Differential-ranging method of direction finding emitters and realizing it device

 

The invention is used in electronics to determine the azimuth of the source of radio emission (IRI) in sirokopasovnih dynamical systems. Technical result achieved - ensuring the possibility of determining the azimuth of the IRI for any size of the measurement bases of the direction finder and options relative position of Iran and antenna direction finder. The method of finding the IRI is based on the reception of its signal by the three antennas, the measurement of the two differences of the times of reception of the signal IRI antennas forming an orthogonal base, post-processing of results of measurements in order to calculate the values of the azimuth angle of the IRI and the coordinates of a point through which passes the line of sight of the IRI. The results display in a readable form. A device that implements the method contains three antennas are placed at the vertices of an isosceles right triangle, two meter difference between the times of reception of the signal blocks subtraction, summarize, analyze, and display. Offered the option readable form display the results. 2 C. p. F.-ly, 9 Il.

This proposal relates to the field of radio engineering and can be used in direction-finding systems for determination is received using known methods of direction finding: amplitude (method of maximum method minimum method comparison and others), phase, frequency and time.

Known methods and devices of direction finding [1-5, 10-19 and others].

For example, there are a number of ways of finding, based on the fact that the phase relation between the signals received at spatially separated points can be converted to amplitude dependence of the sum of the signals received from location IRI.

The most obvious and widely used is the amplitude method of direction finding, which uses an antenna system having a directional pattern with a pronounced maximum. Due to the mechanical change in the position (orientation) of the antenna is scanning space, the result of which is determined by the position of the antenna at which the output signal of the antenna has a maximum amplitude and a direction coinciding with the maximum of the radiation pattern of antenna is the direction of Iran.

This method of direction finding can be viewed as a degenerate case of difference-ranging way, when due to mechanical movement of the antenna system is chosen in such a position so that the difference of the distance from Iran to symmetric points of the antenna was the giving signals, come on different trajectories, provides the maximum energy at the point of reception.

The main disadvantage of this method is the need for mechanical movement of the antenna system or, at least, of its individual elements (e.g., feed).

There is also known a method of direction finding based on measuring the time differences of the signals from Iran two spaced antennas [e.g. 6]. When the position deviation of the IRI from the perpendicular to the center of the base there is a difference of turn signalsr = r1-r2(r1and r2the distance from Iran to the first and second antennas respectively). The relative delaysignals, due to the constancy of the speed and linearity of propagation of radio waves is proportional to the difference of course:The azimuth valueThe IRI is calculated by the formulawhere d is the distance between the antennas, withwhere r=min(r1,r2).

In the General case, a system that uses considered are differential-ranging, however, with large deletions IRI from the center of the base, when the distance to Iran to asobu, in the far zone coincide with their asymptotes, coming in the form of rays from a center of the base. In this case, the differential-ranging system acceptable to assume angular.

The direction finding is also possible to produce based on measurements of the Doppler shift frequencyf[see, for example, 7]. Sincewherethe wavelength of the signal IRI, vr- radial velocity IRI relative to the receiving antenna,
then, measuringfat extremely small interval, you can get variant frequency method, called differential Doppler, which allows to determine the value of the angular setting of the positioning:

where v is the speed of IRI in the coordinate system whose origin coincides with the point of location of the receiving antenna.

This approach to the measurement of the angle based on the assumption that at low measuring bases ("small" compared to the distance to the detected object) hyperbolic surface position asymptotically tends to a conical form to the listed methods is the possibility of finding IRI only in the far zone i.e., if the condition
r>>d (1)
where r is the distance to the IRI,
d is the length of the measuring base.

This condition allows to make an assumption about the plane of the front of propagation of electromagnetic waves.

It is known that the accuracy of determining the bearing IRI depends on the relative sizes of the measuring base to the magnitude of the distance to the IRI (the dependence is characterized by the expression, taking into account the lower bound the Cramer-RAO [6]). However, increasing the size of the measuring base leads to increase in the bias direction finding, due to the sphericity of the front of an electromagnetic wave. The magnitude of the error direction finding, when values of the range r<10d can be up to ten and more percent from the values of the angular coordinates of the IRI. The dependence of the error of the bearing shown in Fig.1.

