The method of producing artificial leathers
The invention relates to the finishing of artificial leather in order to give her the technological and hygienic properties by increasing the permeability and can be used as a finishing layer to interior parts of the vehicle, as well as a noise-absorbing layer in the premises of the special purpose. The method consists in the fact that jerseys on the basis of cause foaming composition comprising polyvinyl chloride resin, plasticizers, stabilizers, softening agent, a blowing agent, a dispersant, a filler with pigment, which is then applied film based on polyvinyl chloride resin, plasticizers, stabilizers, softening agent, filler pigments, then the obtained three-layer material is subjected to heat treatment, stamping and punching. The technical objective is to obtain a solid, elastic, hygienic artificial leather, high creative ability. table 1. The invention relates to the finishing of artificial leather in order to give her the technological and hygienic properties by increasing the permeability and can be used as a finishing layer of det is to prohibit layer in the premises of the special purpose.A method of obtaining artificial leather, according to which the fibrous substrate (base) cause foaming composition based on polyvinyl chloride resin, plasticizers, stabilizers, softening agent, blowing agent with dispenser and filler with subsequent heat treatment in two - or three-band camera. This method is chosen for the prototype [Copyright certificate 701187, 19.06.1995].The disadvantages of the artificial leather obtained using the prototype method are, firstly, the low strength characteristics and aesthetic qualities due to the lack of strong and dense monolithic layer. Secondly, low technological capabilities, making it difficult to use it to cover the surfaces of complex shape. Thirdly, Iskozh prototype insufficient hygienic, because it almost does not allow ventilation due to the lack of significant ventilation ducts. This dramatically narrows the scope of application, in particular, precludes its use as a cladding layer for intricate parts, such as car doors, manufactured by molding method of the heated wood-filled polymer sheet.Task, aluchemie durable, elastic, hygienic artificial leather, high creative ability, in order to satisfy customer requirements.The problem is solved in that in a method of producing an artificial skin comprising applying on the basis of the foaming compositions based on polyvinyl chloride resin, plasticizers, stabilizers, softening agent, blowing agent, disperser and filler pigments with subsequent heat treatment, unlike the prototype optionally preparing a second composition based on polyvinyl chloride resin, plasticizers, stabilizers, softening agent, filler pigments, which produce the second film before heat treatment is applied to the surface of the first film, previously applied on the basis of which use knitted fabric, after which the obtained three-layer material is subjected to heat treatment, the embossing and perforation.The components of the formulation can be selected from any of the conventionally used for this purpose, for example polyvinychloride suspended stamps-79-58M-70-59M.As plasticizers can be used the following components: diethylhexyl is Satarov - complex stabilizer VA-Cd stearinovokisly (SCS K-17), diphenylolpropane technology., vegetable oils epoxydecane, stabilizer BAZ-49.As softener - acid, stear. technology.As the pore-forming - porofor KHZ -21.As dispersant - Las calcium (ABS).As the filler is chalk chemical besieged, Aerosil 300.As the pigments according to customer's requirement, such as color 619 (grey) - titanium dioxide, carbon black To 354, heliogen blue; color 99 (black) - carbon black K-354.An example of the Inventive method is carried out as follows. Preparing PVC composition for the first (porous) layer. The composition of the first porous layer may be the same wt.h.: Polyvinyl chloride suspended With a 70-58 M - 100 Plasticizers DOP - 70 DC - 20 Stabilizers SCS-17 - 1.5 Diphenylolpropane technology. - 0.4 Oil epoxydecane - 1,9
Stearic acid technology. - 0,3
Porofor CHS-21 - 2,0
Las (ABS) - 1,1
Aerosil A-300 - 0,5
The pigments of 2.68
In a pre-heated up to 100-125oWith the mixer company "Henschel" loaded polyvinyl chloride, plasticizers, stabilizers and others to the mix is pumped through the pipe in a preheated intensive mixer, there also is loaded through the pipe pigment paste. In the mixing process occurs partial plasticization of the mixture. Paged mixture in the form of lumpy rubbery mixture is fed to rollers, where there is a uniform distribution of all components by volume of the mixture, the heating and plasticization. Mixed and heated plastic in the form of wide strips of 40-79 mm is continuously fed by conveyor to the calender.In parallel, the preparation of the adhesive paste, which is applied on the canvas. The basis is hlopkovolokna or hlopkovolokna weft knitted fabric, with a nominal surface density 135-150 g/m2, 150-160 g/m2. Preparation of adhesive paste for coating the basics. In pre-cleaned vertical mixer automatically filled 1/3 of the plasticizer, loaded polyvinyl chloride emulsion and all other components according to the recipe, except PVC resin chlorinated PSC-LS. Mixture into a thick mixture is stirred for 35 minutes. The temperature of the mixture 30-33oC. Then, the mixer serves resin chlorinated polyvinylchloride, pre-mixed with the plasticizer in a ratio of 1:5, the remaining portion pestiferous is pumped to a three-roll kraskoterke, where frays once. Rolls of kraskoterke should be cool. The viscosity of the finished adhesive paste is 10 seconds bucket Svetlova with a hole diameter of 16 mm, Then the adhesive paste is applied on the canvas. Knitted fabric (base) with unwinding device through the flume compensator is fed into roll blade, where it is uniformly applied adhesive paste thickness 205 g/m2. After applying the adhesive paste knitted fabric enters the heat chamber, where the surface is dried at a temperature of 150-220oC.Calendering the mixture to the first porous layer, applying it to the base as follows. Processed adhesive paste is the basis of the heat chamber is fed to the preheated four-roll l-shaped calender between the rubber pressure shaft and the fourth shaft of the calender. At the same time in the gap between the first and second shafts with razogrewatego-feed roller comes mixed and heated the plastic for the first porous layer, which calandered and applied to the base. It turns out the semi-finished product. After that make calendering the second composition for monolithic layer and drawing on polyfab the market
