Intumestsent coke forming a flame retardant, a method thereof, method of fire resistant fuel processing substrate and method of extinguishing the fire burning

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to flame retardants, substances that protect organic material from the ignition and combustion, in particular to intumestsent coke forming flame retardants, i.e., flame retardants, which under the action of heat and flame expands, increases its volume and form a solid foam mass, showing the heat-shielding properties with respect to the underlying layer of material. In accordance with the invention, the proposed one-component system intumestsent coke forming flame retardants based salts polioksidony acids obtained by oxidation of carbohydrates selected from disaccharides and polysaccharides to the relevant polioksidony acids and substitution in the thus obtained polioksidony acids of the hydrogen ion carboxyl group, a metal cation or ammonium. Also proposed is a method of obtaining coke forming flame retardants through getting these salts, as well as how fire resistant fuel processing substrate and method of extinguishing the fire burning in the use of this flame retardant. 4 C. and 35 C.p. f-crystals.

The invention relates to fire - retardant substances and mixtures, load obrazuyuschim flame retardants.

Intumestsent ("vspuchivanie") flame retardants are substances and mixtures which, under the action of heat and flame expands, increases its volume and form a solid foam mass, showing the heat-shielding properties with respect to the underlying layer of material.

There are various types intumestsent flame retardants inorganic and organic nature. Known, for example, intumestsent inorganic flame retardants of the type of sodium silicate, swelling synthetic phyllosilicates, expanding natural minerals, such as vermiculite.

Another famous type of intumestsent flame retardants are substances that form after expansion or foaming porous carbon frame with insulating properties. Such flame retardants include, for example, expanding graphite, single-component low-molecular substances - 4,4'-dinitrosalicylic, derivatives arylsulfonamides.

Known multicomponent intumestsent system retardants, forming when heated foamed buglarian materials. Typically, such systems include the following components:

1) the source of the coke forming frame foam;

2) the source gazoobrazovania organic component;

4) binder.

Some adhesives (urea - and melamine-formaldehyde, polyurethane resin) can be simultaneously functions coke forming gas-forming component and a blowing agent.

Traditional foaming systems retardants are mono - and diammonium phosphate, polyamorist, melamine derivatives of polyphosphoric acid in combination with polyols, such as pentaerythritol.

One of the most important components intumestsent system flame retardant is coke forming component, which is used as a low molecular weight and high molecular weight polyols, sugars, starch, dextrin, as activator of coke formation most commonly used salts and derivatives of phosphoric acid, and as foaming agents, nitrogen-containing compounds (melamine and its derivatives, urea, dicyandiamide, and others).

In U.S. patent 3956236 (E. F. Evans and others) proposed as flame retardants synergistic composition of the metal and ammonium salts of low molecular weight hydroxycarboxylic acids.

In U.S. patent 4061810 (Pritam Singh Mikhas and other) systems described flame retardants to reduce the Flammability of polyamide and polyester coatings, predstavlyayuschee (lemon, tartaric, Gallic).

In the patent EP 0625561 B1 (Giovando, Gualtiero) proposed as flame retardants in various organic materials, salts of low molecular weight polioksidony acids (citric, tartaric, mucus, glycolic, glyoxalase, gluconic, glutaric, sugar and dairy) in combination with ammonium salts, are capable of forming coordination compounds with hydroxy carboxylic and other acids.

The closest analogue of the proposed intumestsent coke forming flame retardant are described in U.S. patent 3943100 (M. C. Berenbaum and others) flame retardants based on some low molecular weight organic polioksidony acids (tartaric, citric, Gallic) and their ammonium, lithium and magnesium salts.

As a rule, intumestsent flame retardants are used for fire-retardant treatment of combustible substrate in the form of a film applied to the surface of the specified substrate, or in the form of a solution for impregnation of porous combustible substrates (such as paper or cloth), or additive (filler) introduced into the polymeric materials to reduce their Flammability (see, for example, the Patent of the Russian Federation 2026310 RF Patent 2026311). This treatment reduces the likelihood of ignition processed abode hearth burning foam, does not support combustion gases or aerosols - spray in the air of fine solid or liquid fire-extinguishing compounds and substances. In particular, in the patent of the Russian Federation 2123366 described method of extinguishing a fire spray fire extinguishing fluid.

