Irrigation system with irrigation furrow
The invention relates to surface irrigation furrow and is intended for continuous irrigation of crops sowing. The irrigation system includes a local distributor, sprinklers, flow furrow irrigation, stormwater overflow tank, the manifold for the discharge of drainage and storm water. For irrigation of agricultural crops continuous planting on irrigated land with slopes in the range from 0.004 to 0.007 flow irrigation furrows made by the bottom width of from 0.13 to 0.15 M. the Width of the grooves on the top from 0.23 to 0.25 m depth from 0.10 to 0.12 m, and the width of the spacing of 0.60 m In the irrigated plot with gradients i0,004 irrigation furrows made by the bottom width of from 0.23 to 0.25 m in width on top of from 0.33 to 0.35 m, depth from 0.09 to 0.11 m inter-row spacing of 0.90 m Excess horizon irrigation jet over the crest of a furrow in the range of 0.02 to 0.03 m Ensures uniform wetting of the root system narrow-row crops especially in the initial stage of their development. 2 Il. The invention relates to surface irrigation furrow and is intended for irrigation of crops continuous harvest of perennial grasses, wheat, etc.,) in the irrigated plot with a slope of less than 0,007 and can be used in different soil-Melia is 0.24 m flooded with water along the entire length of approximately 2/3 of their depth, used mainly for irrigation of wide-row crops. Water through the bottom and soaked part of the slopes is absorbed into the soil and hydrates (1).This kind of soil moisture is not sufficient for narrow-row crops (e.g. wheat), especially in the initial stage of plant development when their root system is not developed. For this reason, the agricultural culture of continuous sowing irrigated mainly surface irrigation by flooding on stripes.However, many years of experience in irrigation of these crops by the overlap of the bands in the irrigated areas having a slope less than 0,007 showed that the irrigation norm in these conditions increases dramatically and reaches up to 2000 m3/ha and more, which leads to a significant loss of scarce irrigation water (2).The objective of the invention is to reduce irrigation rates when watering crops continuous planting in the irrigated areas with slopes less than 0,007, which is achieved by applying flooded flowing irrigation furrows.The solution of this problem is achieved by the fact that the irrigation system with irrigation furrow, including local distributor, sprinklers, flow furrow irrigation, stormwater overflow tank, the manifold for the discharge of drainage and storm water, according to the x from 0.004 to 0.007 flow irrigation furrows made by the bottom width of from 0.13 to 0.15 m, width on top from 0.23 to 0.25 m depth from 0.10 to 0.12 m wide row spacing of 0.60 m, and in the irrigated plot i0,004 flow irrigation furrows made by the bottom width of from 0.23 to 0.25 m, width at the top from 0.33 to 0.35 m, a depth of from 0.09 to 0.11 m wide row spacing of 0.90 m, to ensure excess horizon irrigation jet over the crest of a furrow in the range of 0.02 to 0.03 mWhen making a request adopted the following conventions: Qb- irrigation consumption produced in the irrigation furrow, m3/c; qb- the specific consumption of grooves defined by the formula: db=Qb/bB.cfm3/(cm) where bbcf- the average width of the grooves (in the plane problem), m; bitem Cis the calculated width of the front irrigation streams (inter-row spacing), m; Nb- exceeding the horizon irrigation jet above the bottom of the grooves defined by the graph of the limit values of specific consumption (3), which is developed according to the results of many years of experience crop is irrigated continuous planting, m; tb- the desired depth of irrigation furrows, m ; 1p. I- the length of the furrow (irrigation tier), m; vb- speed jet irrigation in the groove defined by the formula:
Z - >them;
m - irrigation depth, m3/ha;
i is the slope of irrigated land.Calculations show that reducing irrigation rates is due to the increase in specific consumption and, accordingly, the hydraulic gradient and flow velocity jet irrigation in flooded irrigation furrow. So, for example, on irrigated land with slopes in the range from 0.004 to 0.007 in irrigated flow Qb=0,002 m3/s produced in the furrow with a bottom width of from 0.13 to 0.15, width at the top from 0.23 to 0.25 m depth from 0.10 to 0.12 m, the specific consumption of grooves increases to values of qb=0.01 m3/(cm) and velocity of the jet increases with v= 0,054 m/s (at watering of the bands) to vb- 0,072 m/s, and irrigation rate would reduce to m=463 m3/ha vs. m=926 