Method and device for measuring parameters of wear of the wheels of a rail vehicle
The invention relates to means for measuring the amount of wear of the wheels during movement of the vehicle. The method consists in the measurement of the vertical linear accelerations of the wheel axis arising from the rolling worn-out wheel along the rail, the memory array of these accelerations, the calculation of variance for each of the i-th position of the wheel and the calculation according to the previously defined functional dependence of the geometric image of the wheelset. The device comprises an angle sensor wheel sensor linear acceleration at buochs wheels, connected in series multiplier, a comparator device for calculating variance of acceleration. The technical result - the enhanced operational capabilities. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of diagnostic systems of vehicles, in particular rail transport.The predominant use of the present invention is a diagnostic system of passenger and freight railway transport, as well as trams.Currently, due to the sharp increase speed rail transport to wear the wheelset, largely ODA is to be much more stringent requirements.At the same time increasing the speed, and hence the load on the wheels when braking began to lead to increased wear of the surfaces of riding wheelset.Currently, the train depot became widespread stationary stands, on which is mounted a pair of wheels. The construction of a geometrical image of the scanned wheel is made using a special probe by spinning the wheel pair. However, this method of measuring the wear of the wheels associated with significant financial and time costs associated with the necessity of dismantling the truck and install the audited pair of wheels on the stand, resulting in significant downtime of the vehicle and does not allow operational control wheel wear.To determine the wear of the wheels at the depot is also used a method based on the weighing of the car on a special jacks, push the scroll wheel and the measurement of the wear using a special probe. However, this method is associated with the need to release composition and install each of the car on a special stand, which also requires a lot of time and money and do not provide the efficiency to perform is determine wear, based on the measurement in 3 points of the surface profile of the wheel using a special template. However, this method is based on the tolerance principle, it is not possible to construct a geometric image wheelset and does not provide speed control while driving the vehicle, making it impossible to build operational control movement of the vehicle [1, 2].There are also known methods of measuring wear of the wheels, allowing the measurement of their geometrical dimensions, without dismantling trucks (for example, the method according to the patent 2085424 from 23.07.96  is selected as a prototype of the present invention). These methods are based on the transmission of the rolling stock on a straight-line reference section of track is rigidly attached to the rails gauges, determining geometrical dimensions of rolled wheels. This allows you to speed up the process of measuring the wear of the wheels, but it does not provide its real-time measurement when the vehicle and require large expenditures.The task of the invention is the provision of traceability wear wheelset when the AI mechanical perturbations (linear accelerations), occur when rolling worn-out wheel along the rail. When the mechanical disturbance will be determined by the level of roughness of the surface of the wheel at every angle and vehicle speed. However, besides the above factors, the level of mechanical disturbance also depends on the condition track (rail) on which the vehicle is moving.The essence of this invention lies in the fact that to exclude the effects of road condition in the invention it is proposed to calculate at each angle of rotation of the wheel dispersion of mechanical perturbations occurring at the contact of this portion of the tread surface of the wheel-raili=a2i/(N-1), where ai- linear acceleration at the i-th angle of rotation of the wheel, N is the number of wheel revolutions (N50), for which the calculatediand determine the smallest (min). In this case, since the time of determinationiall points wheelset repeatedly held as "good" and "bad" parts of Titania wheel and to characterize the quality of the road on a plot measuring dispersion. Subtracting the value ofminof all values ofiyou can get the value ofdepending on the settings wheel wear and speed of the vehicle. Therefore, having previously experimentally determined functional relationship between the wear of the tread surface of the wheel, dispersionand the vehicle speed V(= F(,V)), we can construct a geometric image of the scanned wheel.Thus, the measurement of the wear of the wheels in accordance with the inventive method is as follows: during the period of calculation of depreciation determine the vehicle speed V; for each i-th angle of rotation of the wheel is measured linear vertical acceleration above the axis of the wheel (linear acceleration on PTC site) and compute their variancei; calculate the minimum variancemindetermine the difference betweeniandmin; previously determined functional dependence= F(A device that implements the method of measuring the parameters of wear of the wheel, shown in the drawing.It includes a pulse angle sensor wheel 1 that is associated with the device determine the peripheral speed of the wheel 2, and the sensor linear acceleration on PTC site 3, connected in series multiplier 4, the comparator 5 and the device calculate the RMS value of the acceleration at each i-th angle of rotation of the wheel 6 and the device calculate the number of revolutions of the rear wheel 7.Both inputs of the multiplier 4 is connected with the output of the sensor linear acceleration 3, and the second input of the comparator 5 is connected with the output of the sensor 1. The input device 7 respectively connected to the outputs of the angle sensor 1 and the device set the interval of calculation 8.In addition, it includes a device selection of the i-th RMS 9, connected in series, the device defining at least 10, the device determine the difference 11, functional Converter 12 and the storage device 13. When the input device determination of minimum 11 and device selection of the i-th RMS 9 are connected with the corresponding outputs of the device computing the RMS value of 6, the second input kotorogo set the interval of calculation 8.The second input device defining at least 10 associated with the output device determine the number of turns 7, the second input device selecting the i-th RMS 9 is connected with the output device defining at least 10, the output of which is connected with the second input device to determine the difference 11. The second functional input of the Converter 12 is connected to the output of the device determine the peripheral speed 2.The device operates as follows.When driving the vehicle the angle sensor wheel 1 produces a signal, each pulse of which corresponds to the turning of the wheel at a certain angle (), and the output of the sensor linear acceleration 3 continuously, a signal is generated proportional to the level of mechanical perturbations above the axis of the wheel (Ab).The signal angle of rotationarrives at the inputs of the device determine the peripheral speed of the wheel 2 and the device calculating the number of its turnovers 7, representing the count of pulses.The signal proportional to linear acceleration on PTC site Andbcomes to both inputs of the multiplier 4, the output of which a signal is generated Andb2, posterizes the i-th angle, which corresponds to the arrival of the comparator 5 of the next pulsethe comparator 5 connects the next i-th summing device included in the device calculate the RMS value of 6, to which input signal Andabove2, at the output of summing device signals are formed equal toAndabove2.When the number of revolutions of the wheel becomes equal to the preset value (Nass- produced by the device 8, the device will calculate the number of turns 7 to produce a signal Uynpthat is supplied to the second input device 6. This signal is terminated settlementAndabove2and calculated the variance of the linear accelerations at each i-th angle of rotation of the wheelsthe value of which is connected to corresponding inputs of a computing device of at least 10 and device selection of the i-th of the RMS value of 9.Device for determination of the minimum run signal Uynpselects from allithe minimum value andminthat corresponds to the least worn the surface area is formiruemye output device 10, went to a corresponding input device 9, which starts sequentially to form at its output a signalithat arrives at the input of the calculating the difference 11. To the second input device 11 receives a signalminin the result at its output signals are formed=i-mincharacterizing the surface wear of the wheel on the i-th angle of rotation and received at the first input of the functional Converter 12.To the second input of the Converter 12 receives a signal V from the output device to determine the speed 2, which allows for the previously defined functional dependencyi= F(i,V) to calculate each i-th angle of the actual geometrical dimensions of the wheel, characterizing the wear of its surface, which is recorded in the storage device 13.Data on the actual wear of the tread surface of the wheel is stored in the storage device 13 to the end of the flight (prior to arrival of the vehicle at the depot, where they are read and the results of their analysis adopts the, the.And. Ivanov . Train ER 200. - M.: Transport, 1981, s.2. Instructions for inspection, repair and formation of the wheelset CT/2306.3. Patent 2085424 from 23.07.96 prototype.
