The method of obtaining hydrogen-enriched gas
The invention relates to the production of hydrogen-containing gases from hydrocarbons, more particularly to a method for producing a hydrogen-enriched gas from the simple dimethyl ether. The method of obtaining hydrogen-enriched gas includes contacting a simple dimethyl ether with steam in the presence of the solid catalyst and the solid acid in the reactor. The process is carried out in a fixed bed consisting of a mixture of the solid catalyst and the solid acid at a weight ratio, respectively, equal to 1:55:1, the solid catalyst used metal-containing catalyst, and the process is carried out at a temperature of 225-450oC and a pressure of 1-100 bar. The invention improves the yield of the desired product with high selectivity for the formation of hydrogen and oxides of carbon. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab. The invention relates to the production of hydrogen-rich gas from hydrocarbon raw materials, more particularly to a method for producing a hydrogen-enriched gas from the simple dimethyl ether.A method of obtaining hydrogen-enriched gas by contacting a simple dimethyl ether with steam in the presence of solid rolled hydration and decomposition of the formed methanol (see patent GB 2805314, 01 J 23/78, 28.04.1982).Flowing in a known way reactions are illustrated by the following scheme:N.1=5.28 kcal/molBoth reactions can be carried out both in gas and liquid phase.The objective of the invention is to develop a method of producing hydrogen-enriched gas, which due to the high speed of the reaction is highly efficient.The problem is solved in a method of producing hydrogen-enriched gas by contacting a simple dimethyl ether with steam in the presence of the solid catalyst and the solid acid in the reactor due to the fact that the process is carried out in a fixed bed consisting of a mixture of the solid catalyst and the solid acid at a weight ratio, respectively, equal to 1:55:1, the solid catalyst used metal-containing catalyst, and the process is carried out at a temperature of 225 - 450oC and a pressure of 1-100 bar.It was found that the overall reaction is simple dimethyl ether (DME) to hydrogen-enriched gas according to the following reaction:As a metal-containing catalyst used is preferably copper and zinc on aluminum oxide.As the solid acid can be applied to any solid acid. The preferred catalyst is chosen from the group comprising zeolites, in particular zeolites brand ZSM-5 in an aqueous form and/or Siral-5, silicates of alumina, oxide of silicon and aluminum, and mixtures thereof.The process is preferably carried out at a temperature 225-240oC and a pressure of 2-50 bar.Before contacting with the source of gaseous feedstock, the catalyst is transferred into the active form. For example, the active form of the solid acid is a hydrogen form, obtained by ion exchange in the contacting of the catalyst with a solution of a proton donor. Metal-containing catalyst is usually activated by contact with a regenerating gas.The catalysts are usually used in the form of extrudates, beads, granules, etc., solid forms suitable for the formation of the fixed layer.Aulnay ratio of 1:11:10, preferably 1:21:5, served in recator fixed bed. Consisting of simple dimethyl ether and steam gas is passed through a bed of the catalyst at a pressure of 1:100 bar and a flow rate 1000-5000 h-1.At the reaction temperature over 225oWith, preferably 250oWith the simple conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen and oxides of carbon is mostly complete in the specified conditions.The following examples further illustrate the present invention.Example 1 In a tubular reactor placed a fixed layer composed of 3.00 g of a mixture of catalysts, which represents the product of MDK-20 company Haldor Topsoe a/s, DK (copper-zinc-aluminum catalyst) and the trading product Siral-5 company Condea, DE (silica and alumina), taken in a weight ratio of 1:1. A mixture of both catalysts consists of granules of a size of 0.1 to 1.0 mmConsisting of simple dimethyl ether and water in a molar ratio of 0.25: 1, the gas is fed into the reactor in the amount of 1.6 g simple dimethyl ether/hour and at a pressure of 1.2 bar. The process is carried out isometrically at temperatures shown in table 1, which also summarizes the results of this example.Example 2
The results of this example are also summarized in table 2.
1. The method of obtaining hydrogen-enriched gas by contacting a simple dimethyl ether with steam in the presence of the solid catalyst and the solid acid in the reactor, wherein the process is carried out in a fixed bed consisting of a mixture of the solid catalyst and the solid acid at a weight ratio, respectively, equal to 1: 55:1, the solid catalyst used metal-containing catalyst, and the process is carried out at a temperature of 225-450oC and a pressure of 1-100 bar.2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the solid acid is chosen from the group comprising zeolites, silicates, alumina, oxide of silicon and aluminum, and mixtures thereof.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the solid cycle carried out at a temperature 225-240oC and a pressure of 2-50 bar.