Despite the fact that currently there are a large number of different flame retardants, organic and inorganic nature, however, there is a need to increase their range and in the development of highly efficient and have low toxicity of flame retardants from inexpensive raw materials.

The purpose of this invention is to provide an inexpensive, efficient and environmentally friendly flame retardant.

The problem is solved by the fact that as intumestsent coke forming flame retardant used salt polioksidony acids formed during the oxidation of di - and polysaccharides, followed by substitution of the hydrogen ion in the carboxyl group formed polioksidony acids on the metal cation or ammonium. Unlike salts of citric, tartaric and Gallic acids, salts PolicyKit, obtained by oxidation of di - and polysaccharides that contain in their chain glycoside-glycosidic bonds, Thu is new.

The authors of the present invention have found that salt polioksidony acids obtained by oxidation of low molecular weight and high molecular weight carbohydrates, composed of glycoside-glycosidic bonds, to polioksidony acids and replace them in hydrogen ion carboxyl group, a metal cation or ammonium formation of the corresponding salts polioksidony acids obtained by oxidation under the influence of high temperatures and open flame demonstrate ability to heaving (foaming) with the formation of bulk foam coke, which can provide fire protection combustible substrate. On this basis it was concluded that these salts can be used as intumestsent flame retardants.

The main advantages intumestsent coke forming flame retardants based salts polioksidony acid (hereinafter also called polyoxometalate or CSP) according to the present invention are that they:

- are inexpensive and environmentally friendly compounds;

- do not emit combustion and decomposition of toxic volatile products;

- show low smoke-generating capacity at the CSO plant materials, waste production and recycling of appropriate materials;

- are highly effective flame retardants.

According to the present invention salt POK as intumestsent coke forming flame retardants combine several functions of complex systems, flame retardants, namely: they simultaneously serve as a source of education oroperating frame, a blowing agent, catalysts basic type for the reactions leading to carbonization and, finally, high-molecular salt POK able to perform the role of a binder carbonitrides type.

Authors conducted experiments show that salt PolicyKit obtained by oxidation of various carbohydrates (di - and polysaccharides) in a variety of ways using a variety of cations, when exposed to high temperatures and flame demonstrate ability to foaming with the formation of solid oroperating frame, and therefore can be used as intumestsent coke forming flame retardants.

So, on the basis of the performed experiments, the authors concluded that, as a raw material for flame retardants in accordance with the present to izobreteniya from maltose, sucrose, cellobiose and trehalose; polysaccharides can be selected from dextrins, dextrans, starch, its components (amylose and amylopectin), its hydrolysates, as well as pulp.

Most preferred to obtain intumestsent flame retardants in accordance with the present invention from the point of view of efficiency and from an economic point of view are polysacharide, in particular starch and cellulose. Thus, before oxidation of the starch can be dissolved, or dispersed, or solubilization in the water. Cellulose, which is the substance, insoluble in water, prior to its oxidation for the formation of salts dormancy can be dispersed and/or solubilization in water, in particular, by adding to it hydroxides of alkali and alkaline-earth metals.

The most available and therefore the preferred source of carbohydrates for intumestsent coke forming flame retardant according to the present invention is a vegetable raw materials. As such raw materials can be used molasses or grain products, or waste processing, such as flour, cereals, extruded starch. Also as a source of carbohydrates for antipiracy, for example, sawdust and shavings.

The specialist should be clear that intumestsent coke forming the flame retardants according to the present invention can be obtained by various known methods used to obtain salts of PolicyKit from carbohydrates, such as the methods described in U.S. patent 5484914, the patent EP 0755944, R. Parovuri, A. Hamunen, P. Forsell, K. Autio, K. Poutanen. Starch, Vol. 47 (1995) 1, R. 19-23, or B. Casu, U. Gennaro, S. V. Meille, M. Morrone, A. Naggi, M. S. Occhipinti, G. Torri. // Int. J. Biol. Macromol. , 1984, Vol. 6, April, p. 89-92, or any other means suitable for obtaining salts POK from carbohydrates.

So, salt polioksidony acids, applicable as intumestsent coke forming flame retardants, can be obtained, for example, by oxidation of carbohydrates oxidants such as oxygen, oxygen-containing gas, a hydroperoxide, organic peroxides, hypochlorites, periodate, permanganates, iodides, bromite. When this cation salts obtained polioksidony acids may be either a cation forming part of the oxidant and the cation added to the reaction medium during or after oxidation in the form of a base or an inorganic or organic salt.

