high temperature-resistant and fire-resistant fiber, widely used in the manufacture of protective clothing. Although much progress has been made in the development of comfortable fabrics and clothes made of these fibers, there were still some aesthetic and subjective wishes, in accordance with which fire resistant clothing would also include in its membership the natural fibers. For this requirement, a fabric made from yarns of mixed fibres, i.e. fibres, containing both natural fibers and high temperature-resistant and fire-resistant staple fiber.

Although from fabrics produced from such smaalenene declined to such an extent, what was required to further increase resistance to enhance the ability of the fabric for thermal protection. Usually the resistance give a natural staple fibers or fabrics made from such mixed yarns, by surface treatment. As a result of this additional surface treatment can be increased fabric weight, and often increase their rigidity, and provide only temporary effectiveness, as such treated fabrics have a tendency to loss of these protective properties when washing and/or with increasing cycles socks.

The aim of the present invention is to provide a fabric, which combines the properties of fire resistance and comfort that can be formulated as the achievement of a balance between resistance to high temperatures and value.

Another objective of the present invention is to provide a comfortable, fire-resistant and cost effective in relation to tissue that does not require the use of fireproof surface treatment.

Another objective of the present invention is the creation of a durable fabric, which is balanced resistance and cost.

Fabric made of mixed fibres to achieve certain its is made from the main thread, containing a mixture consisting of at least 15 wt.% high modulus fibers and at least 30 wt.% low-modulus fibers and weft threads containing low-modulus fiber (usually cotton). Mixed high-modulus and low-modulus fibers required in the main thread to ensure proper shrinkage to increase resistance to abrasion.

In canadian patent 1034842 described protective fabric containing twisted the key and weft yarns with different properties with asymmetric weave, variable from one surface of the fabric to the opposite surface to achieve a variable ability to absorb energy in the direction of thickness of the fabric.

In European patent application 310199 described paltashicha fabric, made of elementary filaments or yarns of high strength and high modulus and consisting of polymers with ultra-high molecular weights, and filament or yarn bases consist of polymers other than the polymer made from filament or yarn weft.

In the United Kingdom patent 2025789 and in Japanese published patent application 59(1984)-9053 described fabric, reinforced by the introduction of or replacement with particularly the t 62-26900 described reinforced aramid fabric, containing a thread group with a low strength, entered or replacement thread in the weave of the fabric in the direction of the substrate and/or duck. Such reinforced fabric is designed to improve the tensile tearing, but they were not designed to increase comfort or to protect from heat exposure.

The present invention disclosed in p. 1-18 claims, fire resistant fabric, containing different threads in the warp and weft, and the main thread contain staple fiber or filament and have a limiting oxygen index equal to at least 27, and the weft yarn contain natural fibers, and the ratio of the density of threads in the warp and weft in the fabric is at least 1.0 in. More preferred are the main filament, having a limiting oxygen index equal to at least 28 or more.

In the present invention the fiber core yarns may have a modulus in the range of about 100-800 g/dtex. Although the module fiber in the range from 100 to about 250 g/decitex may be preferred for some applications.

Preferably, the main thread contains fibers selected from the group consisting of aramid, polybenzimidazole, polybenzamidazole, Novalogic and modacrylic fibers, and fiber weft yarns are selected from the group consisting of cotton, silk, wool, viscose and flame-retardant viscose. The main thread can be made of fibers that constitute the m-aramid and p-aramid fibers, or a mixture of these fibers and may also include about 5 wt.% or less conductive fibers, in particular fibers with the structure of a sheath-core with carbon shell.

The preferred fabric for protective clothing is the fabric in which the fibers of the main threads are from sulphonated para-aramid fibers and the weft yarn is cotton. The p-aramid fiber having a modulus of 100 to not more than 200 g/dtex, especially suitable fabrics for protective clothing.

The present invention also created protective clothing containing flame retardant fabric, consisting of unequal major and weft threads, the main thread contain staple fiber or filament and have a limiting oxygen index equal to at least 27, and the weft yarn contain natural fibers, and the ratio of the density of threads in the warp and weft in the fabric is at least 1,0.

