Method of deformation of materials processing and device for its implementation (options)

 

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in the manufacture of semi-finished products with highly homogeneous structure, as well as for regulated changes in the structure and properties of materials. The processing method includes the successive stages of the deformation of the workpiece compression height in the cavity of the device for deformation processing. Provide plastic flow of a material that does not coincide in direction with the direction of the deforming force. At each stage, the workpiece is placed in the cavity of the device, deform, and then remove from the specified cavity and reinstall for the next stage. At least from the second stage, the workpiece is deformed to provide a plastic flow of material from one side. The workpiece is then removed from the cavity during the liberation of at least three side faces. The method is implemented using a device containing two working parts, one of which is connected with the head plate of the press. In the first embodiment, the second device part is made with a cavity bounded by at least four sides, at least three of which are parallel to the direction of deforming the have a plate with protrusions, forming a cavity bounded by at least five faces, at least three of which are parallel to the direction of the deforming force. The result is getting less cumbersome workpieces with a uniform regulated structure during severe plastic deformation of materials, including maloplastichnye and hard. 3 S. and 9 C.p. f-crystals, 1 tab., 8 Il.

The invention relates to the processing of materials, mainly metals, pressure, in particular by extrusion, and may be used for the manufacture of semi-finished products with highly homogeneous structure for subsequent deformation and/or machining, as well as for regulated changes in the structure and properties of materials, including the formation of submicrocrystalline structure.

Plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials, in particular metals and alloys, is an effective means of influencing their structure and properties. At given temperature and high-speed conditions of deformation of metallic materials a significant effect on the structure formation plays a mechanics of the plastic forming. She asks a scheme outside the NTA and others) and defines a set of process parameters: the geometry changes deformable volume, the value of the stress state, the uniformity of the distribution of stresses and strains, the amount of accumulated strain at each point of the sample. For a homogeneous throughout the volume of the billet microstructure and, consequently, the properties necessary to ensure uniform distribution of stresses and deformations in the workpiece during deformation processing.

Of considerable interest are the ways deformation treatment that uses a special scheme of deformation for the implementation of intensive plastic deformation, which resulted in the materials is the possibility of forming a microstructure with a grain size in tenths and hundredths of a micrometer. Getting submicrocrystalline state allows you to reach in metals and alloys unique physical and mechanical characteristics, in particular, to significantly improve the strength characteristics while maintaining a high level of plasticity. For the implementation of intensive plastic deformation of the material can be applied to devices in which the deformation processing is performed either without significantly changing the shape of the workpiece or at the end of a particular sequence of operations zagotovte in the volume of procurement and the achievement of controlled structure and properties of the processed material.

The known method and device [1] for deformation processing of materials, including severe plastic deformation by equal channel angular pressing of the workpiece without changing its cross-section. When pushing the workpiece through two intersecting channel with the same poperechnyy section of material at the intersection of the channels undergoes shear deformation. The method consists in placing the material in the first channel, the application of force to move it a second channel with an applied back pressure to limit the movement of material through the second channel and removal of the workpiece due to the release of its faces. This sequence of operations can be carried out repeatedly. The repetition of cycles of extrusion provides in the source section of the workpiece a greater degree of deformation.

The device consists of a modular matrix with a collecting tray forming intersecting channels of equal cross-section, and precast punch. These nodes and/or elements of agile in the process of implementation of the method, including deformation of the processed material.

These method and apparatus have limited technological capabilities. To ensure osmoregulation and channels, only square or rectangular. The main drawback is the complexity of its design, the mobility of the majority of parts in the process. Consequently requires a large work on the manufacture of components, frequent replacement of parts because of their rapid wear during operation due to the inability of surgical access device channels for lubrication, cleaning, etc. in Addition, the presence in the host strain mating and moving relative to each detail can lead to the formation of burrs on the surface of the workpiece. In this regard, having difficulty removing processed workpieces, and with substantial wear of the parts forming the channels, removing the workpiece becomes impossible without disassembling the device.

