The method of processing of crude oil

 

The invention relates to methods of thermal processing of crude oil and can be used in refining and petrochemical industries, in particular, it can be used in the petroleum industry for the refining of crude oil with the aim of obtaining olefins and high-octane gasoline. The method of processing of crude oil includes high temperature catalytic cracking of vacuum gas oil in the presence of low-octane straight-run gasoline fraction at a temperature 700-705oC and a contact time of 3.5 C. Straight-run gasoline fraction is fed to the contact zone in the vapor phase at a temperature of 460oWith, and vacuum gas oil is fed to the contact zone in the vapor state at a temperature of 360oWith the ratio of vacuum gas oil and straight-run gasoline fraction 1:2,33 and volumetric feed rate of the substrate is not greater than 0.3-1. To reduce emissions of NOxand reduce the formation of flue gases past continuously cycled through the system to remove the carrying amount, and recirculating flue gases continuously add oxygen in an amount necessary for burning coke. Flue gases, comprising preimushestvenno which seeks the invention, is the simultaneous increase in the output of the main low molecular weight olefinic hydrocarbons such as ethylene, propylene and butylenes. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 5 PL.

The invention relates to methods of thermal processing of crude oil and can be used in the refining and petrochemical industries. In particular, it can be used in oil refining as a way of refining of crude oil with the aim of obtaining olefins and high-octane gasoline.

A method of refining vacuum distillate by catalytic cracking pilot plant, where the selection of the appropriate mode of operation was achieved by increasing the yield of olefins to 13.37 wt.% in almost constant output of gasoline.

A significant drawback of this method is the low yield of oily gas cracking, small content of lower olefins and, in particular, almost no gas-cracking of ethylene. (B. N. Sukhanov Catalytic processes in petroleum refining. - M.: Chemistry, 1973. S. 132).

There is also known a method of producing olefins by cracking of straight-run fractions 73-193oWith (204= 0,739).76.gif">30,8 wt.%). When this liquid product differs from the original raw material is considerably high content of aromatic hydrocarbons of 20.5 wt.%. Conditions for cracking of the following: the temperature in the reactor 618oWith that, the volumetric feed rate of 3.0 h-1.

This method has the advantage over the first: it allows the process of high-temperature cracking with a large yield of the target products. However, this method is inherent drawback is the low yield of ethylene (4.2 wt.%). (B. N. Sukhanov Catalytic processes in petroleum refining. - M.: Chemistry, 1973. S. 133).

Closest to the invention by the technical nature (prototype) is a method of processing vacuum gas oil by catalytic cracking process described in patent RU 4773457 C1, 26.12.89. "Method for processing vacuum gas oil".

Catalytic cracking feedstock prototype is in the pipe Elevator-reactor in the presence of low-octane gasoline fraction of thermal origin to obtain the target products of gasoline, butane-butylene and propane-propylene fractions. To increase the output of gasoline and butane-butylene fraction using low-octane gasoline fraction of thermal origin, with whom his input vacuum gas oil, and the process is carried out at a shutter speed gasoline fraction in the Elevator-reactor 0.3 to 0.5 C. However, in this case also there are not enough high outputs of ethylene, propylene and butylenes.

The present invention solves the problem of simultaneous increase of the output of the main low molecular weight olefinic hydrocarbons such as ethylene, propylene and butylenes.

This task is solved in that a method of processing of crude oil, including catalytic cracking of vacuum gasoil as heavy feedstock in the presence of low-octane gasoline fraction as a transporting agent and at the same time raw materials in Elevator-reactor according to the invention is carried out at a temperature 700-705oC and a contact time of 3.5 s, and in the mixing zone with a catalyst serves straight-run gasoline fraction in the vapor phase at a temperature of 460oWith, and vacuum gas oil is fed to the mixing zone in the vapor state at a temperature of 360oWith a mass ratio of vacuum gas oil and straight-run gasoline fraction 1:2,33 and volumetric feed rate of the substrate is not greater than 0.3 h-1. In addition, to reduce emissions of NOxand reduce the formation of flue gases past continuously circulate in the system with tap BV mixture of oxygen, also used for catalyst regeneration.

The ratio of catalyst circulation is equal to 11. The products of vacuum gasoil and gasoline fractions next fractionary. Receive gases, which are prevalent olefins With2-C4, high-octane oblagorozhenny gasoline, heavy fraction >195oC and above. As microspherical catalyst is used zeolite-containing catalytic cracking catalyst "Range-P" company "Grace-Davison (USA).

The scheme of the reactor-regenerator unit includes Elevator-reactor consisting of a mixing zone, riser for discharging zakoksovanie catalyst Stripping section, cyclones, upper part of the regenerator, external cyclone, heat exchanger, boiler, compressor, furnace for heating of vacuum gas oil, furnace for heating of straight-run gasoline fraction, transferline apparatus, the drum with water.