Known way of finding the closest to the present invention is a method [6] , based on the measurement of the phase difference signal IRI taken three antennas, forming two pairs of orthogonal measurement bases (see Fig.2), and calculating the value of the angleazimuth on Iran using expression

where(the wavelength of the signal IRI). This method is chosen as a prototype.

The aim of the invention is to improve the accuracy of direction finding and expanding the functionality of direction finder (removing the restrictions described by the expression (1)) by taking into account the sphericity of the front of propagation of electromagnetic waves.

This objective is achieved in that in the method of finding the IRI based on the reception of its signal three antennas, forming two pairs of equal orthogonal measurement bases (see Fig.3), provide measurements of differences in arrival times of the signal Iran's antenna, calculate:
the angleazimuth IRI using expression

wheretAC,tBC- the difference between the time of signal reception IRI antennas forming the pairs A, C and b, respectively,
coordinates (xf,fpoints F owned by a bearing line on Iran, using expressions


the/916.gif">rBC=tBCc - difference of the distance from Iran to pairs of points a, C and b, respectively,
display the result.

The proposed method involves the following operations:
- have three antennas at the vertices of an isosceles right triangleABC;
- accept signal IRI on all three antennas
- measure the time differences of signal IRI antennas forming an orthogonal basis;
- calculates the sum and difference of the difference of times of signal reception IRI;
- calculate the value of the ratio of the sum of the differences between the times of reception of Iran to the difference of difference of times of signal reception IRI;
- calculate the value of the function arctan(x), the argument of which is the result of the previous operation;
- calculate the coordinate value of the point belonging to the line position on Iran;
- show the obtained results.

In Fig.4 shows a variant of the device that implements the proposed method.

The device consists of three functionally related elements:
- antenna system with three antennas 1, 2 and 3;
- measurement system containing blocks 4 and 5, which are intended to measure razvlecheniya blocks 6-8 and block 9, performing a visualization of the results.

The principle of the proposed device consists in the following. Antenna 1, 2 and 3 have three points in three-dimensional space a, b, C having coordinates (xA, yA, zA), (xIn, yIn, zB) and (xWith, yC, zCrespectively.

For convenience and clarity, the further discussion will assume that the location of Iran coincides with some point D with coordinates x, y, z. We denote the difference of the distances from it to points a and b throughrABand the difference of the distances from points a and C throughrAC.

Now we introduce a coordinate system z set so that its origin coincides with the midpoint of the segment AB, the ox axis was collinear vectorand the plane HOU coincides with the plane ABC (Fig.5). Then the coordinates of the points a, b and C in the system z respectively
xAnd=-a; yA=0; zA=0;
xIn=a; yB=0; zB=0;
xC=0; yC=a; zC=0,
where a = |AB|/2,
and therefore, you can write

Erected in the square right and left side of equation (2), we obtain

where

Thus, from the above reasoning it follows that the point D belongs to the surface described by equation (4) (see Fig.6).

Note, however, that when squaring equation (2) has occurred, the loss of the sign of the difference rangesrABso really the point D
can belong to only one branch of the hyperboloid in accordance with system conditions

Similarly, typing in consideration of the coordinate system O x u z', the beginning of which coincides with the midpoint of the segment AC, the axis O x' collinear the half-line speakers and the plane x O y' coincides with the plane zO', you can get that point D belongs to the surface described by the equation

where
x', y', z' coordinates of the point D in the coordinate system O h u z';
b = |AC|/2.

Since point D belongs simultaneously to two surfaces, therefore, it belongs to the line of intersection of these surfaces.

Because the plane HOU and x O y' are the same, then ur is ojeniyi [8]:
x= (x-x0)cos+(y-y0)sin,
y= -(x-x0)sin+(y-y0)cos,
where x0,0- coordinates of the point O x' coordinate system Oxyz;
- the angle between the coordinate axes ox and O x' (see Fig.7).

As a result of this transformation the equation (7) takes the form
x2and2+2b2+HUS2+d2+UE2+f2=z2, (9)
where

If we consider the difference of the difference of the distances from point D to pairs of points a, b and C, it is obvious that

that is, the difference of the difference of the distances from point D to pairs of points a, b and a, C is equal to the difference of the distances from point D to point pairs With C From which it follows that the point D also belongs to the third surface described by the equation
x2a3+2b3+xyc3+xd3+UE3+f3=z2, (11)
where


d3=a;
e3=a;

a/59/594465.gif">
where
The system of equations (12) relates the unknown values of the coordinates of the point D with known coordinates of points a, b, C, and values of the differences of the distances ofrAB,rACandrBC. However, due to the presence of functional relationships between the associated system of equations, this system has infinitely many solutions. In the composition of the set of solutions will include the vectors of coordinates of all intersection points of the surface position of point D, described within the system (12) equations.

