Method and device for encoding and decoding a digitized image

 

The invention relates to encoding the image based on the segmentation of the samples of the image in accordance with the objects. Available consistent with the form coding with transform and inverse consistent with the form encoding conversion, in which the signal energy information coding will be transformed image points in the local region is approximately equal to the signal energy information encoding the transformed image points in the frequency domain. The technical effect achieved in the implementation of the image, is that consistent with the form of encoding conversion provides improved compression ratio for image data. 3 S. and 9 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

Encoding video signals in accordance with the standards of the image encoding N. 261, N.263, MPEG1 and MPEG2 is based on block-based discrete cosine transform (DCT). These methods use, in General, the principle is based on the blocks of the image encoding.

Another approach to encoding the image is the so-called principle of object-based coding of images. When based on objects kodirovanija and separate encoding of these objects.

In Fig. 2 in General presents a device for encoding and decoding images.

In Fig. 2 shows the camera, which photographed image. The camera may, for example, be any analog camera, which photographs the scene image, and image or digitized in the camera or in analogue form are transmitted to the first computing device R1, which is then either processed digitized images or analog image is converted to digitized images and processed digitized image Century.

The camera may be a digital camera, which are taken directly digitized images and are fed to the first computing device R1 for further processing.

The first computing device R1 can also be configured as an independent device, which are described in further manufacturing operations, for example, as an independent computer card that is installed in the computing device.

Under the first computing device R1 in General should be understood as any device that can conduct the processing C is a mobile phone).

The first computing device R1 has a processor unit P, which are described in further technological operations of the encoding or decoding of the image. The processing unit P is connected, for example, through the bus BU with the storage device SP, in which the memorized image data.

In General, described in further methods can be implemented as in mathematical software and in hardware, software, or partly in mathematical software and partially in hardware.

After the encoding of the image in the first computing device R1 and after the transfer of the compressed image data through the mediumto the second computing device R2 in the second computing device R2 is the decoding of the image.

The second computing device R2 may have the same structure as that of the first computing device R1, therefore, the storage device SP, which through the bus BU associated with the processor unit R.

In Fig.3 in a more detailed view of the possible device in the form of a schematic diagram for encoding or decoding the image is based on objects found in the image encoding.

When using block-based method of encoding a digitized image In usually divided into square blocks of size 8x8 image points BP or 16x16 pixels image BP and is supplied to the device for encoding image.

One point of the image is usually correspond directly to the encoded information, such as luminance (brightness or color information (color values).

When using block-based method of encoding image, a distinction is made between different encoding modes of the image.

When the so-called internal encoding of the image, depending on the circumstances, is encoded and transmitted to the whole image with the complete corresponding points in the image information coding (I-picture).

When the so-called mutual mode, the image encoding, depending on the circumstances, is encoded and transmitted only difference the following two videos at a time one after the other (picture P, image).

To switch between the internal encoding of the image and the regime of mutual coding of images, there are two commutator device SE. For the tsya the difference between the video information of the two following one after the other images Century. All of the encoding of the image is controlled by the control device by encoding the image ST. Subject to differential encoding image blocks BB, depending on the circumstances, are fed to the device coding with DCT transformation, in which corresponding points in the image information coding coding is applied with a transform, such as discrete cosine transformation (DCT).

In General, it may be, however, any other encoding with a transform, such as discrete sine transform or discrete Fourier transform.

Educated at the expense of encoding conversion spectral coefficients quanthouse in the unit of quantization Q and supplied to the multiplexer, the image encoding (not represented), for example, for channel coding and/or entropy encoding. In the inner loop of the reconstruction of the quantized spectral coefficients quanthouse inverse to inverse quantization device IQ and subjected to inverse encoding conversion device inverse coding transformation IDCT.

Further, in the case of mutual coded image in the adder AE is added to this videoporn which I stored in the storage device image SP. In the storage device image SP for simplified image symbolically represented by block for motion compensation MC.

Next we have a filter with adjustable feedback (loop filter LF), which is associated with the storage device SP, and with the device subtraction S.

To the multiplexer, the image encoding in addition to you want to send the image data is supplied to the mode flag f, which, depending on the circumstances, is, has there been any internal or mutual encoding the image.

Next, the quantization indices q for the spectral coefficients are fed to the multiplexer, the image encoding.