FIELD: hydrocarbon conversion catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst for generation of synthesis gas via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons is a complex composite composed of ceramic matrix and, dispersed throughout the matrix, coarse particles of a material and their aggregates in amounts from 0.5 to 70% by weight. Catalyst comprises system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Dispersed material is selected from rare-earth and transition metal oxides, and mixtures thereof, metals and alloys thereof, period 4 metal carbides, and mixtures thereof, which differ from the matrix in what concerns both composition and structure. Preparation procedure comprises providing homogenous mass containing caking-able ceramic matrix material and material to be dispersed, appropriately shaping the mass, and heat treatment. Material to be dispersed are powders containing metallic aluminum. Homogenous mass is used for impregnation of fibrous and/or woven materials forming on caking system of parallel and/or perpendicularly crossing channels. Before heat treatment, shaped mass is preliminarily treated under hydrothermal conditions.
EFFECT: increased resistance of catalyst to thermal impacts with sufficiently high specific surface and activity retained.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method includes searching for continental or oceanic rift generation zones, supported by abnormal mantle with output of substance branches to earth crust. Drilling of wells by turbodrills into mantle substance. After well enters mantle substance a reaction hollow is formed in it by putting together force and product wells or by expanding force and/or product wells. Water is pumped into force well and gas-like hydrogen is outputted to surface through product well forming during reaction of inter-metallic substances fro mantle substance to water. Water is fed in amount, adjusting output of hydrogen, while reaction surface of reaction hollow is periodically regenerated, for example, by high pressure water flow, supplied through jets in reaction hollow, on remotely controlled manipulators. Expansion of well may be performed via explosions of explosive substances charges, and it is possible to separate forming gaseous hydrogen and water steam by separator mounted therein.
EFFECT: higher effectiveness of hydrogen production.
FIELD: alternative fuel production and catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to (i) generation of synthesis gas useful in large-scale chemical processes via catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons in presence of oxygen-containing components and to (ii) catalysts used in this process. Catalyst represents composite including mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition element and/or precious element, carrier composed of alumina-based ceramic matrix, and a material consisting of coarse particles or aggregates of particles dispersed throughout the matrix. Catalyst has system of parallel and/or crossing channels. Catalyst preparation method and synthesis gas generation method utilizing indicated catalyst are as well described.
EFFECT: enabled preparation of cellular-structure catalyst with high specific surface area, which is effective at small contact times in reaction of selective catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 16 ex
FIELD: autothermal catalytic reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream.
SUBSTANCE: method relates to method for reforming of hydrocarbon feed stream with water steam at elevated temperature to produce gas enriched with hydrogen and/or carbon oxide. Hydrocarbon stream is passed through water steam reforming catalyst bed wherein oxygen is fed through oxygen-permeable membrane followed by removing of finished product from this bed. Said catalyst bed contains in input region catalyst with reduced or without water steam reforming activity, but having hydrocarbon feed oxidation activity.
EFFECT: process with improved characteristics due to temperature controlling in reactor.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: alternate fuel manufacture catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of synthesis gas employed in large-scale chemical processes such as synthesis of ammonia, methanol, higher alcohols and aldehydes, in Fischer-Tropsch process, and the like, as reducing gas in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, metalworking, and on gas emission detoxification plants. Synthesis gas is obtained via catalytic conversion of mixture containing hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture and oxygen-containing component. Catalyst is a complex composite containing mixed oxide, simple oxide, transition and/or precious element. Catalyst comprises metal-based carrier representing either layered ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of above-mentioned oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5, or ceramics-metal material containing nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating and high-porosity oxide layer, ratio of thickness of metallic base to that of nonporous or low-porosity oxide coating ranging from 10:1 to 1:5 and ratio of metallic base thickness to that of high-porosity oxide layer from 1:10 to 1:5. Catalyst is prepared by applying active components onto carrier followed by drying and calcination.
EFFECT: increased heat resistance and efficiency of catalyst at short contact thereof with reaction mixture.