The experiments showed that the degree of foaming of Sola PolicyKit, and on the nature of the cation. As a cation in the composition of fire - retardant salts PolicyKit in accordance with the present invention can include cations of metals of group I of the periodic system, ammonium cation or cations of metals II-VIII groups of the periodic system, or combinations thereof. Most preferred as intumestsent coke forming flame retardants sodium and potassium salts polioksidony acids obtained by oxidation of polysaccharides and plant raw materials containing starch.

Various combinations of the cations in molecular structure POK extends the opportunity for synergistic strengthening the effectiveness of the proposed retardants, improved barrier qualities of insulating foam coke.

Salt coated according to the invention can be used as intumestsent coke forming flame retardants organic materials in the form of aqueous solutions for surface and volumetric fire-retardant treatment of combustible substrate, and in the form of dry powders introduced into the polymer composition.

So, fireproof surface treatment aqueous solution of the flame retardant obtained in accordance with the present invention, the s (salts BOCOG).

For bulk processing of porous combustible substrates (such as tissue or paper) specified substrate impregnated with an aqueous solution of the specified flame retardant and dried to a moisture content corresponding to the ambient humidity.

Surround the flame retardant treatment of combustible substrates, which is a polymeric composition can be accomplished by introducing into the polymer composition as an additive specified flame retardant in the form of a dry powder.

Authors conducted experiments have shown that aqueous solutions of salts of dormancy, sprayed in the air, can be used as an effective means of fire. Therefore, another aspect of the present invention is a method of extinguishing the fire burning (fire), including the processing of this center of fine liquid-gas mixture (aerosol) formed by spraying in air extinguishing fluid which is an aqueous solution proposed in accordance with the present invention a flame retardant.

Here are some examples to illustrate the invention.

Example 1

In a thermostatted glass reactor with a volume of 100 ml, equipped with a mechanical prevented the NaOH as socializaton and salt-forming agent to obtain salt from PolicyKit, the resulting oxidation. The reactor was connected to a Gasometer, filled with oxygen blowing pure oxygen to displace the air and have sealed. The mixture was heated to 75oWith and consisted of mechanical stirring. The oxidation was carried out for 6 h and was stopped after stopping the absorption of oxygen-related expenditure due to neutralization of alkali it formed during the reaction of the hydroxy acid (U.S. Patent 5484914 dated 16.01.1996).

Oxidat was dried in the air and got thin film salts PolicyKit. The ability to foaming was evaluated by the ratio of the volume of the resulting foam coke to the volume of the original dry matter (2 g) when heated in air at 2500,5oC for 10 minutes At the end of the experiment was determined by mass loss during this period.

Sodium salt), obtained by oxidation of sucrose melts and boils when heated, forming a reticular foam with a degree of foaming=10,8, and the residual mass of 10.6% from the original.

Example 2

Oxidation maltodextrin according to the method described in the patent EP 0755944 A2 (published 29.01.1997, Bulletin 1997/05). The oxidation process was carried out similarly as described in example 1. Download: 50 the ASS="ptx2">

The coefficient of expansion of the sample of the sodium salt of dormancy (after drying in air) weight 0.25 g was determined as in example 1. K=25,6, the residual mass of 61.9%. Under these conditions, the sample oxidized maltodextrin does not boil, losing weight 16,5%.

Example 3

Oxidation of potato starch was carried out similarly as described in example 1. Download: 50 ml of water, 20 g of potato starch, 0.06 g CuSO45H2O. the Solution was stirred for 5 min, then added 2.5 g NaOH; oxidizing the cell was purged with oxygen; the solution was heated to 75oWith and included mechanical stirring. The time of oxidation of 6 hours the solution after the oxidation was dried in the air and got thin film salts POK.

When heated in air under dynamic conditions with a speed of 10 deg/min on derivatograph Q-1500 D, Hungary (weight 40-50 mg) decomposition of the sodium salt coated with the foaming is observed in the temperature range 173-298oC. Coke residue to 530oWith is 41%. The coefficient of expansion isothermal heating of the dry sample (0.25 g) according to example 1 is equal to 32. The residual mass - 64,2%.