Also, the motion vector v is assigned, depending on the circumstances, the block image and/or the macroblock that contains, for example, 4 of the block image, and is supplied to the multiplexer, the image encoding.

Further provided is an informational message f to activate or deactivate a filter with adjustable feedback LF.

After the transfer of image information through the mediumthe second computing device R2 may be decoding the transmitted data. For e the example, has a loop structure reconstruction is shown in Fig.2 configuration.

When based on the object the encoding of each image object of the image is first decomposed into blocks of constant value, for example, also 8x8 pixels of the image. After this decomposition part of the result of image blocks is completely within the bounds of the object image. This situation is shown in Fig.4. The image contains the minimum one object image, which is surrounded by the edge of the object OK image object. Below are image blocks BB with 8x8 image points BP. Image blocks BB, which at least contain some of the edges of the object OK, denoted further as the blocks of the regional image RBB.

Image blocks BB, which after decomposition, all of which are in the object image, can be encoded following the above using block-based encoding method of the image with normal using block-based discrete cosine transform. Blocks the regional image RBB still partially filled with information and images must be encoded in a special way.

For the encoding block boundary of the image R is agenia IN within the block boundary of the image RBB should be supplemented by suitable means extrapolation of information coding to the full surface of the block boundary of the image RBB. This principle of action is called pairing. Augmented surface is then encoded conventional two-dimensional discrete cosine transform.

An alternative to this document [1] and [2] it is known that the object image is converted separately in rows and columns. This principle is called consistent with the form encoding conversion, in case of applying the DCT is called consistent with the form of the DCT. Assigned to the object image IN the DCT coefficients are determined so that the point image BP block boundary of the image RBB, which do not belong to the object image, are filtered out. To the remaining image points BP then applies primarily progressive conversion, the length of which corresponds to the number of remaining points in the image in this line. The resulting coefficients are aligned horizontally, and then undergo further one-dimensional DCT in the vertical direction with a corresponding length. It uses the same method as for the internal encoding of the image, and for mutual image encoding.

The known method adaptive to the shape encoding conversion, castelino bad compression ratio to be the seal of the image data when the image predictive errors.

Known position for image coding with prediction errors in a consistent form coding with transform comes from the transformation matrixwith the following structure:The value oftrue for the case p=0 and=1 for all other cases.

Using N denotes the size of the subject to convert a vector image containing the converted pixels of the image.

Usingindicated by a transformation matrix of size NN.

Using R, k are denoted by the indices p, k[0, N-1].

According to the known principle of action consistent with form PCT segment image is determined by the fact that primarily vertically converted each column segment in accordance with the regulationsand after that same position (2) is applied to the resulting data in the horizontal direction. Position according to the formula (2) is not optimal for image coding with prediction errors.

Thus, in the invention of leiodidae image, with the help of which achieved consistent with the form of the encoding conversion with improved compression ratio for the image data.

The problem is solved by the method according to the point 1 of the formula of the invention, the method according to the point 5 of the claims, and by means of the device according to p. 11 claims.

With the method according to the point 1 of the claims for encoding a digitized image In pixels BP object image is encoded using a modified consistent with the form of the encoding conversion.

"New" consistent with the form of the encoding conversion is performed so that the signal energy information coding will be transformed image point in a local area is approximately equal to the signal energy information encoding the transformed image points in the frequency area.

In other words, this means that consistent with the form of the encoding conversion orthonormality.

Preferred this principle is, in particular, that the quantization error in the subsequent quantization obtained by transforming the spectral coefficients is distributed is equal to the th block of 8x8 image.

This method is suitable when compared with other encoding block boundary of the image segment of the image.

In General, the method leads to clearly improved coding efficiency, i.e. equal to the speed of data increases the achievable image quality. As described below, in comparison with the known method without the additional cost of computer time can be achieved significantly improved ratio of the power signal/noise nearly dB.

With the method according to the point 5 of the claims when decoding is the inverse consistent with the form encoding conversion, and again the signal energy information coding will be transformed image points in the local region is approximately equal to the signal energy information encoding the transformed image points in the frequency domain.

This method also has the appropriate above presents advantages for encoding image.

When the device according to p. 11 claims for carrying out the method provided by the encoding device with conversion to the approved form of encoding conversion image points and/or the decoding device SNIA conversion or decoding device with conversion so the signal energy information coding will be transformed image points in the local region is approximately equal to the signal energy information encoding the transformed image points in the frequency domain.