To the General lack of methods and devices of equal-channel angular pressing, directly related to the mechanical strain pattern, is a significant non-uniformity of the strain distribution in the terminal parts of the workpiece that does not provide uniform structural state in the entire volume even in the case of multi-cycle treatment. This disadvantage is exacerbated with increasing transverse size of the akt friction and intense strain hardening of the material, require, especially when processing difficult-to-deform materials and/or bulky workpieces, powerful and forging equipment.

To methods and devices that allow the process of deformation processing to give the harvesting original shape and, consequently, to carry out intensive plastic deformation, include operations and tools used for the execution of free forging.

A known method of deformation processing of materials, using a combination of free forging operations with turns of the workpiece relative to the deforming efforts [2]. When alternating operations precipitation and pulling the workpiece being machined can give approximately the original shape and dimensions. This multilateral deformation, or the so-called "comprehensive forging", carried out on flat or curved plates, provides a study of stagnant zones, increases the homogeneity of the material. However, the maximum degree of deformation of the workpiece when performing precipitation is limited by the condition of its longitudinal stability, i.e., the limit value of the height of the workpiece to its minimum transverse size should not exceed 22,5. Therefore, for the of eklow comprehensive forging. In this case, substantially increases the time and cost of process development patterns, especially when using hot deformation. In addition, on the free surfaces of the workpiece arise maximum tensile stresses, which leads, in particular when processing maloplastichnye materials, to the formation of surface cracks. As a result, the necessity of machining to eliminate defects and subsequent continuation of the operations of the multilateral deformation.

For the prototype of the present invention is adopted, the processing method for obtaining fine-grained aluminum alloy and presented in the way the device [3]. The method includes deformation processing prismatic workpiece through the implementation of sequential compression along its longitudinal axis. The device includes a punch and die with a cavity having the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped. The workpiece is placed on the height in the center cavity of the matrix and is deformed under the application of force on the punch. As a result of implementation of high-rise deformation in the cavity, limiting the flow of material in the direction of one of the transverse axes of the workpiece, but providing the elongation along the other e is ovci of the cavity of the matrix and reinstall to perform the following high-rise deformation along the axis, which occurred prior to the elongation of the workpiece. When reinstalling the workpiece is carried out by its rotation around the longitudinal axis of the 90oso that the deformation was carried out in the direction in which the plastic flow of the material in the previous step was missing. This sequence of operations can be repeated many times to achieve the required deformation and crushing of the material structure.

The main disadvantages of the method and device include the following. First, the placement of the workpiece in the center cavity of the matrix helps in the process of deformation of the free plastic flow of material from both side faces. The presence of tensile stresses on the contact surfaces of the workpiece can lead to the formation of surface cracks and the avoidance of defects for further processing cycles. In addition, if specified in the method is placing the workpiece in the cavity of the device, the magnitude of vertical deformation for one stage of compression, as in the case of free precipitation was 2:1 or true strain equal to 0.69. This leads to an increase in the number of processing steps to achieve the required deformaci follows is extracted deformed billet from the cavity of the matrix. Presumably, the removal of the deformed workpiece from the cavity of the matrix cannot be done without disassembly of the device, which significantly increases the complexity of executing multiple deformation processing.

Object of the invention is a method and device providing less complexity blanks c homogeneous regulated structure, mainly submicrocrystalline, during severe plastic deformation of materials, including maloplastichnye and hard.

The objective of the invention is solved by the method of deformation processing of materials, including consecutive stages of deformation of the workpiece her grip on the height of the cavity of the device for deformation processing by providing a plastic flow of the material, not the same direction with the direction of deforming efforts, and receiving the blanks with the side edges, with each stage produces the placement of the workpiece in the cavity for deformation processing, the deformation of the workpiece, removing it from the specified cavity and reinstalling for implementation of the next stage, characterized in that, at least from the second stage strain is E. one side face and removing the workpiece from the cavity to the deformation processing is carried out at release after the deformation at each stage of the at least three side faces.