Straight-run gasoline is served during commissioning in the oven while the rest work in equipment utilization of excess heat regenerator in a heat exchanger mounted on the output line of the flue gases from the regenerator, and the coil tap of excess heat, mounted in the regenerator. Naphtha is heated to 460oC. In the Elevator-reactor for mixing with the raw material of the regenerator receives the regenerated catalyst with the ratio of circulation is equal to 11. Passing the input node pair of the raw materials are subjected to thermal transformations by contact with the regenerated catalyst. The upper part of the Elevator-special reactor design is a reactor-separator. Getcategory a thread-lift reactors is inserted through the cyclones in the reactor-separator - top-lift reactor above the level of the fluidized bed of catalyst. The spent catalyst from the discharge riser cyclone reactor-separator is supplied to the Stripping zone, where with the help of water vapor adsorbed heavy hydrocarbons uparivaetsya of the catalyst. After desorption zakochany catalyst is served by an inclined strut in the regenerator, which is burning coke and dogit formed of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide.

Regeneration of the catalyst is carried out in the fluidized bed with a mixture of CO2and O2. Thus, the flue gas consisting mainly of CO2continuously circulate in the system with todolist oxygen, necessary for the burning of coke in the regenerator. The interior of the regenerator cyclones in combination with an external cyclone ensure efficient cleaning of the flue gases to the catalyst regeneration from dust and carry out the catalyst. Coming after the regenerator gases are cooled by heating the feedstock in the heat exchanger or by utilizing heat recovery boiler steam pressure. Regeneration of the catalyst is carried out at a temperature of 800oWith that allows you to maintain a higher temperature in the pyrolysis reactor.

Gaseous products separated in the separator from the catalyst, passing the inner cyclones separated from the catalyst dust, leave the reactor. The sin output from the reactor is sent to transferline apparatus where it is cooled by evaporation of the feed water in the annular space. Transferline the device is completely filled with water coming from the drum. Due to the abrupt cooling of the pyrogas stops the flow of all secondary and side reactions. Formed in the annular space transferline apparatus steam is separated from water in the drum high pressure and delivered to the collector of a pair of vysokogo fractionation and further separation. After exiting setup mode naphtha is heated by the heat utilized in the regenerator, and the furnace is used for the pyrolysis of ethane and propane produced in the process and used as recirculate.

Example. High temperature cracking are subjected to straight-run gasoline and vacuum gasoil Arlan oil. Physico-chemical characterization of these fractions are presented respectively in table. 1 and 2.

The process is carried out under the conditions shown in table. 3.

The material balance of the process is given in table. 4.

Characterization of fraction C5- 195oC are presented in table. 5.

As can be seen from this table that the application of the method according to the invention allows to significantly improve the outputs of low molecular weight olefins, C2-C4in the process of high-temperature cracking.

The present invention meets the criterion of "industrial applicability" and can be used at refineries and plants petrochemical plants to obtain low molecular weight olefins and high-octane gasoline.

Claims

1. The method of processing of crude oil, including high-temperature kata is different, however, the process is carried out at a temperature 700-705oC and a contact time of 3.5 s, and in the mixing zone with a catalyst serves in the vapor phase straight-run gasoline fraction at a temperature of 460oWith, and vacuum gas oil is fed to the mixing zone in the vapor state at a temperature of 360oWhen the ratio of the vacuum gas oil to straight-run gasoline fraction 1:2,33 and volumetric feed rate of the substrate is not greater than 0.3 h-1.

2. The method of refining of crude oil under item 1, characterized in that to reduce emissions of NOxand reduce the formation of flue gases, the latter is continuously cycled through the system to remove the carrying amount, and recirculating flue gases continuously add oxygen in an amount necessary for burning coke.

3. The method of refining of crude oil under item 2, characterized in that the flue gases, consisting mainly of carbon dioxide mixed with oxygen, is also used for catalyst regeneration.

 

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FIELD: petroleum refining industry; production of engine fuels.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petroleum refining industry, in particular, to production of engine fuels. Substance: the method provides for carrying out a catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions in presence of platinumzeolite-bearing rare-earth aluminum-silicate catalyst. The used catalyst consists of 5-20 mass % of "Y" zeolite with a molar ratio of silicon oxide to aluminum oxide within 4.5-9.5 and 80-95 mass % of the silica-alumina base in turn consisting of 40-95 mass % of amorphous aluminosilicate and 5-60 mass % of clay, and having a chemical composition, in mass %: aluminum oxide - 4.5-40.0, oxides of rare earths - 0.5-4.0, platinum - 0.0001-0.01, sodium oxide - 0.01-0.5, silicon oxide - the rest. The technical result: increased output of a gasoline fraction.

EFFECT: the invention ensures increased output of a gasoline fraction.

2 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: petroleum processing and petrochemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention, in particular, relates to catalytic process for processing hydrocarbon stock corresponding to diesel fuel composition and having low pour point to produce diesel fuel with low pour point. More specifically, hydrocarbon fraction 160-360°C is fed into reactor with fixed catalyst bed at temperature at least 200°C and pressure up to 1 MPa, said catalyst being zeolite of the aluminosilicate, galloaluminosilicate, gallosilicate, ironaluminosilicate, or chromoaluminosilicate type selected from ZSM-5, ZSM-11, ZSM-12, ZSM-22, ZSM-23, ZSM-35, ZSM-48, mordenite, and NETA pretreated with organic or inorganic acid solutions.