m3/ha under irrigation by flooding on stripes, i.e. 2 times. And in the irrigated plot with gradients i0,004 when irrigation flow rate Qb=0,002 m3/s produced in the furrow with a bottom width of from 0.23 to 0.25 m, width at the top from 0.33 to 0.35 m, a depth of from 0.09 to 0.11 m, the specific consumption of furrows qb=0,0067, the stream velocity vb=0,053 m/s, and irrigation rate would reduce to m=418 m3/ha vs. m= 1181 m3/ha under irrigation by flooding on stripes.On che furrows for irrigation of crops continuous sowing: (a) on the slope of 0.004<i0,007; b) on slopes i0,004 in Fig.1.Irrigation system, shown in the drawings, includes a district distributor 1; fill up to 1 km 2: irrigation tube 3 diameter 0,04 0,06...m installed in the dam fill every 0.6 or 0.9 m (4) depending on the slope of irrigated land: with slopes in the range from 0.004 to 0.007 and with slopes i0,004; flooded irrigation furrows 4 length up to 500 m, the bottom width of from 0.13 to 0.15 m, width at the top from 0.23 to 0.25 m depth from 0.10 to 0.12 m, the width of the spacing of 0.60 m at the slope of 0.004<i0,007 and the bottom width of from 0.23 to 0.25 m, width at the top from 0.33 to 0.35 m, a depth of from 0.09 to 0.11 m, the width of the spacing of 0.90 m with slopes i0,004; manifold for discharge of drainage and stormwater 5 and stormwater overflow tank 6.The system works as follows.Water from the precinct of the distributor 1 is supplied by gravity to fill 2 and then through the irrigation tube 3 in flooded irrigation furrows 4. The process of irrigation along with moisturizing the bottom and slopes of irrigation furrows moistened and their crests, which are flooded with water up to 0.03 m, which ensures a more uniform wetting of the root system narrow culos, 1979. - 303 S., Il. (Textbooks for the high. C.-H. textbook. institutions).2. Shtepa B., irrigation of cereal and fodder crops. Uzgiprovodkhoz, Rostov-on-don, 1978.3
Irrigation system with irrigation furrow, including local distributor, sprinklers, flow furrow irrigation the stormwater overflow tank, the manifold for the discharge of drainage and storm water, characterized in that for irrigation of agricultural crops continuous planting on irrigated land with slopes in the range from 0.004 to 0.007 flow irrigation furrows made by the bottom width of from 0.13 to 0.15 m, width at the top from 0.23 to 0.25 m depth from 0.10 to 0.12 m, the width of the spacing of 0.60 m, and in the irrigated plot with gradients i0,004 flow irrigation furrows made by the bottom width of from 0.23 to 0.25 m, width at the top from 0.33 to 0.35 m, a depth of from 0.09 to 0.11 m, the width of the spacing of 0.90 m to ensure excess horizon irrigation jet over the crest of a furrow in the range of 0.02 to 0.03 m
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, desalinization of saline soil of agricultural lands.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting slits on plot to be desalinized; feeding rinse water onto strips between slits; removing salt from slit surfaces and spilling soil therein, with slits being cut to depth exceeding depth of season soil wetting with precipitation; providing cavities on strips between slits; closing cavities with shields of hydrophobic water-impermeable material, said shields being equipped with perforations extending along their central axes and float members; fastening shield edges in upper part of slits; providing soil desalinization facilitated by precipitation. Upon precipitation, rain water flows over walls of cavities to infiltrate through perforations and fill cavities bottom part, with the result that salt is washed into depth of soil to be desalinized. Moisture will be preferably moved by capillary force and due to evaporation of moisture from slit wall surfaces toward slit walls, accompanied by accumulation thereon of salts. Washing process may be accomplished during one or several seasons depending upon precipitation intensity and salt concentration. After completing of desalinization processes, shields are removed, salts are buried by spilling soil into slits, and soil on desalinized plot is mellowed to depth of season soil wetting. Burying of salts at the level below depth of season soil wetting and destruction of capillaries by deep mellowing of desalinized soil layer protect it from secondary salinization.
EFFECT: increased fertility of agricultural areas on unirrigated agricultural lands in the absence of potable water sources without the necessity of constructing expensive water feeding systems.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, desalination of agricultural lands.