Example 4

Oxidation of potato starch was carried out similarly as described in example 3. Water resilence salts POK was obtained by drying the solution on the air. In the dynamic conditions of heating in example 3, the decomposition with the foaming is observed in the interval 194-490oC. TO 530oFrom the coke residue is 33.3%. The coefficient of expansion of the dry sample (0.25 g) is equal To 29. Coke residue in these conditions - 61%.

Example 5

Oxidation of potato starch was carried out similarly as described in example 3. To aqueous solution of sodium salts POK added 2.5 g of N3IN3. After dissolution of boric acid film salts POK was obtained by drying the solution on the air.

In dynamic conditions, heat decomposition with foaming is observed in the range of 240-350oC. Coke residue to 530oWith equal to 44.7%. It is stable in air up to 670oC.

Isothermal at 250oWith the coefficient of expansion of the sample (0.25 g) is 2.6. Coke residue 77,9%,

Example 6

Oxidation of potato starch was carried out similarly as described in example 3. To aqueous solution of sodium salts POK added 25 g of KCr(SO4)212H2O, after dissolution which film formed salts POK was obtained by drying the solution on the air.

In the dynamic conditions of heating in example 3, the decomposition of co in the Oh 278oC. TO 530oWith the output of the coke residue - 54,9%.

The coefficient of expansion in isothermal conditions as in example 1 2.4. Under the action of the flame of a gas burner (2 min) does not light up, chars with Uspenovka. Decay after removal of the flame is observed.

Example 7

Oxidation of potato starch was carried out similarly as described in example 3. To aqueous solution of sodium salts POK added 12.5 g MnSO45H2O. After the dissolution of manganese sulfate film salts POK was obtained by drying the solution on the air.

In the dynamic conditions of heating in example 3, the decomposition with the foaming takes place at 217-369oC. TO 530oWith the release of Kosovo balance of 45.7%. The coefficient of expansion at 250o(Example 1) is equal to 1.4. The residual mass - 80,4%. Under the action of the flame of a gas burner (2 min) does not light up, chars, corruption does not occur.

Example 8

Oxidation of potato starch was carried out similarly as described in example 3. To aqueous solution of sodium salts POK added 2.5 g ZnCl2. After dissolution of zinc chloride film salts POK was obtained by drying the solution on the air.

The coefficient of expansion of the sample of example 1 with a weight of 0.3 for 2 min is foaming, charring and decay after removal of the flame source.

Example 9

Oxidation of potato starch was carried out similarly as described in example 1. To aqueous solution of sodium salts POK added 2.5 g Snl22H2O. After the dissolution of chloride of tin film salts POK was obtained by drying the solution on the air.

The coefficient of expansion of the sample (0.25 g) in example 1 was 3.0. The residual mass - 67,3%. Under the action of the flame of a gas burner foams, charred. Decay after removal of flame does not occur.

Example 10

Oxidation of potato starch was carried out similarly as described in example 3. To aqueous solution of sodium salts POK added 2.5 g of si(NCOA)2. After dissolution of copper formate film salts POK was obtained by drying the solution on the air.

The coefficient of swelling in example 1 To=27,1. The residual mass - 66,4%. Under the action of the flame is not lit, there is a rapid foaming with charring. Corruption does not occur.

Example 11

Oxidation of rice was carried out similarly as described in example 3. Download: 50 ml of water, 12 g of round rice, 0.12 g CuSO45H2O. After the dissolution of copper sulfate in the oxidation cell added 2 the Temperature during the reaction 70oC. the oxidation Time 8 hours After drying of the solution on the air received film salts POK. The coefficient of expansion that is defined, as described in example 1, To=29,8, the residual weight of 61.4%. When heated under dynamic conditions in example 3, the foaming is observed at temperatures above 188oC. TO 530oFrom the coke residue is 41.3%.

Example 12

Oxidation of potato starch was carried out according to the method described in [R. Parovuri, A. Hamunen, P. Forsell, K. Autio, K. Poutanen. Starch 47 (1995) 1, R. 19-23] , thermostatted glass reactor with a volume of 1 l, equipped with a mechanical stirrer. 100 g of dry starch was dispersible in water to form 42% of the variance. Before the dispersion of starch in water was dissolved 0.5 g of FeSO47H2O. the pH of the reaction mixture is maintained at 10 by addition of 2 M aqueous NaOH solution. Temperature 40oC. 30% hydrogen peroxide solution was introduced into the reaction mixture fractional additives to maintain a constant concentration of H2O2in the reaction mixture of about 2%. The reaction time is 15 hours After the reaction of the salt of oxidized starch was filtered on a Buechner funnel and dried in the air.

In the dynamic conditions of heating in example 3, the decomposition of vsini is of the dry sample (0.25 g) K=17. Coke residue in these conditions - 42%.

Example 13

Oxidation of amylose (M M 150000, Serva) metaperiodate sodium was carried out according to the method described in [Century Casu, U. Gennaro, S. V. Meille, M. Morrone, A. Naggi, M. S. Occhipinti, G. Torri. // Int. J. Biol. Macromol., 1984, Vol. 6, April, p. 89-92]. Salt), obtained according to this method, dried in the air.

In the dynamic conditions of heating in example 3, the decomposition of salts coated with the foaming is observed in the interval 175-440oC. TO 530oFrom the coke residue is 29.5%.

The coefficient of expansion of the dry sample (0.25 g) K=19. Coke residue in these conditions - 39%.

Example 14

Film salts POK was obtained in the same manner as in example 3. Download: 50 ml of water, 20 g of potato starch, 0.06 g CuSO45H2O. the Solution was stirred for 5 min, then added 2.5 g NaOH; oxidizing the cell was purged with oxygen; the solution was heated to 75oWith and included mechanical stirring. The time of oxidation of 6 hours the solution after the oxidation was dried in the air and got thin film salts POK.

Smoke-forming ability and toxicity of products of combustion of the sample was determined in accordance with GOST 12.1.044-89, PP 4.18 and 4.20 in the most dangerous mode of thermooxidative decomposition (] the current qeequal to 181 kW/m2. By smoke-forming ability of the sample assigned to the group D2. Its smoke Dmmax=71,5 m2/kg. toxicity resulting products (index HCL50=57,7 g/m3refers to a group of T2 moderately hazardous materials. The lower heat of combustion equal 14,256 kJ/g

Example 15

Film salts POK was obtained in the same manner as in example 11.

The coefficient of the smoke combustion products was determined according to example 14 (Dmmax=75,9 m2/kg (D2 group). Toxicity index HCL50=is 203.2 g/m3, i.e., the sample belongs to the group of T1 hazardous materials. Low heat of complete combustion of the equal 14,482 kJ/g

Example 16

Potato starch was oxidized according to the method described in example 3.

Download: 50 ml of water, 20 g of potato starch, 0.1 g CuSO45H2O. the Solution was stirred for 5 min, then added 3.5 g NaOH; oxidizing the cell was purged with oxygen; the solution was heated to 75oWith and included mechanical stirring. The oxidation time is 10 o'clock the solution after the oxidation was dried in the air and got thin film salts POK.

The sample is decomposed with foam under dynamic heating of porn films knows the coefficient of expansion=17,6, the residual mass is 60%.

Products smoldering combustion of the sample tested in example 14, have a coefficient of smoke Dmmax=42,5 m2/kg, i.e., the sample belongs to the group D1 low smoke ability. Toxicity index HCL50=53,4 g/m3, i.e., the sample belongs to the group of moderately T2 hazardous materials. Low heat of complete combustion of the equal 14,757 kJ/g

Example 17

Oxidation of rice is carried out analogously to example 11

Download: 50 ml of water, 12.5 g of round rice, 0.1 g CuSO45H2O. After the dissolution of copper sulfate in the oxidation cell was added 0.8 g of granulated NaOH, the cell was purged with oxygen, included temperature control and mechanical stirring. The temperature during the reaction - 70oC. the oxidation Time is 4 hours After drying of the solution on the air received film salts POK.

The sample is decomposed in dynamic conditions according to example 3 with foaming in the interval 212-330oC. Coke residue to 560oEqual to 20.5%.

Under the action of the flame of a gas burner foams, char, coke is heated, but when you remove the flame corruption stops.