Claims1. A method of measuring the parameters of wear of the wheels of the rail vehicle, consisting in the construction of the geometrical image of the scanned wheel during movement of the vehicle, characterized in that the determined speed of the vehicle, for each i-th angle of rotation of the wheel is measured linear vertical acceleration of the wheel axis, memorize an array of these accelerations at a given observation interval, compute their variance and define the smallest of them, then, for each i-th angle calculates the difference between each calculated dispersion and minimum and some previously defined functional dependence of the geometric characteristics of the surface defect of the wheel from the variance of the linear acceleration and vehicle speed to determine the actual geometrical characteristics of wheels, which is judged on the parameters of wear and tear.2. Device for measuring parameters of wear of the wheels of the rail vehicle containing pulse dasarani on PTC site, characterized in that it comprises connected in series multiplier, a comparator, and a device for calculating the RMS value of the acceleration at each i-th angle of rotation of the wheel, both inputs of the multiplier associated with the output of the sensor linear acceleration, and the second comparator input connected to the output of the angle sensor, the device calculating the number of wheel revolutions, the inputs of which are respectively connected to the outputs of the angle sensor device and set the interval calculation device of the i-th RMS, serial connected device defining at least, the device determine the difference, functional Converter and the storage device, thus the inputs of the device determine the minimum and device selection of the i-th root-mean-square values associated with the respective outputs of the device computing the RMS value, a second input connected to the output device calculating the number of wheel revolutions, and its third input - output device set the interval of calculation, the second input device defining at least associated with the output device determine the number of revolutions, the second input device you what about the second input device to determine the difference, the second functional input of the inverter connected to the output of the device determine the peripheral speed.
FIELD: railway transport; instrument technology.
SUBSTANCE: proposed wear checking system contains optical receiving projection system and converting-and-calculating unit. It includes also car position pickup and car counter whose outputs are connected to inputs to inputs of converting-ands-calculated unit. Optical receiving projection system consists of sets of stereo modules. Rigid structure of each module includes two CCD television cameras and lighting unit. Outputs of stereomodules are connected to corresponding inputs of converting-and-calculating unit. Stereomodules are rigidly installed relative to each other.
EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: definition of the diameter of wheel pairs.
SUBSTANCE: the mode and photolaser arrangement for definition of the diameter of wheel pairs of a railway mobile train in conditions of its moving is based on the principle of measuring with the help of a photolaser arrangement of sizes which characterize the changing of the diameter of wheel tread and a degree of deterioration(wear) of the wheel pair band and also is based on the principle of computing the diameter of the wheel according to a wheel rolling circle according to the formula characterizing the changing of the diameter depending on current meaning of a chord of the wheel tread and the magnitude of a wheel tread wear. The execution of the mode of measuring of the chord and of the wheel tread wear is made by way of using of laser sources of light installed along one side of the track, horizontal and vertical photoreceiving mould "toolbars" installed on the other side of the inset in the rail and the track. Precision of measuring of geometric sizes of the wheel pair in the range of ±0.1 mm is achieved at the expense of using of laser sources of light and of photoreceivers in the shape of the mould "toolbars".
EFFECT: increases quality of precision of measuring; using of a laser commutation system and reliability of measuring elements under any weather conditions.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; measuring facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used automatic control of condition of wheelset and its position relative to rail track. According to proposed method of monitoring of wheelset parameters and its position relative to rail track, working surface of wheel is radiated by light and wheel profile and position of wheelset relative to rail track is determined basing on received radiation. Scattered radiation from points on irradiate working surface of wheel is used with measurement of coordinates of said points, and, using received coordinates, completed profile of wheel is formed which is compared with standard profile of wheelset. Basing on results of comparing decision is made on whether wheelset can be operated or should be rejected.
EFFECT: possibility of monitoring irrespective of condition of surfaces under checking.
FIELD: transport engineering; rail vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measuring facilities and it can be used for checking condition of rail vehicle wheels 1. According to propose method, axle-box of wheel 1 to be checked and rail 3 with contrast mark 9 are exposed to flow of radiation, and image is received by radiation receiver. Radiator and matrix receiver are placed at a distance from rail track. Axle box and rail are irradiated with flow in form of train of short pulses with frequency proportional to wheel speed. Position of maximum of correlation functions obtained at correlation of standard fragment of image of axle box or rail mark with image in current frame is determined and changes in radii and parameters of wheel are judged by changes of vertical coordinates of maxima of correlation functions of axle boxes and rail in image frames.
EFFECT: improved reliability, enlarged functional capabilities.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; auxiliary equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device for checking condition of wheelsets of rail vehicles. proposed device contains optical measuring unit including optical measuring sensor made in form of laser focused radiation source 1 and optically mated linear radiation receiver 6 and also signal electronic processing unit. Device is furnished with prechamber 3 with nozzle 4 located before source of laser radiation coaxially with source and compressed air supply system connected with prechamber.
EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities of device in contaminated atmospheres.
FIELD: railway transport.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method and devices for detecting slides on wheel roll surface. Surface of wheel is irradiated by laser beam. Information of presence and parameters of slide is found by comparing obtained sequence of profiles of flange top by changed distance between flange top and upper edge of rail. Proposed device contains optical measuring systems 1 and 2 connected with electronic information processing unit 3 arranged at a distance from one another to permit taking measurements of flange profile of one and the other half of wheel.
EFFECT: increased speed and facilitated measurements.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; auxiliary railway equipment.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device for noncontact inspection of wheelset roll surfaces in motion has roll surface check pickup 4 of wheelset and wheelset flange check pickup 5 secured on bracket 6 installed on axle box and protected from precipitation by hoods 8 and 9, recorder connected with pickups, supply unit to form pulses, splitter box and tube 3 with wires. End of bracket on which pickups are secured is divided into two parts, straight-line one and curved one. Boss in form of right-angled trapezium is made from side surface of bracket. Gusset is made to render rigidity to connection of right-angled trapezium with bracket, said gusset being arranged both on side and end face parts of right-angled trapezium.
EFFECT: increased safety, reduced accidents in operation of rail vehicle.
FIELD: railway transport.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods and devices for technological control. According to proposed method of dimensional checking of train parts on the run, rails are used as guide members setting trajectory of movement of part under checking, and also data processing system, optical measuring system whose distance pickups consist of radiator and receiver designed for recording backscattered radiation. Measuring pickups are arranged in space at both sides relative to guide member on additional vibration-isolating base, measuring system is secured stationary, moment of train approaching is recorded and identification of car is carried out, measuring pickups are calibrated, measuring pickups are synchronized with guide member position pickups and moment of intersection of area of measurement by part is determined. Moment of intersection of area of measurement by part is determined in one and the same position of part relative to guide member. Then measured surface of part is scanned in direction of part movement, measurement is done along line of scanning in one direction, data are gathered and processed taking into account weight of car, corresponding deflection of rail and speed of train. When processing the data, angle of attack of wheel on rail and deformation of rail at moment of taking of measurement are taken into account additionally, the moment id recorded when part under measurement leaves area of measurement, and required parameters of part are determined. According to invention, complex of dimensional checking of train parts on the run includes train approach moment pickup, pickup recording moment when part under measurement leaves are of measurement, vibration-isolating base for fastening the pickups, pickup determining position of part relative to guide member and synchronizing device for time gating of readings of all pickups. Optical measuring pickups are arranged in space at different sides of guide member, are provided with calibration device and made for scanning all surface of part to be measured. Receiver of distance pickups is provided with at least one quick-acting position sensitive photodetector. Rail displacement pickup is made with possibility of checking deformation of rail.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurements.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the equipment for measuring railway rails and wheels. The method of determination of the clearance between the railway wheel ridge (2) and rail head (1) includes attaching a pickup with its sensitive element directed towards the point of contact between the wheel and rail head to a crosswise beam (3) of the car truck. Simultaneously with the start of the car, the data coming the pickup on displacement of the wheel ridge relative to the rail head at a preset distance is continuously recorded. Then the pickup is removed from the car, the data carrier is removed from the pickup and the data obtained is processed using a computer programme to provided for a digital visual picture. On the picture thus obtained, a video image of a ruler with divisions is imposed to define the abode said clearance in divisions of the ruler. The said device has a case with a core, a pickup and light sources arranged on both sides of the pickup at an equal distance from it.
EFFECT: simpler design and smaller sizes of the device.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of railroad wheel pair contact surface wear monitoring proceeds from the measurement of the rail vertical vibration acceleration effected using an accelerometer and comprises converting the said data into electrical signals to be compared to reference signals corresponding to permissible defect tolerances. The method includes, additionally, measuring the wheel rim vertical travel along the contact surface development length by means of consecutively arranged magneto electric pickups, establishing the dependence of the induced signal magnitude upon the wheel rim position and comparing the resulted ratio with the defectless wheel reference data. The results obtained are correlated to the wheel pair linear speed to disclose, finally, the wheel defect size.
EFFECT: accurate measurement in wide range of train speeds.