In addition, this object is achieved if the deformation is performed with the use of back pressure on the free side face of the workpiece; - deformation of the workpiece is performed with the use of end and/or side strips; - the deformation is carried out in a cavity tapering in the deformation process in the direction of the plastic flow of the material.

The objective of the invention is solved by a device (option 1), containing two working parts, one of which is connected to the crosshead of the press, and the second is made with a cavity bounded by edges, some of which is parallel to the direction of deforming efforts, characterized in that the cavity is limited by at least four sides, at least three of which are parallel to the direction of deforming efforts, and working part with a cavity made of composite parts, at least one of which is installed with the ability to move at the end of the deformation process.

In addition, the set sadoway parallel to the direction of deforming efforts in this case, the two side faces of the cavity is not closed; a cavity made in the form of a straight prism - direct prism is made with a base in the form of a trapezoid, the bases of which are parallel to the direction of deforming efforts, with one of the two side faces straight prism, by which the cavity is not closed, is on the side of the smaller base of the trapezoid.

The objective of the invention is solved by a device (option 2), containing two working parts, one of which is connected to the crosshead of the press, characterized in that the parts are made in the form of plates with the tabs forming the moving beam cavity bounded by at least five faces, at least three of which are parallel to the direction of the deforming force.

The problem is solved with a device for option 2, if: - the cavity of the device is made in the shape of a prism, the base of which is parallel to the direction of deforming efforts on the part of one side face of the cavity is not closed; a cavity made in the form of a straight prism - direct prism made with bases in the form of a trapezoid, the bases of which are parallel to the direction deformable consists in the following. The proposed method and the device allow at least from the second stage, the high deformation of the workpieces, the ratio of height to minimum lateral size of more than 2.5, without losing their stability. This is due to the placement of the workpiece in such a way that during deformation of the workpiece is provided afflux side side three faces of the cavity of the device. In the experiment in the implementation of the proposed method and the device was made settling tetragonal workpiece without losing its stability when the ratio of its height to the side of the base up to the size of 4:1, which corresponds to the magnitude of the true strain equal to 1.39. Thus, by a single high-rise deformation of the workpiece is achieved deflection is significantly higher than in the case of loose sediments or the specified prototype. In the same way as in the prototype, after the deformation in the device you can still get the shape and dimensions of the workpiece, allowing re-stages high-rise deformation to achieve the significant deformations in the volume of the workpiece. In addition, as in the prototype, when you reinstall the workpiece under the next phase of the planned structure of the material. It should be noted that the original shape of the piece of processed material can be arbitrary, for example, cylindrical, prismatic, and so on, But after the first stage of the high-rise deformation of the workpiece assumes the shape defined by the shape of the cavity of the device and the deformation, at least from the second stage is performed with the achievement of the preform mold, similar to that obtained after the first stage.

Specified in the proposed method, the placement of the workpiece allows the device working cavity that is open in the deformation process from one of the side faces, which facilitates the removal of the workpiece. In addition, the removal of the deformed workpiece from the cavity is carried out without disassembly of the device. After the stage of deformation exempt the side faces of the workpiece by moving the mobile(s) component (s) of the working part having a cavity at the required value by using a puller (option 1) or by moving the movable working parts of the device using a beam press (option 2). Thus, the method and the device can significantly reduce the complexity of implementing multiple cycles of treatment.

When deformation in procurement the Oia, that allows deformation of workpieces from maloplastichnye hard materials.

To improve the deformability and increase the homogeneity of the structure of the processed material, it is possible to apply external pressure on the free side face of the workpiece by creating a lateral compressive environment when placed from a free face of workpiece extra blanks from a more pliable material (i.e., more plastic and less durable than the material being processed). This allows us to improve the scheme of the stress state, to improve the uniformity of deformation, reduce Bochorishvili and the magnitude of the tensile stresses that may lead to the formation of lateral cracks and internal discontinuities in the settling of the workpiece.

The reduction of tensile stresses and increasing deformation uniformity is also achieved by the use of malleable end and/or side strips.

To enhance the pressure deformation of the workpiece can be accomplished in a cavity of the device, tapering in the deformation process in the direction of the plastic flow of the material. In addition, in this case the workpiece, at least after PE is to create a moving deformation zone from the pointed end of the workpiece to its base. Ego additionally contribute to a better structuring of the material.

The method using a device allows to reduce the complexity and increase the productivity of the entire process, both due to the easy removal of the processed workpiece, and because of the greater degree of deformation in a single processing cycle and, accordingly, transformation, including grinding, the structure of the processed material. For the implementation of intensive plastic deformation and make the material regulated patterns, including submicrocrystalline, unlike the prototype, requiring fewer processing cycles.

When the analysis of the prior art in the patent and scientific and technical information sources relating to methods and devices for deformation processing of materials, found no solution, characterized by signs, identical to all the essential features of the claimed invention. Therefore, the claimed invention meets the condition of "novelty."

In the analysis of the distinctive features found that the claimed invention is not obvious from the prior art. First proposed method and device different is Aki are new and non-obvious. Thus, the claimed invention meets the condition of "inventive step".

The invention is illustrated by the following graphic materials.

Fig.1 - General view of the device (option 1).

Fig.2 is a view of the device (option 1) before deformation.

Fig.3 is a perspective view of the device (option 2) before deformation.

Fig.4 - cross section a - a of the device of Fig.3.

Fig.5 is a view of the device (option 1) at the end of the deformation.

Fig. 6 is a view of the device (option 1) before deformation with the use of more pliable blanks.

Fig. 7 is a view of the device (option 1) before deformation with the use of front and side strips.

Fig. 8 is a view of the device (option 1) before deformation in a narrowing with the deformation of the cavity.

In Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the inventive device in the first embodiment. Working part having a cavity, attached to the press table 1 and consists of a casing 2 and the two inserts 3 and 4, both inserts have the ability to move upwards under the action of the ejector 5. Insert form a cavity 6 in the form of a prism, in the particular case of a rectangular parallelepiped. The axis of the prism is perpendicular to the direction diginotar parallel to the direction of the deforming force (Fig.1 and 2). The working part 8, which is the plug attached to the upper cross beam press 7. Position 9 depicts the harvesting of the processed material. The gnashing of working parts, as shown in Fig.2, the side surface of the plug mates with the side surfaces of the cavity. The face 10 (Fig.2) the cavity in the deformation process remains open.

In Fig.3 shows the inventive device according to the second variant. The working parts are plates 11 and 12 with the tabs. The plate 11 is attached to the cross beam press 7, and the plate 12 with the clip 13 is attached to the press table 1. When the moving plate 11 traverse press 7 plates 11 and 12 form a cavity 14 (Fig. 4) in the form of a prism, in the particular case of a rectangular parallelepiped, due to the coupling surfaces of the ledges and slabs. Moreover, the formed cavity is limited to five faces, two of which, non-parallel to the direction of deforming efforts, formed by the surfaces of the projections of the plates 11 and 12, and three other parallel to the direction of deforming efforts, formed by the surfaces of the plates 11 and 12 and the guide plate 12. The face 15 of the cavity in the deformation process remains open.

The method is implemented using the device in the first embodiment as follows. The workpiece 9 razmisha the 8 is lowered to contact with the workpiece 9, and by application of pressure on the punch 8 traverse the press 7 is plastic flow of material in one direction. Deformation continued until the workpieces shaped as shown in Fig. 5. Next, the punch 8 is withdrawn from the cavity by his rising traverse press 7, thereby making the corresponding side face of the workpiece. Movable inserts 3 and 4 with the processed workpiece using the ejector 5 upwards, providing the release of the side faces of the workpiece and the possibility of its extraction from the cavity. With the removal of the workpiece from the side of the open face of the cavity, including the one that was opened during the deformation.