13 cl, 2 tbl, 17 ex
FIELD: electric power and chemical industries; methods of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a combined method of production of the electric power and liquid synthetic fuel with use of the gas turbine and steam-gaseous installations and is dealt with the field of electric power and chemical industries. The method provides for the partial oxidation of hydrocarbon fuel in a stream of the compressed air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas turbine installation with its consequent additional compression, production of a synthesis gas, its cooling and ecological purification, feeding of the produced synthesis gas in a single-pass reactor of a synthesis of a liquid synthetic fuel with the partial transformation of the synthesis gas into a liquid fuel. The power gas left in the reactor of synthesis of liquid synthetic fuel is removed into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine installation. At that the degree of conversion of the synthesis gas is chosen from the condition of maintenance of the working medium temperature at the inlet of the gas turbine depending on the type of the gas-turbine installation used for production of the electric power, and the consequent additional compression of the air taken from the high-pressure compressor of the gas-turbine installation is realized with the help of the gas-expansion machine powered by a power gas heated at the expense of the synthesis gas cooling before the reactor of synthesis. The invention allows simultaneously produce electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.
EFFECT: the invention ensures simultaneous production of electric power and synthetic liquid fuels.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: petrochemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with petrochemical industry, in particular with a method of catalytic preliminary reforming of the hydrocarbon raw materials containing higher hydrocarbons. The method provides for the indicated hydrocarbon raw materials gating through a zone of a catalyst representing a fixed layer containing a noble metal on magnesia oxide (MgO) and-or spinel oxide (MgAl2O4) at presence of oxygen and water steam. The technical result is a decrease of a carbon share on the catalyst.
EFFECT: the invention allows to decrease a carbon share on the catalyst.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: technology for production of methanol from syngas.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes mixing of hydrocarbon raw material with water steam to provide syngas by steam conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and subsequent methanol synthesis therefrom. Conversion of hydrocarbon raw material and methanol synthesis are carried out under the same pressure from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa. In one embodiment hydrocarbon raw material is mixed with water steam and carbon dioxide to provide syngas by steam/carbonic acid conversion of hydrocarbon raw material in radial-helical reactor followed by methanol synthesis therefrom under the same pressure (from 4.0 to 12.0 MPa). In each embodiment methanol synthesis is carried out in isothermal catalytic radial-helical reactor using fine-grained catalyst with grain size of 1-5 mm. Methanol synthesis is preferably carried out in two steps with or without syngas circulation followed by feeding gas from the first or second step into gasmain or power plant.
EFFECT: simplified method due to process optimization.
12 cl, 3 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: methods of production a synthesis gas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of production of hydrogen and carbon oxide, which mixture is used to be called a synthesis gas, by a selective catalytic oxidation of the hydrocarbonaceous (organic) raw material in presence of the oxygen-containing gases. The method of production of the synthesis gas includes a contacting with a catalyst at a gas hourly volumetric speed equal to 10000-10000000 h-1, a mixture containing organic raw material and oxygen or an oxygen-containing gas in amounts ensuring the ratio of oxygen and carbon of no less than 0.3. At that the process is conducted at a linear speed of the gas mixture of no less than 2.2 · 10-11 · (T1 + 273)4 / (500-T2) nanometer / s, where: T1 - a maximum temperature of the catalyst, T2 - a temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting. The linear speed of the gas mixture is, preferably, in the interval of 0.2-7 m\s. The temperature of the gas mixture fed to the contacting is within the interval of 100-450°C. The maximum temperature of the catalyst is within the interval of 650-1500°C. The technical effect is a safe realization of the process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures a safe realization of the process.
10 cl, 5 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; oil refining industry and other industries; methods of production a synthesis gas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the methods of production of a synthesis of gas and may be used in chemical, petrochemical, oil refining and other industries. The method of production of synthesis gas using a vapor or a vapor-carbon dioxide conversion of a hydrocarbonaceous raw material provides for purification of the hydrocarbonaceous raw material from sulfuric compounds, its commixing with steam or with steam and carbon dioxide with formation of a steam-gas mixture. The catalytic conversion of the steam-gas mixture is conducted in a reactor of a radially-spiral type, in which in the ring-shaped space filled with a nickel catalyst with a size of granules of 0.2-7 mm there are the hollow spiral-shaped walls forming the spiral-shaped channels having a constant cross section for conveyance of a stream of the steam-gaseous blend in an axial or in a radially-spiral direction. At that into the cavities of the walls feed a heat-transfer agent to supply a heat into the zone of reaction. The invention ensures intensification the process.
EFFECT: invention ensures intensification the process.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 2 tbl, 3 ex