Also fair for the device described above advantages of the "new" encoding conversion.

Containing the benefits of the improvements of the invention are obtained from the dependent claims.

In the improved method of pre-emption is that the conversion factorsbe transformed points in the imageare formed in accordance with the following position:moreover, using N denotes the size you want to convert image vector, which contained the transformed points of the image -indicated by a transformation matrix of size NN, - R, k indices are denoted with R, k[0, N-1].

As can be seen in the position (3), a significant improvement is achieved only due to the different scaling of the position transformation in comparison with the known principle of de is of the conversion is performed only in the mode of mutual encoding images. The internal mode, the image encoding is performed in the improvement of the well-known, consistent with the form of the encoding conversion.

The above improved method for coding image provided as well as improvements to encode the image, at the position for the inverse of the encoding conversion with the corresponding inverted position.

Improvements of the method are advantageous for the design of the coding block conversion device for encoding image.

Similarly, in connection with the method of improving the encoding conversion is also provided for the device, the image encoding, and, depending on the circumstances, a device for encoding conversion is performed so that the implemented improvements.

Methods and devices are particularly advantageous may be used when approved by the shape coding with transform to blocks of the regional image with object-based coding of images.

The figures shows an example of execution of the invention, as further explained below.

Molina; Fig. 2 is a conventional device for coding an image with a camera, two computing devices and the transmission medium;
Fig. 3 - sketch of a conventional device for using block-based coding of images;
Fig. 4 is a symbolic representation of the image with the object image and the blocks of the image and the blocks of the regional image.

In the framework of object-based coding of image segmentation is a digitized image B in accordance with the acting in the scene image objects and separate coding object image.

For each image object IN usually primarily decomposed into image blocks BB of constant size, for example, 8x8 image points BP. After decomposition of part of the result of image blocks BB is completely within the bounds of the object image. These blocks CENTURIES in the light of the cited above explained method is encoded using a standard based on the blocks of the encoding conversion.

As described above, the blocks of the regional image RBB still only partially filled with information and images must be encoded in a special way.

With the method in the first computing device R1-prasowaniem DCT. The first computing device R1 is designed in such a way that can be represented symbolically in Fig. 3 modules.

In the second operation 102 for each block boundary of the image RBB for information coding of image points BP corresponding block boundary of the image RBB formed conversion factorsbe transformed points in the imagein accordance with the following regulations:

moreover, using N denotes the size you want to convert image vector, which contained the transformed points of the image
-indicated by a transformation matrix of size NN,
- R, k indices are denoted with R, k[0, N-1].

Clearly indicates the position for encoding conversion (3) that the signal energy information coding will be transformed image points in the local area is equal to the signal energy information encoding the transformed image points in the frequency domain.

As agreed with the form of encoding conversion mainly PR is used for encoding conversion, when the encoding of the image occurs in the regime of mutual encoding images.

When the encoding of the image occurs in the internal mode, the image encoding, mainly formed conversion factorsthe transformed points of the imagein accordance with the following regulations:

After the transfer of the coded information of the image (operation 105), i.e., after quantization (operation 103), depending on the circumstances, the entropy encoding (operation 104) of the transmitted image data, for example, as described in [1] by the way, through the transmission mediumthe second computing device R2 is the decoding of the image.

When decoding images in the first operation 106 is performed entropy decoding and the second operation 107 inverse quantization of the quantized spectral coefficients. The spectral coefficientsnext are fed to the inverse consistent with the form of coding with transform (IDCT). In accordance with the method for coding image again for decode the Gia signal information encoding the transformed image points in the frequency domain is approximately equal to the signal energy information coding of image points in the local area.

For the inverse consistent with the form of encoding conversion point of the imageformed from the coefficients of the spectral transformationin accordance with the following position (operation 108):

moreover, using N denotes the size you want to convert image vector, which contained the transformed points of the image
-indicated by a transformation matrix of size NN,
- R, k indices are denoted with R, k[0, N-1],
using ()-indicated by inversion of the matrix.

Inverse consistent with the form of the encoding conversion in accordance with regulation (4) is carried out mainly within the framework of the image encoding mode of mutual encoding images.

The internal mode, the image encoding is generally consistent with the form of the inverse of the encoding conversion in accordance with the following regulations:

A device for coding image provided by the device coding with DCT transformation for when reattaching the DCT is designed the signal energy information coding will be transformed image points in the local region is approximately equal to the signal energy information encoding the transformed image points in the frequency domain.