The method is implemented using the device according to the second variant in the same way, except that removing processed workpieces is carried out after raising the working part 11 traverse press 7 in the upper starting position.

Describes the execution sequence of the method using the device according to the first or second option can be done multiple times depending on the requirements to the structure and properties of the processed material.

The workpiece 9 (Fig.6) also deform using the device on any of the options, if you use the pressure by creating a compressive environment when placed at the side faces of the processed zag is pressure treated and additional workpieces is carried out by the above sequence of operations.

The workpiece 9 (Fig.7) is deformed using the device on any of the options, if you use the pliable end 17 and/or the side strip 18 that reduces friction forces at the contact surfaces and improve as a consequence, the uniformity of the deformation of the material.

To enhance the pressure deformation of the workpiece 9 (Fig.8) also performed using the device on any of the options in the cavity tapering in the deformation process in the direction of the plastic flow of the material. In this case, the base of the prismatic cavity 19 is a trapezoid, the base of which, in turn, parallel to the direction of deforming efforts, and the cavity is not closed by the smaller base 20 of the line. Values of anglesandaccordingly tilt the bottom face of the cavity 19 and the end of the bevel plunger 8, is 37o. In Fig. 8 shows a deforming device node before deformation installed workpiece having a pointed shape, at least after the first stage of processing.

It should be noted that this method and apparatus may be implemented for processing materials, xtva for heating or cooling of the billet and die tooling, which are not shown.

Examples of specific implementation method:
1. Using the proposed method and the device was handled procurement of technical titanium VT1-00, with an initial grain size of 10 μm. Handled procurement of the original cylindrical shape with a diameter of 30 mm and a height of 120 mm, i.e., the ratio of height to diameter equal to 4:1, in the device according to the first embodiment, having a cavity shape of a rectangular parallelepiped, a height of 140 mm, a width of 30 mm and a length of 150 mm, the Implementation of intensive plastic deformation of technical titanium was carried out at the heating temperature of the billet and die tooling 450oC. Sequence of operations of the first phase of treatment included:
placing the workpiece at a height of about three parallel faces of the cavity of the device; strain to a final height of 30 mm without losing its stability with the stage of processing the values of true strain equal to 1.39, and making the workpiece at the end of step forms a straight prism with a square base and approximate dimensions HH mm3, i.e. with regard to the height of the workpiece to a side of the base, equal 3,14:1; removing the deformed workpiece.

The sequence Opera is allelic faces the cavity of the device, in this exercise the rotation of the workpiece around the longitudinal axis of the 90oso that the deformation was carried out in the direction in which the plastic flow of the material in the previous step were absent; the deformation of the workpiece to a final height of 30 mm, with a value of true strain 1,14 and giving it the shape of a straight prism with a square base and approximate dimensions HH mm3; removing the deformed workpiece.

Next, the sequence of operations performed on the second stage of processing was carried out five times. As a result of processing the accumulated value of the true strain amounted to about 8.2, and the material was given a submicrocrystalline structure with an average grain size of 0.3 μm. The table shows the mechanical characteristics of the original and processed technical titanium at room temperature.

2. Using the proposed method and the device was handled procurement of technical titanium according to the first processing stage of example 1. Then, when performing the second and subsequent five stages of processing, with the aim of improving the uniformity of deformation of workpiece used backpressure by placing the side face of the processed Snegireva blanks and tranovoj snap was 450oC.

As a result of processing the material was given a submicrocrystalline structure with an average grain size of 0.3 μm, and in different sections of the blanks were found to have higher homogeneity of the microstructure than in the blank produced according to example 1.

3. Using the proposed method and the device was handled procurement of technical titanium according to the first processing stage of example 1 except that the deformation was carried out to a final height of 27 mm and harvesting with approximate dimensions HH mm3. When performing the second stage used the malleable end and side strips thickness 1.4mm of technical copper M1. To install the seals billet is the same height as the rotation around its longitudinal axis 90o. The deformation was carried out up to the final height of the workpiece with spacers 28 mm After removing the workpiece and removal of the deformed gasket sequence of operations of the second stage was repeated five times.

4. Using the proposed method and the device was handled procurement of technical titanium with a diameter of 30 mm and a height of 100 mm at a temperature of deformation 450oC. the cavity of the device was in the form of prna the direction of deforming efforts moreover, the cavity was not closed by the smaller base of the trapezium. Values of anglesfor cavity andfor punches were the same and equal to 5o. The sequence of operations of the first stage included:
placing the workpiece at a height of about three parallel faces of the cavity of the device; strain to the high dimension of 30 mm at the larger bases of the trapezoid and the workpieces form of a straight prism with a base in the form of a trapezoid whose height and, accordingly, the processed workpiece was ~120 mm; removing the deformed workpiece.

The sequence of operations of the second stage of processing included:
accommodation billet height (120 mm) in the cavity of the device with the rotation of the workpiece around the longitudinal axis of the 90o; deformation of the workpiece to the high dimension of 30 mm at the larger bases of the trapezoid; removing the deformed workpiece.

Next, the sequence of operations performed on the second stage of processing was carried out five times.

As a result of processing according to examples 3 and 4 was obtained in the same way as in example 2, a more uniform submicrocrystalline structure than in the workpiece obtained from the properties of the material by creating severe plastic deformation regulated structural state.

Sources of information
1. Patent US 5400633, 28.03.1995.

2. Okhrimenko J. M., Tyurin Century A. Uneven deformation during forging. - M. : Mashinostroenie, 1969. - 182 C.

3. Patent US 4721537, 26.01.1988.


Claims

1. Method of deformation processing of materials, including consecutive stages of deformation of the workpiece her grip on the height of the cavity of the device for deformation processing by providing a plastic flow of the material, not the same direction with the direction of deforming efforts, and receiving the blanks with the side edges, with each stage produces the placement of the workpiece in the cavity of the device for deformation processing, the deformation of the workpiece, removing it from the specified cavity and reinstalling for implementation of the next stage, characterized in that at least from the second stage of deformation of the workpiece are to provide a plastic flow of the material from its one side face and removing the workpiece from the cavity to the deformation processing is carried out at release after the deformation at each stage of the at least three side faces.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the de.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the deformation of the workpiece is performed with the use of end and/or side strips.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the deformation is carried out in a cavity tapering deformation in the direction of the plastic flow of the material.

5. Device for deformation processing of materials containing two working parts, one of which is connected to the crosshead of the press, and the second is made with a cavity bounded by edges, some of which is parallel to the direction of deforming efforts, characterized in that the cavity is limited by at least four sides, at least three of which are parallel to the direction of deforming efforts, and working part with a cavity made of composite parts, at least one of which is installed with the ability to move at the end of the deformation process.

6. The device under item 5, characterized in that the cavity is made in the shape of a prism, the base of which is parallel to the direction of deforming efforts, however, the two side faces of the cavity is not closed.

7. The device according to p. 6, characterized in that the cavity is made in the form of a straight prism.of which are parallel to the direction of deforming efforts one of the two side faces straight prism, by which the cavity is not closed, is on the side of the smaller base of the trapezoid.

9. Device for deformation processing of materials containing two working parts, one of which is connected with a traverse of the press, characterized in that the parts are made in the form of plates with the tabs forming the moving beam cavity bounded by at least five faces, at least three of which are parallel to the direction of the deforming force.

10. The device according to p. 9, characterized in that the cavity is made in the shape of a prism, the base of which is parallel to the direction of deforming efforts on the part of one side face of the cavity is not closed.

11. The device according to p. 10, characterized in that the cavity is made in the form of a straight prism.

12. The device according to p. 11, characterized in that a straight prism made with bases in the form of a trapezoid, the bases of which are parallel to the direction of deforming efforts, while the cavity is not closed by the smaller base of the trapezium.

 

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