Preferably, tamaasha of aramid, polybenzimidazole, polybenzoxazole, melamine, polyphenylensulfide, polybenzimidazole, polyimide, polyetherimide, polyamideimide, Novalogic and modacrylic fibers and the weft yarn from fibers selected from the group consisting of cotton, silk, wool, viscose and flame-retardant viscose. Useful protective clothing may be made of a fabric in which the fibers of the main threads are m-aramid, fiber weft threads are made of flame-retardant viscose. More preferred is a protective garment in which the fibers of the warp threads are p-aramid fibers having a modulus of 100 to 250 g/dtex. Most preferred is a protective garment in which the main thread are from sulphonated p-aramid fibers and weft threads are of cotton yarn.

Protective clothing the main thread may also contain about 5 wt.% or less electrically conductive fibers. And for protective clothing it is preferable that the main thread was made from staple fibers.

The present invention was created fire retardant fabric, using different key and the weft yarn. This fabric can be used for manufacturing protective ode is Onesti, resistance to high temperature, fire resistance and low cost.

In the tissue, which is the object of the invention, the choice of fiber for the manufacture of the main thread, ensures the production of fabrics with resistance to high temperature and fire resistance, while the choice of weft threads provides comfort and efficiency in terms of value. In these tissues the main thread partially protect, covering the weft yarn. And it is believed that the main thread thus protects the weft yarn from fire and high temperature. Therefore, by selecting the main thread so that they were only those threads that have a limiting oxygen index (CCI), is equal to 27 or more, provide the conditions under which the main threads are protected from heat exposure as weft threads and fabrics in General, and therefore, the weft yarn can be selected so that they possess properties that would be attached fabric comfort and ensure their effective cost.

In the present invention, the core yarn is made of fibers that are resistant to high temperatures and fire. When resistance to high temperature and fire resistance of these fibers have About what are the threads, made from natural fibers, but the weft yarn can be selected from yarns made from natural or synthetic fibers. Special consideration should be the choice of filling and the main threads for the production of fabric that would be suitable for the manufacture of protective clothing. Even under these special conditions, the fabric of the present invention can be produced from a wide range of threads and can be durable, comfortable and wear-resistant, and meet the standards required for military clothing and protective clothing for industry, in terms of resistance to high temperature and fire resistance.

For fabrics suitable for the manufacture of protective clothing, the weft yarn in accordance with the present invention are selected from the group of yarns from natural fibers. Natural fibers are fibers that are grown in the natural environment or produced from natural materials, including such fibers as cotton, rayon or other fibers based on cellulose and fibers, which are considered to have some natural resistance, such as wool and silk fibers. Viscose yarn, with the ability to slow the combustion process (known what she complex polyester and other synthetic fibers that melt when exposed to high temperature, not suitable when they are used as a main component in the weft yarns for fabrics for protective clothing. Because these fibers melt when exposed to high temperatures, their presence may lead to fire or to the aggravation of combustion.

In tissues, developed for use in non-manufacturing protective clothing purposes, polymer fibers, for example, from nylon and complex polyester may be acceptable, if they are mixed with natural fibers.

The weft yarn in accordance with the present invention may also contain conductive fibers such as synthetic fibers with carbon shell or continuous filament. These threads help to reduce the possibility of sparks and much more preferred fibers with surface anti-static treatment. It is recommended to use such fiber structure sheath-core with a concentration of about 5 wt.%.

The main thread in accordance with the present invention must possess OKA, equal to 27 or more. Fiber, resistant to high temperatures and AOI include, for example, aramid, polybenzimidazole, polybenzoxazole, melamine, polyphenylensulfide, polybenzimidazole, polyimide, polyetherimide, polyamideimide, novaline and modacrylic fibers. These fibers are decomposed without harmful fumes when exposed to flame. Suitable fibers include those which are sold under the trademarks Kevlar (DuPont), Nomex (DuPont), "Basophil" (BASF), "Technora" (Akzo), "Kynol" (Firm "Carborundum") and "rhyton" (firm "Phillips chemical Co.).