A mixture of powdered PA-6,6 with 5% dry powder salt dormancy of obduracy increases with 226o(For pure PA-6,6) to 235oC. the temperature of the beginning of the decomposition of a mixture of PA-6,6 with 5% QAR decreases with 351oWith (pure PA-6,6) up to 330oAnd coke residue to 530oC is 43.7 per cent, while net PA-6,6 500oWith losing weight more than 80%.

The effectiveness of salts POK as coke forming flame retardants are illustrated in the following examples.

Example 18

The filter samples and writing paper and viscose fabric with thickness of 0.1 mm was treated with an aqueous solution of sodium salts), obtained by the oxidation of carbohydrates in example 16. After drying at room temperature until constant weight (the weight gain to the original sample of 10-15 g/m2identified the limiting oxygen index (LOI) according to GOST 12.1.044-89, p. 4.14. CI increased after treatment with salts of dormancy in the filter paper from 19.5 to 24.7%; writing paper from 20.2 35.2%; viscose fabric from 19.7% to 25.3%.

With increasing consumption of dormancy by weight of dry residue on viscose fabric 30 to 60 g/m2the value of KI is increased to 28-30%.

Example 19

Pine shavings - forestry waste production, was mixed with 40% aqueous salt solution), used as a binder (with a ratio in parts by weight of 90:10, based on su is obtained samples of chipboard with thickness of 3-4 mm

They had a KI=40-42%. Index spread of flame according to GOST 12.1.044-89, p. 4.19: lpn=12-15.

Example 20 (a)

Surface samples of pine was treated with 40% aqueous solution of sodium salt), obtained in example 15 and was dried at room temperature during the day. The effectiveness of the fire retardant effect of the coating on the basis of salts of dormancy was evaluated according to GOST 16363 and GOST 30402-96 (equivalent to ISO 5657). When the consumption of the dry residue 80-100 g/m2they provided the group G1 (GOST 16363) and Flammability (GOST 30402-96) group B2: critical external radiative heat flux for ignition was in the range of 23-29,7 kW/m2. Samples of untreated pine critical heat flux for ignition is 12.5 kW/m2< / BR>
Example 20 (b)

The influence of addition of salts), obtained according to example 3, fire extinguishing effectiveness of water mist was evaluated by reducing the average time extinguishing the combustion process of cotton cloth soaked in motor oil AC-8. Ceteris paribus extinguishing the fire burning fine (i.e., sprayed in a fine powder) water was 15.5 C. in the presence of finely dispersed water additives salts dormancy in the amount of 50-150 g/l extinguishing acromioclavicular acids, characterized in that the said salt polioksidony acids are salts obtained from carbohydrates selected from disaccharides and polysaccharides by oxidation of these carbohydrates to relevant polioksidony acids and substitution in the thus obtained polioksidony acids of the hydrogen ion carboxyl group, a metal cation or ammonium.

2. Fire retardant under item 1, characterized in that the said salt polioksidony acids are also the source of education oroperating frame foam, foaming agent, catalyst reactions, leading to carbonization, and a binder.

3. Fire retardant under item 1 or 2, characterized in that these disaccharides are selected from maltose, sucrose, cellobiose and trehalose.

4. Fire retardant under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the polysaccharide is selected from the group comprising dextrins, dextrans, starch, hydrolyzed starch and cellulose.

5. Fire retardant under item 4, characterized in that the starch includes amylose and/or amylopectin.

6. Fire retardant under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the polysaccharides are starch, dissolved, or dispersed, or who make a pulp, dispergirovannoyj and/or solubilizing in water.

8. Fire retardant under item 7, characterized in that the solubilization of cellulose in water is carried out by adding a hydroxide of an alkaline or alkaline earth metal.

9. The flame retardant according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the carbohydrates derived from plant materials.

10. Fire retardant under item 9, wherein the plant material is a grain or products or waste processing, including flour, cereal and/or extrusion of the starch.

11. Fire retardant under item 9, wherein the plant material is a syrup.

12. Fire retardant under item 9, wherein the plant material is a wood or products or waste processing, including sawdust and/or shavings.

13. The flame retardant according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that the oxidation of carbohydrates carry oxidizer selected from the group comprising oxygen, oxygen-containing gas, a hydroperoxide, organic peroxides, hypochlorites, permanganates, periodate, iodides, bromite.

14. The flame retardant according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that capactitance salts of sodium and potassium.