Find the equation of the spatial line containing all points whose coordinates are the roots of the equation system (12). For this purpose let us consider a section of the surface position of point D plane described by the equation z= zs=const.

For arbitrary values of zsyou can write

where f'1=f1-z2s; f'2=f2-z2s; f'3=f3-z2s. (15)
Included in the system (14) equations are the equations of hyperbole. Thus, to solve the system of equations (14) means to find the coordinates of the intersection points of the dem it to mind

where d15=(a1(b2d3-b3d2)-b1(a2d3-a3d2))/G;
e15=(a1(b2e3-b3e2)-b1(a2e3-a3e2))/G;
f15=(a1(b2f3-b3f2)-b1(a2f3-a3f2)+f1(a2b3-a3b2))/G; d26=-a1(c2d3-c3d2)/G;
e26=-a1(c2e3-c3e2)/G;
f26=(-a1(c2f3-c3f2)-f1(a2c3-a3c2))/G;
d36=b1(c2d3-c3d2)/G;
e36=b1(c2e3-c3e2)/G;
f36=(b1(c2f3-c3f2)+f1(b2c3-b3c2))/G;
G=a1(b2c3-b3c2)-b1(a2c3-a3c2).

From the first equation of system (16) it follows that

Therefore, the system of equations (16) can be represented in the form

where a1=d26;
B1=d215+2d26e15-d15e26+f26;
C1=2d>D1=f215-f15e15e26+2e215f26;
B2=e15+d36;
C2=d36e15-d15e36+f36;
D2=e15f36-e36f15,
or equivalent

The solutions of the quadratic equation system (18) are two values of the variable x, defined by the well-known expressions:


where a, b, C - coefficients quadrature equations for this particular case equal:


If you enter symbols

and

indicates the individual difference variables in1and I2and the difference of the roots of the quadratic equation, x1and x2is determined by the expression

and the amount of variable y1, y2and the roots of the quadratic equation, x1, x2are determined by the expressions

The result can be interpreted as follows: because the value of the relationship (19) does not depend on the variable z, zletovosko, perpendicular to the plane HOU, crossing the ox axis at an angle

and passing through the point with coordinates

SincerBC=rAC-rABthen equation (21) can be represented in the form

The result means that the ratio of the sum and difference of difference of distances from two pairs of reference points to the desired location points IRI determines the direction (angle) a source of radiation located at an arbitrary height h above the plane ABC (see Fig.8).

If the measured distancesrACandrBCto use the measure of the difference of times of signal IRI, coming to points a, b and C, equation (22) can be rewritten in the form

wheretAC,tBC- the difference between the times of reception of IRI in the points a and C and b and C, respectively,
C is the speed of propagation of the radio signal.

In the composition of the claimed device comprises the antenna 1, 2 and 3, the measure of radioedit with the first inputs of the measure of the difference between times 4 and 5, on the second input of which is supplied the output signal from the antenna 3. The meter output is the difference of the times 4 is connected to the first input of the subtraction unit 6 and unit summation 7, and the output of the meter to the difference of times 5 is connected to the second input of the subtraction unit 6 and unit summation 7. The inputs of the analysis block receives signals from the outputs of the measure of the difference between times 4 and 5, the subtraction unit 6 and unit summation 7. The output of the analysis block is connected to the input of the display unit.

Antenna 1, 2 and 3 are placed at the vertices of an isosceles right triangleABC respectively.

The signal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, adopted by the antennas 1, 2 and 3, at their outputs is
u1(t) = U(t)cos(0t+0),
u2(t) = U(t+t21)cos[0(t+t21)+0],
u3(t) = U(t+t31)cos[0(t+t31)+0],
respectively.