DOP - 50
DOS - 20
SCS-17 - 1,7
The diphenylolpropane technology. - 0,4
Vegetable oil epoxydecane - 2,0
Stearic acid technology. - 0,3
Chalk chemical besieged - 17,32
The pigments of 2.68
The intermediate product from the first calender is supplied to the second calender, there is calendering the mixture for the second (monolithic) film mix for it comes with razogrewatego-feed roller in the gap between the first and second shafts. The connection of the prefabricated and monolithic film occurs between the fourth and lining the shaft of the second calender. The resulting intermediate product is cooled. The result of this operation is obtained a thin cloth with shiny dull surface. For further finishing of the cloth is fed to the operation of steam formation, heat treatment and stamping. Before it enters the heat chamber prefabricated with unwinding device passes through the compensator, fixed with needle clamps (klupp) in spanname and goes into racks with three heating zones. In the first zone gelation occurs with little porosity. In the second zone temperature is higher, providing complete formation of pores in the first is the strength of connection with the base. At the exit of the heat chamber, the material passes through the cooling device that blows cold air for the fixation of the porous structure. Before tinyline shaft surface material is heated by an infrared heater and tonitza. After passing through the cooling drums edge artificial leathers on a knitted base is cut with a special knife. Then the material goes to finishing operations (printing, finishing). The printed image is applied to the obverse surface of the material to improve its appearance. Printing is carried out as follows. The semi-finished product with unwinding device through the compensator is fed to a printing unit, which consists of bath, rubber roller, and the printing of the metal shaft coated on its surface pattern. In the bath is fed printing ink, which is printed by the shaft is applied to the surface of the artificial leathers. The material then enters the heat chamber, then through the cooling drums is fed to the winding device and the further processing is the application of the finishing solution. The purpose of the application of the finishing solution - receiving artificial leathers with a matte or with a certain Shine (depending on the requirements of the consumer) and non-sticky surface layer is produced in a heat chamber, and then the material is cooled through the cooling drums. After these operations, the fabric has a matte textured surface, its thickness increases, it becomes softer and more elastic, becomes similar to the skin. The finished material is wound into a roll. The obtained artificial leather in appearance and physical-mechanical properties satisfy many customers. However, its technological and hygienic properties, namely the lack of channels for ventilation, narrows its scope. Get viniliskozga "not breathing" and, therefore, does not have sufficient molding properties. It is difficult to use as a lining stamped parts car. Indeed, in connection with the coated surface between bubbles of air, which degrades the fit due to the lack of channels for the release of this air. For this reason, the obtained viniliskozha not suitable for the upholstery of the seats and backs of vehicles, i.e., those surfaces that are in contact with the human body and, therefore, require ventilation. To meet the requirements of the customer received viniliskozhu subjected to perforation. Peo, without jerks unwound through the staking of a pair of rolls, and then passes through a compensating roller. Then the material is pulled through a guide roller under perforating comb, where it is perforated. Temperature needle shaft 145-155oC. the Number of needles 48 pieces at one cm2. Form perforations round, diameter 1,0-1,2 mm, the geometry of the perforation 510 mm punching Speed of 2 m/min Cutting after perforation is collected in the collector, installed under perforating comb. The material is then fed to the viewing box where the visually determined by the quality of perforation. The quality of perforation is determined by viewing the finished iskai on clearance, and laboratory tests.Physico-mechanical characteristics of the obtained artificial leathers in the table.The inventive method allows for the introduction of advanced operations - punching (or Microperforation) to meet hygienic and technological requirements for artificial skin. Indeed, due to the perforations achieved an excellent fit flat piece of perforated faux leather to any povero and a kind of "expansion joints curvature". This allows you to use this skin for the manufacture of pressed parts of the interior of a vehicle and for other similar purposes.
The method of producing artificial leathers, including the application on the basis of the foaming compositions based on polyvinyl chloride resin, plasticizers, stabilizers, softening agent, blowing agent, disperser and filler pigments, with subsequent heat treatment, characterized in that it further preparing a second composition based on polyvinyl chloride resin, plasticizers, stabilizers, softening agent, filler pigments, which produce the second film before heat treatment is applied to the surface of the first film, previously applied on the basis of which use knitted fabric, after which the obtained three-layer material is subjected to heat treatment, stamping and punching.
FIELD: composite materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention discloses a method for manufacturing composite material for shielding-mediated protection against electromagnetic emission and can be used in electronics, in radio engineering, and also in a series of special-destination articles. In addition, material may be used for anechoic boxes and in various assemblies of technical devices and radio apparatuses. Method comprises mixing modified graphite-containing conducting filler and polymeric binder at weight ratio (50-80):(20-50). Once ingredients combined, mixture is additionally subjected to thermal expansion in thermal shock mode at 250-310оС and then molded. Polymeric binder is selected from polyolefins, polystyrene, fluoroplastic, polyvinylchloride paste and modified graphite is product obtained by modifying graphite with concentrated sulfuric and nitric acids. Material is characterized by that, in wavelength band from 2 to 5 cm at thickness of material up to 0.1 mm, transmission coefficient is decreased from -40 to -85 dB.
EFFECT: improved performance characteristics.
6 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex