Method of producing charcoal

 

The invention relates to the production of charcoal. The method includes splitting wood to get pieces of a size of from 50 to 150 mm, pre-drying the wood to a moisture content of 10-25%, processing it with a solution of an inorganic oxygen-containing polonovski acid, heat treatment in the presence of gaseous fluid in a continuous process by passing sequentially zones dried, pyrolysis, calcination and cooling output of steam and gas from the calcining zone of the coal and putting them in the pyrolysis zone of the wood when the countercurrent flow of the cooled flue gases. The technical result - quality charcoal with high uglerodnogo and strength due to the optimization of the technological process on the steps of pre-drying and subsequent heat treatment of wood while reducing heat loss and increasing the yield of the target product without pollution. 1 Il.

The use of this invention is the production of charcoal.

The invention can be used to obtain high-quality wood raw coal required in ferrous metallurgy (smelting of iron in the blast furnace is afloat iron, magnesium, silicon), in the production of highly pure crystalline silicon (semiconductor industry), as an environmentally friendly fuel in the home.

High quality charcoal is a solid product containing non-volatile carbon is not less than 85%.

There are various ways of producing charcoal, both domestic and foreign. The known method (France, application 258342), including heat treatment of wood in the presence of gaseous fluid in a continuous process by passing sequentially zones of drying, pyrolysis with the formation of charcoal, calcination and cooling in the same internal capacity with wood, enclosed in an outer jacket with a lid, source gas heat, with input and output pipes for the supply and withdrawal of gas coolant, means for closing the inlet and outlet piping, fitting for the conclusion of steam and gas pyrolysis. Required for drying heat is provided by circulation of hot gas flow outside of the closed vessel. To increase the strength of obtained coal used raw materials from eucalyptus solid wood with a high density (about 900 kg/m3for comparison: izvodyat in the same capacity, as pyrolysis, heating, cooling, and not in the drying chamber. The radical difference between them is that the moisture evaporated in the vessel, is not released into the atmosphere, and goes for further processing in the composition of the liquid products of pyrolysis. This moisture is harmful ballast, which are released due to the additional cost of thermal energy, which is a disadvantage of this method. In addition, this method does not provide improve the quality of coal in terms of increasing uglerodnoi.

Know of any other way pyrolysis without separating liquid products (Vyrodov C. A., Kislitsyn A. N., Gloukhareva M. I. "Technology-chemical industries." -M.: Forest industry, 1987, S. 215). In this case, the steam and gas from the pyrolysis of wood is burned in a bypass chamber or retort. The burning of steam and gas is carried out in two stages. At the first stage at a temperature stable combustion (>1100o(C) carry out the incomplete combustion of gases with a lack of air and receive oxygen-free gases, which are cooled with water to 700oWith using them then as a coolant for pyrolysis. Part of the gases after cooling to a temperature of 50oWith use for cooling coal. The second stage is performed by the doji is

The disadvantages of this method are inefficient use of thermal energy on stage receiving hot fluid (due to cooling of the flue gas at 400oWater for their transportation), lack of physical heat from cooling of the charcoal. In addition, this method does not provide improve the quality of coal in part of its uglerodnoi and strength.