15. The flame retardant according to any one of paragraphs. 1-13, characterized in that the said salt polioksidony acids are ammonium salts or metal salts II-VIII groups of the Periodic system, or combinations thereof.

16. The flame retardant according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, characterized in that it includes only salt polioksidony acids or their aqueous solution.

17. The flame retardant according to any one of paragraphs. 1-15, characterized in that it is made in the form of a dry powder salt polioksidony acids.

18. The flame retardant according to any one of paragraphs. 1-15, characterized in that it is made in the form of an aqueous solution of salts polioksidony acids.

19. Fire retardant under item 18, characterized in that it is designed to extinguish the fire burning by spraying in the form of fine powder.

20. The method of obtaining intumestsent coke forming flame retardant organic nature, characterized in that the flame retardant is produced from carbohydrates selected from disaccharides and polysaccharides, while this method involves the oxidation of these carbohydrates to relevant polioksidony acids and substitution in the thus obtained polioksidony acid ion hydrogen of the hydroxyl group of the cation Metalica fact, these disaccharides are selected from maltose, sucrose, cellobiose and trehalose.

22. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the polysaccharide is selected from the group comprising dextrins, dextrans, starch, hydrolyzed starch and cellulose.

23. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the carbohydrates are starch, the method further includes an operation dissolve, or disperse, or solubilize the starch in water prior to oxidation.

24. The method according to p. 20, characterized in that the carbohydrates are cellulose, the method further includes an operation to disperse and/or solubilize cellulose in water prior to oxidation.

25. The method according to p. 24, characterized in that the solubilization of cellulose is carried out by adding to it the hydroxide of alkali or alkaline earth metal.

26. The method according to any of paragraphs. 20-25, characterized in that the carbohydrates derived from plant materials.

27. The method according to p. 26, wherein the plant material is a grain or products or waste processing, including flour, cereal and/or extrusion of the starch.

30. The method according to any of paragraphs. 20-29, characterized in that the oxidation is carried oxidant selected from the group comprising oxygen, oxygen-containing gas, a hydroperoxide, organic peroxides, hypochlorites, periodate, permanganates, iodides, bromite.

31. The method according to any of paragraphs. 20-30, characterized in that the cation is a cation of a metal of group I of the Periodic system, preferably the cation is sodium or potassium.

32. The method according to any of paragraphs. 20-30, characterized in that the cation is a metal cation II-VIII groups of the Periodic system or ammonium cation.

33. The method according to any of paragraphs. 20-32, characterized in that the cation added to the reaction medium after completion of the oxidation reaction.

34. The method according to any of paragraphs. 20-32, characterized in that the cation present in the reaction medium during the oxidation reaction.

35. The way fire-retardant treatment of combustible flame retardant substrate, characterized in that as a flame retardant use retardant pernot combustible substrate and dried to education on the surface of the specified fuel substrate film flame retardant.

37. The method according to p. 35, characterized in that the combustible substrate impregnated with an aqueous solution of a flame retardant and dried to a moisture content corresponding to the ambient humidity.

38. The method according to p. 34, characterized in that the combustible substrate is a polymer composition, the flame retardant in the form of a dry powder is introduced into the specified polymer composition as an additive.

39. The method of extinguishing the fire area, including the processing of the specified hearth finely dispersed gas-liquid mixture formed by spraying in air extinguishing fluid, characterized in that the extinguishing liquid is an aqueous solution of the flame retardant according to any one of paragraphs. 1-16, 18, or 19.

 

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The invention relates to organic chemistry, in particular to methods for drugs

The invention relates to the field of organic chemistry, in particular for receiving calcium gluconate, which is used in medicine as a pharmaceutical drug

The invention relates to compositions for air-mechanical foam used in fire fighting

The invention relates to foam means of extinguishing fires, intended for transportation, storage and use in low temperatures

The invention relates to the composition of the foaming composition and is intended for use in the manufacture of chemical fire extinguishing means

The invention relates to volume extinguishing of fires

The invention relates to chemical means of fire fighting in a confined space, diluting the atmosphere of the inert gas fire, and can be used to extinguish fires in different areas of the economy where the use of traditional means is not practical or efficient, for example, high purity production, storage compartments of ships, the individual nodes of the planes, blocks, computers, etc
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