The signals from the outputs of the antennas 1 and 3 are received at first and second inputs of the meter difference of 4 times, respectively, similarly, the signals from you is agnosti times 4 and 5 perform the operation of measuring the difference of timet13andt23a signal IRI on a pair of antennas (1, 3) and (2, 3). This
tij= ti-tj,
where tk- the arrival time of the signal IRI at the k-th antenna
tnm- the time difference of signal arrival Iran's n-th and m-th antenna.

The measure of the difference between times 4 and 5 implement one of the well known [e.g., 9] means of measuring the time differences.

From the outputs of the sensors of the differences of the times of 4 and 5 measured values oft13andt23come on blocks subtracting 6 and summation 7. The subtraction unit performs the operation of calculating the values of tdifference of difference of times of signal reception, Iran; unit summation performs the operation of calculating the values of tthe amount of the difference of times of signal reception Iran:
t=t13+t23,
t=t13-t23.
The calculated values of tand tt13andt23from the outputs of the sensors of the differences of the times of 4 and 5. The unit of analysis 8 is a specialized computing device, performing the following computation:
- calculated value of the ratio of
- calculate the value ofelevation IRI using expression
=ASAP(w),
where the argument is the result of the previous computation;
- calculate values of xf,fthe coordinates of a point belonging to the line position on Iran.

The calculated values of, xf,ffrom the output of the analysis block enter display unit, which is designed to visualize the results of the proposed method of direction finding.

Display option finding results presented in figure 9.

Thus, the proposed method of direction finding and device for its implementation, in comparison with the prototype, provide the possibility of determining the azimuth of the IRI for any size of the measurement bases of the direction finder and options relative position of Iran and antenna direction finder.

In addition, the proposed method PIM functionality of the direction finder expanded.

Sources of information
1. Shebshaevich B. C. introduction to theory of space navigation. - M.: Owls. radio, 1971. - 296 S.

2. The dulevich C. E., Korostelev, A. A., Miller S. A. and other Theoretical bases of radar./Edited Century. Dulevich. - M.: Owls. radio, 1964. - 732 S.

3. Theoretical bases of radar. Textbook for high schools./Ed. by J. D. Shirman. - M.: Owls. radio, 1970. - 560 C.

4. Finkelstein, M. I. fundamentals of radar. - M.: Owls. radio, 1973. - 496 S.

5. Belotserkovsky, B. fundamentals of radar and radar devices. - M.: Owls. radio, 1975. - 336 S.

6. Klymenko N. N., Klimenko S. C. current state of theory and practice of radiointerference.//Arabina electronics, 1990. N 1. - N-3-14.

7. The international space radio detection system in distress. /Ed. by C. C. of Websevices. - M.: Radio and communication, 1987. - 376 S.

8. Korn G. , Korn M. Handbook of mathematics for scientists and engineers. - M.: Nauka, 1984. - 832 S.

9. Wuu Chenn, Pearson Allan E. On time deley estimation involving received signals. /IEEE Trans. Acount., Speech and Signal Process., 1984, 32, N 4, Pp. 828-835.

10. RDF system that uses a circular antenna array. U.S. patent 4633257.

11. Direction finder: A. C. the USSR 1555695 MKI5G 01 S 3/46. Dikarev Century. And., Provotorov, F., Sherstobitov centuries

12. the FDS and apparatus for direction finding and frequency identification. Patent 4443801 USA.

15. Single location system. Patent 4819053 USA.

16. The method of determining the location of the transmitter by measuring the difference of the delay times. Patent GDR 274102.