The main thread in General should possess OKA, equal to 27 or more for fabrics made in accordance with the present invention. The actual choice of fibers used for manufacturing the main thread, produce test for resistance to high temperatures (WWT) or other evaluation standards, the requirements of which must meet the fabric. For example, the actual exposure conditions or temperature and duration of exposure (time) influence the choice of fibers used in the framework and/or duck. In some cases, the base may contain up to 30 wt.% fibers with OKA equal to less than 27, while the main thread in General obat conductive fibers, for example synthetic staple fibers with a coating of carbon or filament. These fibers help to reduce the possibility of sparks and much more preferred fibers with surface anti-static treatment. Unstable surface treatment is a compromise to function fabric made in accordance with the present invention, in which the initial state is resistant to heat and fire resistant. When injected conductive fibers with the structure of a sheath-core in the main thread, it is recommended that the concentration of these fibers was about 5 wt.% or less.

For maximum comfort it is preferable to use staple yarns as the main and weft threads.

High - or low-modulus fibers can be used for the core yarn according to the present invention, since the fiber module is not a significant factor in these materials. Fiber in the core yarn having a modulus of the order of 100-800 g/dtex, suitable for use in the present invention. Fibers having a lower module, i.e., those fibers, which have a module below 250 g/dtex or PR is and with the body of a user, the fabric was created to the desired comfort. Fibers with a high modulus can be acceptable for use in tissues that are intended for special purposes or special places in the clothing, where the comfort of the consumer is of less value.

Especially suitable fabrics according to the present invention are m - and p-aramid fibers. Such fibers include high modulus fibers, such as described in U.S. patent 3767756, issued in the name of Blades. Fibers having a lower module include fiber, which is manufactured by the method described in U.S. patent 5336734, issued in the name of Bowen and others, 5330698, issued in the name of Allen and others, 3671542, issued in the name Kwolek. As the use of fibers having a lower module, results in a fabric with superior comfort, the preferred p-aramid fibers having a modulus in the range from about 100 to less than 200 g/dtex. Most preferred are p-aramid fiber manufactured in accordance with the method described in U.S. patent 5336734.

Aramid fibers can be made from Homo - or copolymers. The only requirement is that the main thread had OKA, equal to 27 or fibers of a polymer of the same type, resistant to high temperature and fire resistant. For example, the main thread may consist of 100 wt.% fibers made from p-aramid. Where maximum mechanical strength is not so important, can be used by the main thread, made from a mixture of fibers, resistant to high temperatures and fire. The use of a mixture of staple fibers can also give comfort or to provide more resistance to high temperatures. For example, the yarn of the commercial used a mixture consisting of 5 wt.% the p-aramid fiber and 95 wt. % m-aramid fiber, is preferred because it has better resistance to high temperatures in comparison with the yarn from 100% m-aramid fiber. Another suitable mixture of R - and m-aramid fibers for the manufacture of the core yarn is a mixture consisting of 60 wt.% the p-aramid fibers and 40 wt.% m-aramid fibers. Staple fiber, made of a bundle of filaments treated on a tensile testing machine, as well as staple fibers obtained by cutting machine can be used for the manufacture of the main threads in accordance with the of Azizi or can be produced by adding various staple fibres or of filaments, to the extent they meet the requirements of the OKA. Allows you to choose the main thread or fiber blends to develop yarns used in the fabric in accordance with the present invention, for achieving the full of fire-resistant fabric which meets various industrial requirements or standards. Thus, the fabric, creating a certain comfort with durability, cost-efficient and fire resistance, can be produced in accordance with the present invention for special conditions.

If the fabric is intended for the manufacture of clothing, it is not recommended to perform surface treatment of the fabric to impart fire resistance or slow burning for use in the present invention, since these treatments lead to a tightening of the tissue, reducing the comfort of the consumer and tend to be temporary effect on his nature.