Device for encoding conversion is performed mainly in such a way that presented in the framework of the method for coding image process operations are implemented in the device coding with DCT transformation. Way, needless to say, the device can also be implemented in the mathematical software that is processed by the CPU R.

The same is true for the device decoding the image, which is the inverse of the encoding device converting IDCT. Accordingly, the inverse of the encoding device converting IDCT is performed in such a way that technological operations for decoding image implemented, in particular, for the inverse consistent with the form of the encoding conversion.

As the method and device can mainly be applied to a block boundary of the image RBB image objects IN a digitized image Century.

Clearly the means changed masstag area equal to the signal energy information encoding points in the image in the frequency domain.

For the invention is immaterial how the converted pixels of the image, i.e., the spectral coefficients are used further within the image encoding, i.e., the type of quantization, entropy coding or channel coding.

Sources of information
1. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11, MPEG-4 Video verification model Version 5.0 Doc.N1469, Nov. 19996, S. 55-59.

2. T. Sikora und C. Makai, Shape adaptive DCT for generic coding of video, IEEE Transactions on circuits and systems for video technology, Vol. 5, S. 59-62, Feb. 1995.


Claims

1. The method of encoding images in digital form, which contains objects with any number of pixels, wherein the pixels of the image to encode using the approved form conversion, and consistent with the form of the transformation is done in such a way that the signal energy will be transformed image points in the local region is approximately equal to the signal energy of the transformed points of the image in the frequency domain.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the conversion factorsthe transformed points of the imageform according to the following rule:

where N is the value ://img.russianpatents.com/img_data/58/585603.gif">indicated by a transformation matrix of size NN;
p, k indices are denoted with R, k,[0, N-1].

3. The method according to one of paragraphs. 1 and 2, characterized in that the encoding of the image is either in the mode of internal encoding or mode of reciprocal encoding, consistent with the form of the transformation is carried out only in the mode of reciprocal encoding, in this mode the internal encoding is consistent with the second form of conversion that is different from the first consistent with the form of the conversion.

4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that as the second is consistent with the shape transformation is applied consistent with the form of the discrete cosine transform.

5. The method of decoding images in digital form, which contains objects with an arbitrary number of pixels, wherein the pixels of the image decode using inverse consistent with the form of conversion, and consistent with the form of the transformation is carried out so that the signal energy will be transformed image points in the local region is approximately equal to the signal energy of the transformed points of the image in celabratory option consistent with the form of discrete cosine transform.

7. The method according to p. 5 or 6, characterized in that the converted pixels of the imageform of conversion factorsaccording to the following rule:

where N is the size you want to convert image vector, which contains the converted pixels of the image;
the transformation matrix of size NN;
p, k indices are denoted with R, k,[0,N-1];
using ( )-1indicated by inversion of the matrix.

8. The method according to one of paragraphs. 5-7, characterized in that the decoding of the image is carried out either in the mode of internal decoding or in the mode of mutual decoding, consistent with the form of the transformation is carried out only in the mode of mutual decoding, while the internal mode decoding is consistent with the second form of conversion that is different from the first consistent with the form of the conversion.

9. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that as the second is consistent with the shape transformation is applied consistent with the form of the discrete cosine transform.

10. SP the s edge of the image.

11. The device for carrying out the method according to PP.1-4, wherein the conversion device is provided for a consistent form of transformation of the image points.

12. The device for carrying out the method according to PP.5-9, wherein the conversion device is provided for the inverse consistent with the shape transformation of the image points.

 

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2 cl, 26 dwg, 1 app

FIELD: video communications, in particular, technology for masking decoder errors.

SUBSTANCE: in accordance to one variant of invention, system and method decode, order and pack video information to video data packets for transfer via communication line with commutated channels, due to which system conceals errors, caused by loss of video data packets, when system receives, unpacks, orders and decodes data packets. In accordance to another variant, system and method decode and pack video information so that adjacent macro-blocks may not be positioned in same data packets. Also, system and method may provide information, accompanying packets of video data for simplification of decoding process. Advantage of described scheme is that errors caused due to data loss are distributed spatially across whole video frame. Therefore, areas of data, surrounding lost macro-blocks, are decoded successfully, and decoder may predict movement vectors and spatial content with high degree of precision.

EFFECT: improved quality of image.

4 cl, 10 dwg

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