17. Method hyperbolic determine where and device for its implementation. Patent GDR 229866.

18. The finder. The Japan Patent 57-51910.

19. Direction finding the source of the radio emission using an adaptive antenna array. U.S. patent 4862180.


Claims

1. The method of finding the source of the radio emission (IRI) based on the reception of its signal three antennas, forming two pairs of equal orthogonal measurement bases, characterized in that the measured difference of times of signal reception IRI antennas forming an orthogonal measurement bases; calculates the sum and difference of the difference of times of signal reception IRI; calculate the value of the ratio of the sum of the differences between the times of reception of Iran to the difference of difference of times of signal reception IRI; calculate the value of the function arctan (w), as an argument which is the result of the previous operation; calculate a coordinate value of a point belonging to the line position on Iran; display the received result the frame of a rectangular triangle two meter difference between the times of reception of the signal blocks subtraction, summarize, analyze, and display, characterized in that the antenna 1 and 3, 3 and 2 form an orthogonal measurement bases, the output signal of the antenna 1 receives at the first input of measuring the difference between the times of 4, the output signal of the antenna 2 receives at the first input of measuring the difference between the times of 5, the output signal from the antenna 3 is supplied to the second inputs of measuring the difference between times 4 and 5, the meter output is the difference of the times 4 is connected to the first input of the subtraction unit 6 and unit summation 7, and the meter output is the difference of times 5 is connected to the second input of the subtraction unit 6 and unit summation 7, the inputs of the analysis block 8 receives signals from the outputs of the measure of the difference between times 4 and 5, the subtraction unit 6 and unit summation 7, the output of the analysis block is connected to the input of the display unit.

 

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FIELD: finding of azimuth of radio emission source (RES) in wide-base direction finding systems.

SUBSTANCE: angle of azimuth of RES is measured with high degree of precision due to elimination of methodical errors in direction finding caused by linearization of model electromagnet wave propagation wave front. As surface of RES location the plane is used which has RES line of location which has to be crossing of two hyperbolic surfaces of location corresponding to difference-time measurement. Method of RES direction finding is based upon receiving its signal by three aerials disposed randomly, measuring of two time differences of RES signal receiving by aerials which form measuring bases and subsequent processing of results of measurement to calculate values of RES angles of azimuth and coordinates of point through which the RES axis of sight passes. The data received are represented in suitable form. Device for realization of the method has three aerials disposed at vertexes of random triangle, two units for measuring time difference of signal receiving, computing unit and indication unit. Output of common aerial of measuring bases is connected with second inputs of time difference meters which receive signals from outputs of the rest aerials. Measured values of time differences enter inputs of computing unit which calculates values of RES angle of azimuth and coordinates of point through which the RES axis of sight passes. Data received from output of computing analyzing unit enter indication unit intended for those data representation.

EFFECT: widened operational capabilities of direction finder.

2 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, applicable for location of posthorizon objects by radiations of their radars, for example, of naval formations of battle ships with operating navigational radars with the aid of coastal stationary or mobile passive radars.

SUBSTANCE: the method consists in detection of radiations and measurement of the bearings (azimuths) with the use of minimum two spaced apart passive radars, and calculation of the coordinates of the sources of r.f. radiations by the triangulation method, determination of location is performed in three stages, in the first stage the posthorizon objects are searched and detected by the radiation of their radars at each passive radar, the radio engineering and time parameters of radar radiations are measured, the detected radars with posthorizon objects are identified by the radio engineering parameters of radiations and bearing, and continuous tracking of these objects is proceeded, the information on the objects located within the radio horizon obtained from each passive radar is eliminated, the working sector of angles is specified for guidance and tracking of the selected posthorizon object, in the second stage continuous tracking of one posthorizon object is performed at least by two passive radars, and the time of reception of each radar pulse of this object is fixed, in the third stage the period of scanning of this radar, the difference of the angles of radiation by the main radar beam of each passive radar and the range to the posthorizon object with due account made for the difference of the angles of radiation are determined by the bearings (azimuths) measured by the passive radar and the times of reception of each pulse of the tracked radar. The method is realized with the aid at least of two spaced apart passive radars, each of them has aerials of the channel of compensation of side and phone lobes, a narrow-band reflector-type aerial, series-connected noiseless radio-frequency amplifier, multichannel receiving device, device of primary information processing and measurement of carrier frequency, amplitude and time of reception of signals of the detected radar, device of static processing of information and measurement of the bearing, repetition period, duration of the train and repetition of the pulse trains and a device for calculation of the difference of the angle of radiation of the aerials of the passive radars by the detected radar.

EFFECT: reduced error of measurement of the coordinates of posthorizon sources of radio-frequency radiations.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, applicable in electromagnetic reconnaissance, radio navigation and radio detection and ranging for determination of the direction to the source of radiation or reflection of radio waves.

SUBSTANCE: the phase direction finder has two antennas, two receiving paths, three phase shifters, two phase detectors, two limiters, three adders, two modulus computation devices, subtracting device, amplifier, comparator, gate circuit and an oscillator.

EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of direction finding and excepted its dependence of the attitude of the object of direction-finding.

2 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering.