SUBSTANCE: method involves feeding water to land to be desalinated; cutting slits therein; irrigating strips between slits; removing salt from slit wall surfaces and spilling soil thereon, with slits being provided at distance from one another which does not exceed doubled value of capillary transfer of soil moisture at land under desalination process and slit cutting depth being set so that it exceeds value of capillary lifting of moisture by soil at land under desalination process; forming ridges with two sloping surfaces on strips between slits; placing pipelines with droppers thereon, said pipelines being connected to water supply main; covering strip surfaces with water-impermeable shields made from hydrophilic material; fastening shield edges in upper part of slits; supplying water from droppers up to termination of desalination procedure, with following interrupting of water supplying process; moving soil layer with salt from slit walls onto slit bottom and forming water-impermeable layer of hydrophilic material above said soil layer; leveling slits.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of washing water, increased efficiency in soil desalination, decreased consumption of labor and costs for extraction, conveyance and disposition of salts settled on slit walls.
FIELD: hydraulic equipment, particularly to drain water from tailing pits, for closed drainage systems formed in zones characterized by severe climatic conditions.
SUBSTANCE: spillaway comprises service water vessel, shutoff member made as lower water level regulator arranged in discharge pipeline, upper water level sensor and magnet, which cooperates with magnetic mass when shutoff member is in its closed position. Float-type lower water level control member is installed from discharge pipeline interior side and is used as heat insulation means. Upper water level sensor is made as float and connected to shutoff member by means of vertically-aligned adjusting rod, which regulates upper water level. Magnetic mass is located on lateral pipeline. Magnet is installed on shutoff member.
EFFECT: increased leakage prevention, elimination of service vessel cooling and, as a result, extended field of application.
FIELD: agriculture, particularly irrigation ditches, namely gravity flow, open channel water distribution systems to control water flow in irrigation canal with water consumers, which take water along the canal.
SUBSTANCE: water-distribution system comprises irrigation canal with head gate, sealed chamber with sliding float communicating with upper pool and discharge means through three-way gate installed in supply pipeline, three-way gate control sensor, movable water consumer with water-intake means, blocking structure made as elastic shell and water level sensor. Water-intake means of water consumer is provided with sheet fixedly secured to upper end part thereof and adapted to block upper part of water flow. The sheet is associated with spherical elastic shell, which blocks remainder water flow part and provided with balancing means. The balancing means is located around spherical elastic shell perimeter. The sheet is linked to head part of water-intake means by flexible tie. Hollow body is connected to outer side of water-intake means. The hollow body is adapted to receive water level sensor made as float with vertical post. The post has two parallel contact rods connected to one post end and associated with power source. The contact rods cooperate with trolley cables in horizontal plane. The trolley cables are carried by masts installed on irrigation canal berm and distributed along the full canal length. The trolley cables are connected to power source through spring-loaded contact rods arranged in water-intake means and receiver/transmitter unit. Time delay unit is connected with gate control sensor. Sliding float is connected with head gate through kinematical connection means. Movable water consumer is provided with programmable control device, which controls water-intake means location height.
EFFECT: reduced operational costs, decreased water consumption for agricultural crop watering, decreased water reserve volume, simplified structure and reduced costs of irrigation system object construction.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly devices to maintain predetermined water level in contour-ditches of rice irrigation system.
SUBSTANCE: water spillway device adapted to discharge water from upper pool of contour-ditch comprises partition with delivery outlet to be closed with inclined gate arranged from lower pool side and supported by horizontal pivot pin, control chamber and elastic sealed vessel located in control chamber. Control chamber includes delivery pipe having inlet orifice provided with valve, which is connected with upper pool float through rod. Elastic sealed vessel comprises discharge orifice having diameter smaller than that of delivery pipe and acts on piston cooperating with gate through rod and hinge. The gate has side partitions and sealing means.
EFFECT: possibility to use natural atmospheric precipitations for irrigation purposes, prevention of crop losses due to increased accuracy of necessary water level maintenance in rice contour-ditches and provision of optimal rice irrigation regime along with decreased labor inputs.
FIELD: irrigation, particularly artificial water canals.