For maximum mechanical strength of the fabric weft yarn according to the present invention are generally made from one type of natural fibers such as 100% cotton. When the maximum mechanical strength is not significant, in the manufacture of weft threads can be used for the e to the density of threads as weft in cloth, made in accordance with the present invention is in the range of from 1 to about 3, and the range of 1 to 2.5 is preferred. For fabrics intended for use in clothing, this relationship is significant, as the fiber in the core yarn and fiber in the weft threads work together not only to ensure the fire resistance and durability but also comfort. In accordance with the present invention it is preferable that all the fibers of the core yarn was inherent fire resistance, i.e. that the main thread only contain fibers having OKA, equal to 27 or more. Preferably, the weft yarn were made from natural fibers. Although there are no restrictions on the OKA weft threads, the weft yarn can, if it is desirable to have the OKA, equal to 27 or more.

The present invention is effective in value against fire-resistant fabric that can be made as to ensure the comfort and mechanical strength.

Fabric made in accordance with the present invention, suitable for the manufacture of a variety of protective clothing, including uniforms of firefighters, soldiers and various types of protective clothing.education in industry and hazardous conditions. Fabric made in accordance with the present invention may also be suitable for use in products not clothing range where you want the balance of the protective properties against heat and cost. Tarpaulins, awnings or other material used to cover and protect people or property, can be made from fabrics made in accordance with the present invention.

The present invention is illustrated in the following examples, which are not intended to limit the invention.

Examples of Fabrics plain weave, prevent tearing, were made using the following yarns were woven in accordance with MIL-C-4436.

The threads were the following: threads, defined as m-aramid, were made from staple fiber from 100% polyphenylen-isophthalamide; threads, defined as Z200, were staple filaments of from sulphonated p-aramid fiber sold by DuPont (g Wilmington) as DE Z200; flame-retardant viscose (OS) is a staple viscose thread with a slow combustion; a mixture of staple fibers in the yarn is defined by specifying the composition of the fibers in the mixture. These compounds are the following: nylon/cotton; mixtures of m-aramid fiber and cotton, and the mixture DuPont).

The obtained fabric was tested for durability by Hornbeam (standard American society for testing and materials ASTM-D-5034, the results are shown in pounds); on the strength trapezoidal tear (ASTM-D-5733; the results are shown in pounds); for strength, tearing Allendorf (ASTM-D-1424); the results are shown in pounds); attrition by Tabor (ASTM D-1044; results are given in cycles to failure); to ensure the protective properties under thermal influence (test method described in the journal Fire Technology V, 13, 1, February 1977; the results are shown in seconds multiplied by 2 (sec2) up to second degree burn.

The control tissue sample was a commercially marketed fabric consisting of 50% nylon and 50% cotton yarn as weft and in the warp. This fabric was chosen as a reference standard because it is durable and comfortable and it is used for making clothes for the military, for the clothing industry and just for clothes. It is sturdy, durable and comfortable, but does not provide protection from heat exposure. As shown in the following table, using basic yarns in accordance with this isoo impact, combined with strength and durability.

The data given in the table.

The composition of the weft yarn was composed of 97 wt.% flame-retardant viscose and 3 wt.% nylon elementary filaments.

In the table, the surface density is presented in ounces per square yard; the strength Hornbeam, strength trapezoidal tear and tensile tearing on Almdorf presented in pounds; resistance to abrasion by Tabor presents the number of cycles to failure. The term "on the basis of/on a duck" means that the first results of the tests in the direction of the base, and then in the weft direction. The composition of the warp and weft are given in the percentage of components in the appropriate thread in mass terms. The ratio is shown as the ratio defined in the test mass fractions. For example, 50/50 nylon/cotton means that in the manufacture of yarn was used a mixture consisting of 50 wt.% nylon fibers and 50 wt.% cotton fibers. Ignition of the air means the ignition in the presence of air. The result is expressed as either the word "Yes" or the word "No". If the fabric is not ignited, this means that the fabric after exposure to flame for 3-5 seconds not vosplamenenie. Samples D, E are shown for comparison fabrics made in accordance with the present invention, and fabrics made in accordance with previously known methods of production of fabrics with protective properties against heat. Samples D, E carefully woven from blended yarns from staple fibers.