SUBSTANCE: device has the first, the second and the third receiving antennas, the first, the second and the third high frequency amplifiers, the first and the second heterodynes, the first, the second and the third mixers, the first, the second and the third multipliers, the first, the second, the third and the fourth narrowband filters, the first, the second and the third intermediate frequency amplifiers, frequency multiplier by two, the first, the second and the third phase detectors, the first and the second correlator units, the first, the second, the third and the fourth threshold units, the first, the second, the third and the fourth keys and unit for recording.

EFFECT: wide range of functional applications.

3 dwg

FIELD: the proposed mode and arrangement refer to the field of radio electronics and may be used for definition of position of sources of emitting complex signals.

SUBSTANCE: the phase direction finder realizing the proposed phase mode of direction finding, has receiving aerials, receivers and a supporting generator, an impulse generator, an electronic commutator, a phase changer on 90, a phase detector and an indicator, a heterodyne, a mixer, an amplifier of an intermediate frequency, multipliers and band filters and a line of delay.

EFFECT: elimination of antagonism between requirements to accuracy of measuring and unique angle reading at phase mode of direction finding of sources of emitting of complex signals.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: the invention refers to the field of radio technique and may be used in range-difference systems of definition of the position of the sources of radio emissions.

SUBSTANCE: the mode is based on measuring of two differences of distances Δr12 and Δr13 to two pairs of mobile supporting points {O1,O2}and {O1,O3 , } the coordinates ,j= 1,2,3 supporting points Oj in the moment of time of measuring of distances, then the vector of measured values is transformed into the vector of the coordinates of the three points F1,F2 and M belonging to a hyperbolina: the vector is stored and transmitted along the channels of transmitting information into the center of processing information for using it in quality of initial data at solution a range-difference navigational task; at that the points F1 and F2 defines the focuses of the hyperbolina if it is a hyperbola or an ellipse or a focus and its projection on a directrix if it is a parabola and the third point belongs to the hyperbolina in such a manner that the position of its project on the direct F1F2 defines the form of the curve of the second order.

EFFECT: decreases volume of stored and transmitted data.

5 dwg

FIELD: radio electronics, applicable for passive radio monitoring in multi-channel system designed for direction finding of several sources of radio emission simultaneously getting into the reception zone.

SUBSTANCE: expanded functional potentialities by way of direction finding in two planes of several sources of radio emission simultaneously getting into the reception zone.

EFFECT: expanded functional potentialities.

2 dwg

FIELD: finding coordinates of radio source.

SUBSTANCE: as planes of position of radio source the planes are used, which have line of position of radio source, which has to be crossing of two hyperbolic surfaces pf position corresponding to time-difference measurements. Method is based upon reception of signal of radio source by four aerials, on measurement of three differences in time of reception of radio source signal by aerials, which aerials form measuring bases, upon subsequent processing of results of measurements for calculation of values of parameters of position of radio source and for calculating coordinate of radio source as crossing point of three planes of position. Device for realization of the method has four aerials which aerials form three pairs of measuring bases, which bases are disposed in non-coincident planes, three calculators for calculating parameters of position of radio source, calculator of radio source coordinates made in form of unit for solving system of linear equations and indication unit.

EFFECT: precise measurement of linear coordinates of object.

2 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: radio detection and ranging, radio navigation, applicable for determining the angular co-ordinates of the signal radiation source.

SUBSTANCE: the claimed method is realized with the aid of a device having three receiving derails, three receivers, two phase-meters, computer, adder and a recording unit connected in a definite way.

EFFECT: enhanced range of one-valued measurement of angles at a small length of the rough measuring base.

3 dwg

FIELD: proposed invention refers to radiolocation and may be used for definition of position and movement of sources of radiation of complex signals.

SUBSTANCE: achieved technical result of invention is increase of trustworthiness of reception of useful signals with a priori known carrier frequency and removal of ambiguity of direction finding by suppression false signals (interference) not interesting for radio control and coming from other directions. At that proposed arrangement has receiving antenna with circle diagram of radiation pattern , receiving antenna with cardioidic diagram of radiation pattern, block for control over diagram of radiation pattern, first and second receiving sets, division block, threshold block, former of control pulse, first and second keys, meter of frequency, memory block, block for comparison of codes, motor and register block.

EFFECT: increases trustworthiness of direction finding.

4 dwg

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