SUBSTANCE: method involves punching perforation orifices in film web; cutting furrows; breaking down and spreading soil lumps; laying perforated film webs along furrow perimeter and securing film web edges to berm. Number of perforation orifices made in film web increases from front furrow end to rear end thereof. Method is realized with the use of device including frame carrying working tool used for furrow cutting. Spreader, perforated film web accumulation means and pressing rollers are serially installed behind the working tool. The spreader comprises two rows of paired rollers freely rotating about their axes fixedly secured to shaft by means of bearings and loaded with spring. Roller is installed behind perforated film web accumulation means. The roller may perform limited vertical movement and is pressed with spring to furrow bottom and sides. Pressing rollers and scrapers are arranged behind the roller.
EFFECT: prevention of irrigation water losses during furrow filling with water; elimination of plant rootage damping-off.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: irrigation systems, particularly ones to be used with opened water streams using energy source, for instance hydraulic level drop at retaining structures.
SUBSTANCE: water lift unit comprises chamber with controllable water inlet, water outlet pipe and water lifting means made as pump. The chamber has orifice receiving water inlet flow regulation valve. The valve has float, rod and guiding means. The chamber is connected with water outlet pipe provided with water turbine having shaft extending into chamber interior and communicated with shaft of water lifting means pump.
EFFECT: possibility to create pressure difference enough for water lifting along with possibility to retain desirable structure throughput.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to nondestructive methods for control and diagnostics of operational condition of tray channels. Device for diagnostics and forecasting of technical condition of tray channels in irrigation systems includes frame, antenna blocks and motion sensor. Device is equipped with processing module. Frame copies channel shape and is equipped with support rollers. Antenna blocks are arranged along frame perimetre.
EFFECT: makes it possible to improve quality of tray channel operational monitoring, to speed up their inspection with nondestructive test methods and to carry out forecasting of remaining service life of tray channels.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to operational monitoring of irrigation system tray channels technical condition in hydrotechnical construction. In method for performance of operational monitoring with the help of nondestructive check instruments and with application of ultrasonic method and method of impact pulse, reinforced concrete tray is separated into three survey zones by detection of specific defects and damages for each zone. Zone 1 is investigated to detect defects and damages that lead to destruction of tray bottom part. Zone 2 is investigated to detect skew cracks in tray board. Zone 3 - to detect long cracks, which lead to collapse of tray board. Using obtained data, technical condition of irrigation system tray channels is predicted.
EFFECT: more accurate assessment of stressed-deformed condition of reinforced concrete trays of irrigation channels and to predict their remaining service life.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a trench antifiltration curtain embedded into a confining layer with a vertical water-impermeable flexible screen and a trench filler from filtering material, closed along the perimetre of the dried area, inside which there is a secured site, a device for deep directed distributed supply of fresh water into the soil massif of the dried area and the secured site and a drainage device. The drainage device is made in the form of a drainage vertical well (wells) with depth below the level of ground waters. The device for fresh water supply is made in the form of water-absorbing pits (pit) with depth to the level of ground waters. In the first version the drainage well is installed in the centre of the secured site and is connected with the drainage horizontal wells arranged ray-like in the soil layer with ground waters under the secured site. Pits are arranged along the secured site perimetre in the medium of filtering material of the antifiltration curtain trench filler. In the second version two and more drainage wells are installed at one side of the secured site and are connected to each other by a drainage header. The device for water supply is made in the form of at least one pit arranged along the curtain perimetre in the medium of the filtering material of the curtain trench filler. In the third version two drainage wells are installed at one side of the secured site and are connected to each other by a drainage header and a slot drain installed at the depth below the ground waters level. The well is made at the opposite side of the secured site and is located in plan in the middle part of the trench filler from the curtain filtering material. In the fourth version two drainage well are installed one at two sides of the secured site, every of which is connected to drainage horizontal wells arranged ray-like in the soil layer with ground waters under the secured site. The device for water supply is made in the form of at least two pits, every of which is installed in the medium of the filtering material of the curtain trench filler. In the fifth version four drainage well are installed one at four sides of the secured site, every of which is connected to a drainage horizontal well arranged ray-like in the soil layer with ground waters under the secured site. The device for water supply is made in the form of at four pits, every of which is installed at the border of the dried area in the medium of the filtering material of the curtain trench filler.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of meliorative system operation and lower salt content in water-absorbing soil massif and drain flow down to rated parameters of mineralisation.
5 cl, 14 dwg