Comparing the samples C and D, shows that both fabrics have approximately the same ratio of mass fractions of fibers Z200 and cotton, but the distribution of fibers with high OKA significantly different in these tissues. In the sample With the fiber with a high value of the OKA distributed over the surface of the fabric, and cotton is hidden weft threads; at the same time in the sample D, in contrast to the sample, there is cotton, and it is uniformly distributed over the surface of the fabric. In addition, in the sample With the main thread are all made of fiber Z200, while the weft threads consist entirely of cotton. These basic and the weft yarn is stronger than thoroughly mixed yarn of staple fibres in the sample D. for Example, comparison of the mean values on the basis of duck and shows the following ratio C/D, respectively: the strength Hornbeam 164/96; strength trapezoidal tear 31/14; tensile tearing of Lenderforgives to fire in the air sample is very different from sample D.

Comparing the strength values of the samples C and D by averaging the indicators on the basis of duck and presented above, it can be noted that the sample With stronger than sample D. Both fabrics have approximately the same properties in tests to ensure the protective properties under thermal influence.

Fabrics a and b compared to sample E had those same differences that samples C and D, i.e., in each case, more durable material did not ignite in air.

Claims

1. Fire-resistant fabric containing unequal major and weft threads, the main thread contain staple fiber or filament and have a limiting oxygen index equal to at least 27, and the weft yarn contain natural fibers and the ratio of the density of threads in the warp and weft in the fabric is at least 1,0.

2. The fabric under item 1, in which the primary filaments have a limiting oxygen index, equal to 28 or more.

3. The fabric under item 1, in which the fiber core filaments have a modulus, comprising about 100-800 g/dtex.

4. The fabric under item 1, in which the fiber core filaments have a modulus, comprising from about 100 to about 250 g/dtex.

5. The fabric on p. 1, motorsoceanic, melamine, polyphenylensulfide, polybenzimidazole, polyimide, polyetherimide, polyamideimide, Novalogic and modacrylic fibers and the weft yarn from fibers selected from the group consisting of cotton, silk, wool, viscose and flame-retardant viscose.

6. The fabric under item 1, in which the fibers of the core yarn are m-aramid and p-aramid fibers or mixtures of these fibers.

7. The fabric under item 1, in which the main thread includes about 5 wt. % or less fibres with electricity.

8. The fabric on p. 6, in which 60 wt. % fiber main thread are p-aramid fiber and 40 wt. % m-aramid fiber.

9. The fabric under item 1, in which the fibers of the core yarn are sulfonated para-aramid fibers and the weft thread is cotton.

10. The fabric under item 1, in which the fibers of the core yarn are m-aramid and p-aramid fibers or mixtures of these fibers and p-aramid fibers have a modulus of 100 to not more than 200 g/dtex.

11. The fabric under item 1, in which the fibers of the core yarn are m-aramid fibers and fiber weft threads are flame-retardant viscose fibers.

12. Protective clothing containing flame-retardant fabric having unequal major and UTM oxygen index, equal to at least 27, and the weft yarn contain natural fibers and the ratio of the density of threads in the warp and weft in the fabric is at least 1,0.

13. Protective clothing under item 12, in which the fabric contains the core yarn consisting of fibers selected from the group consisting of aramid, polybenzimidazole, polybenzoxazole, melamine, polyphenylensulfide, polybenzimidazole, polyimide, polyetherimide, polyamideimide, Novalogic and modacrylic fibers and the weft yarn from fibers selected from the group consisting of cotton, silk, wool, viscose and flame-retardant viscose.

14. Protective clothing under item 12, in which the fibers of the core yarn are m-aramid fibers and fiber weft threads are flame-retardant viscose fibers.

15. Protective clothing under item 12, in which the fibers of the core yarn are p-aramid fibers having a modulus of from 100 to about 250 g/dtex.

16. Protective clothing under item 12, in which the main thread further comprises about 5 wt. % or less fibres with electricity.

17. Protective clothing under item 12, in which the fiber core yarns are staple fibers.

18. Protective coating containing fabric by p. 1.

 

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