The closest analogue of the invention is a method of producing charcoal (RF Patent 2083633), including pre-drying the wood to a moisture content of 1025% and its subsequent heat treatment in the presence of gaseous fluid in a continuous process by passing sequentially zones dried, pyrolysis with the formation of charcoal, calcination and cooling when the countercurrent flow of cooling agent, which is used flue gases from the complete combustion of the fuel with a content of oxygen of 1.57,0% selected after preliminary drying of wood, with the use of these gases after passage of cooling zone as a coolant in the areas of calcination pyrolysis and drying. Technologically heated coolant on the principle of co-current. Dried wood is fed into the retort, where thermal treatment of wood. For drying wood using flue gases with the content of oxygen 1,57,0%. For cooling coal zone cooling in the lower part of the retort serves flue gases through the condenser fan. In the retort these gases move countercurrent to the coal, cooling it and gradually heating up to 300oC. the Heated gas is fed into the calcining zone of the coal, where it starts to burn the oxygen when in contact with flammable gases released during the heating coal. Due to the released heat, the temperature of the gases in the calcining zone is increased to 550oC. Next, the combined-cycle products, moving countercurrent to the wood, are of the pyrolysis zone and the final drying of wood and a temperature of 150oWith removed from the retort in the furnace, where it completely burned with excess air. In the case of technological need of steam and gas before combustion in the cyclone can be allocated resin, which is in gases in aerosol form. Received hot combustion gases are diluted exhaust gases after the dryer to a temperature at which they can be transported by the exhaust fan. DL the ears is provided in the mixing chamber by supplying a re-circulating coolant, taken from the dryer exhaust. To exit the retort on modal parameters provided by the furnace retort to burn fuel. The prototype simplifies the process of producing charcoal by use at all stages of thermal treatment of wood of a single carrier. However, in the prototype, due to the actions on coal hot products of pyrolysis at temperatures exceeding 450oWith wood, coal is transected by steam and gas, criminality and, therefore, is not strong enough. In addition, the prototype does not prevent heat loss in the process of pre-drying the wood.

The task is to improve the quality of charcoal in terms of increasing its strength and uglerodnoi while maintaining the output of coal.

The problem is solved in that in the method of producing charcoal, including pre-drying the wood to a moisture content of 1025% and its subsequent heat treatment in the presence of gaseous fluid in a continuous process by passing sequentially zones dried, pyrolysis with the formation of charcoal, calcination and cooling in counterflow to the flow of chilled dips areas calcination, pyrolysis and dried, according to the invention the wood prior to drying crushed to obtain workpieces, the size of which satisfy the range of 50 to 150 mm, and after pre-drying process 20-40%s ' solution of inorganic oxygen-containing polonovski acids of General formula HnTon, (1) where n3 - the number of hydrogen atoms and the valence of the acid residue; N is hydrogen; To - acid balance, and formed by heat treatment of wood the steam and gas are removed from the calcining zone of the coal and bring them into the pyrolysis zone of the wood, and then from the furnace retort in this area serves coolant, representing the flue gases from the combustion of fuel.

The technical result of the claimed invention is the provision of uniform heating of wood and ignition of coal, preventing the influence of hot steam and gas to coal, the provision of high-temperature regime in the zone of the pyrolysis of wood.

The technical result is achieved as follows.

Indicators of physical and mechanical properties of wood at any temperature calculated according to the formula (Borovikov, A. M. Ugolev B. N. "Handbook of wood. -M.: �46.gif">(t-20), (2) wheret- performance at any temperature;20- indicators at a temperature of 20o;- correction factor that depends on the wood species.

To obtain a solid coal wood, from which he burned, must have the highest rates of such physico-mechanical properties as mechanical strength (kg/cm2), density (kg/m3), hardness (n/mm2), but low humidity (%). Wood subjected to thermal processing, it is advantageous to select taking into account the cost of works on preparation of the wood prior to drying of the clips, the ends of the rails, croakers and other well waste Kalasasaya species (e.g. oak) and absently-vascular species (e.g. birch). During thermal processing of crushed piece of wood (less than 150 mm) is uniform heating as the outer surface of the piece, and the inner core of the piece of wood that ensures prevention of cracks (because cracks are formed due to stresses arising due to the uneven heating of the wood). However, given that as a result of thermal processing of the trees the collapse of gas and vapor deposited paracrystalline carbon, impair the reactivity of the coal; considering that the fine coal with a particle size less than 12 mm clog the pipelines in the smelting of iron in a blast furnace, which affects the progress of a blast furnace, the size of the crushed pieces of wood blanks must meet the range from 50 to 150mm.

The flow of heat required for thermal processing of wood, is calculated by the equation (Kozlov, C. N., Nesvitski A. A. "Technology paragenetically processing of wood". -M.: Goslesbumizdat, 1954, S. 223):
(3)
where Wk- moisture content (%);
tn,tT- the temperature of the steam and gas and coolant (oC);
K - coefficient of heat transfer (jm2It).