EFFECT: increased yield of diesel fuel.

3 cl, 11 ex

FIELD: petroleum refinery, in particular method for catalytic refinement of petroleum light hydrocarbon cuts.

SUBSTANCE: petroleum light cuts are fed into catalyst cracking reaction; brought into contact with regenerated catalyst at temperature of 200-450°C, pressure of 0.1-0.5 MPa for 1-20 s followed by separation of reaction products. Stripped catalyst is regenerated for 10-50 min at temperature of 400-600°C and pressure of 0.1-0.6 MPa. Regenerated catalyst is recycled into reactor.

EFFECT: gasoline with decreased olefin content; diesel fuel with increased cetane number and partially decreased sulfur and nitrogen content.

10 cl, 6 tbl, 1 dwg, 4 ex

FIELD: petroleum processing.

SUBSTANCE: catalyst represents a mixture comprising: particulate catalyst prepared by homogenously dispersing crystalline aluminosilicate zeolite in inorganic oxide matrix and particulate additive-type catalyst deactivating metals impairing catalyst and contained in oil feedstock, un which catalyst calcium carbonate with average particle diameter 0.001 to 30 μm is dispersed in inorganic matrix through which amount of said calcium carbonate achieved 30 to 70% based on dry material. Ratio of catalyst to additive-type catalyst ranges between 99.9:1 and 50:50. Catalyst shows excellent cracking power and is able to process petroleum distillation residues.

EFFECT: increased catalytic activity and prolonged lifetime.

3 cl, 8 dwg, 11 tbl, 14 ex

FIELD: petrochemical industry; methods of production of the cracking bead catalyst.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, in particular, to the method of production of the cracking zeolite-containing catalysts (ZCCs). The bead catalyst is produced by mixing of the water solutions of the sodium silicate, aluminum sulfate and suspensions of NaY-type zeolite and alumina, molding of the hydrogel granules in the oil column, treatment with the solution of sodium sulfate and the following activation by the solution of ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate with the mixture of the rare-earth elements (REE), by the solution of the platonic-chloro-hydrogen acid, the drying and calcination in the steam aerosphere. At that the aluminum sulfate solution has the concentration of 0.5-7.0 kg/m3, and the calcinations is conducted at the steam concentration above 40 vol.%. The technical result of the invention is the controlled raise of the loose mass in the range of 650-850 kg/m3, the increase of activity and improvement of the mechanical properties of the bead catalyst.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the controlled raise of the loose mass in the given above range, the increase of activity and improvement of the mechanical properties of the bead catalyst.

6 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: oil refining; methods of production of cracking globular catalysts.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes mixing aqueous suspension of zeolite Y in cation-exchange form with alumina suspension in aqueous solution of sodium silicate and aluminum sulfate solution, introducing platinum into aluminum sulfate solution or into aqueous suspension of zeolite fed for molding, forming catalyst granules in column filled with mineral oil, successive activation with solutions of aluminum sulfate and mixture of nitrates of rare-earth elements, washing-off with condensate water containing cations of iron, calcium and magnesium for removal of salts and calcination of granules in atmosphere of flue gases and water steam. For obtaining catalyst possessing enhanced activity, mechanical strength and bulk density, type Y zeolite is added into catalyst in hydrogen or hydrogen-rare-earth form; alumina is also added in the amount of 3-65 mass-%: with size of particles lesser than 10 mcm, 95-100 mass-%; lesser than 5 mcm, 40-80 mass-%. Catalyst has following composition in terms of oxides, mass-%: aluminum, 10.0-67.0; rare-earth elements, 0.5-3.5; platinum, 0.0001-0.01; iron, 0.01-0.2; calcium, 0.01-0.2; magnesium, 0.01-0.2; sodium, 0.01-0.3; the remainder being silicon. Catalyst has mechanic crushing strength of 22-40 kg/ball, wear resistance 900-1400 s, bulk density, 720-11000 kg/m3 and catalytic activity by gasoline yield, mass-%: 62.0-64.9 in cracking of kerosene-gas oil fraction and 41.5-45.7 in cracking of vacuum gas oil.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

FIELD: petroleum processing.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalytic cracking of heavy petroleum feedstock in presence of microspheric zeolite-containing catalyst to produce gasoline, liquefied hydrocarbon gases, and light gas oil. Catalytic cracking is accomplished by mixing (i) non-converted hydrocracking residue sulfur level no higher than 10 ppm formed at pressure above 12 MPa and conversion above 50% either with (ii) vacuum gas oil at weight ratio (60-75):(25-40) or (iii) vacuum gas oil and lube oil production extract at weight ratio (60-75):(24-35):(1-5), or (iv) vacuum gas oil, extract, and lube oil production filtrate obtained from deoiling stage at weight ratio (60-75):(19-34):(1-5):(1-5), respectively.

EFFECT: increased yield of target products.

1 tbl, 4 ex

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