Analysis of equation (3) shows that the main flow of heat energy occurs during the evaporation of remaining in the wood moisture during the drying process. Great influence on the drying has the bark on the wood. The hardwood it is about 12-15%. Due to poor thermal conductivity of the crust deteriorates the heat transfer from the surface of the piece of wood inside, i.e., uneven heating of the wood. Due to the uneven heating of wood, which burned coal, wasn.E. reduce its strength. Therefore, before pre-drying of wood offered to make barked.

When charring fragmented wood increases the mechanical strength of the resulting coal, but also increase the yield of volatile products. This is due to the large mass loss of wood in the range 280345oWith the rapid disintegration of wood frame formed by cellulose, Monomeric structural units with the formation of a greater degree of low molecular weight volatile products and to a lesser extent solid polymeric residue of charcoal. To reduce the weight loss of wood it is necessary to create conditions under which the structural units are bound stronger relationships in non-volatile residue. The creation of such conditions is possible by chemical treatment of the wood with a special reagent after pre-drying. As the pulp most reaktsionnosposobnykh only in an acidic environment, the reagent is considered acid. As the monobasic acid (e.g., model HC1) and dibasic acid (e.g., H2S04) destroy the pulp as reagent taken politonalnye acid without damaging the cellulose having a General f the awn acid residue;
H is hydrogen;
To acid residue (for example, phosphoric acid, H3RHO4) 2040%-aqueous solution.

Phosphoric acid in this solution (N3RHO4) interacts with link cellulose (C6H10O5) at temperatures above 200oWith the formation of carbon (C), vitreous pyrophosphoric acid (H4P2About7) and water (H2O) reaction
With6H10O5+2H3RHO4=6P + N4P2O7+ +6N2O - (4)
Improving the quality of charcoal in terms of increasing its strength is achieved in the proposed method, due to the cessation excision of coal in the area of its baking hot carbon dioxide, forming part of the steam and gas released during removal from coal volatile carbon in the form of hydrocarbons (carbon dioxide CO2, methane CH4and other), by the reaction going at a temperature above 450oWith:
With+CO2=2SD(5)
As a result of coal (C) of hot carbon dioxide (CO2) charcoal is obtained transected by steam and gas, fractured and its mechanical strength is degraded. To prevent reaction (5) in the invention display of grief is part of the pyrolysis zone of the wood, where the temperature is 280o(I.e., much below 450o(C) at which the reaction (5) is not.

Improving the quality of charcoal in terms of increasing its uglerodnoi is achieved in the proposed method, due to the temperature increase in the pyrolysis zone of the wood is as follows.

As mentioned earlier, the hot steam and gas with a temperature of 600oWith the output from the zone calcining coal is blown into the through pipe fan in the upper part of the zone of pyrolysis of wood, where the temperature is 280oC. In the temperature in the pyrolysis zone of the wood is averaged and becomes equal to 440oC. Then from the furnace retort zone to the pyrolysis of wood serves the coolant (which is used as flue gases from combustion of fuel), followed by a burn-oxygen O2(part of the flue gas) in contact with methane CH4(part of the steam and gas) heat (Q) reaction
CH4+2O2=CO2+2H2O+Q (6)
Due to the released heat (Q) the temperature in the pyrolysis zone of the wood is increased from 440 to 550oWith increasing pleadest coal 3% (from 89 to 92%).

During thermal processing of wood thermal losses occur at the preliminary stage the market from heat exchange with the environment is invited to provide its placed outside the insulating coating of the combined type of the binding of the coating, mixed with mineral fiber (for example, binding of the coating of diatomaceous earth mixed with the fiber of acroteria).

The invention is illustrated by the drawing, which shows a schematic diagram of a producing charcoal.

The proposed method is as follows.

The launch of the retort 1 and its modal parameters is carried out by means of the furnace retort 2, where burn fuel from combustion flue gases which are formed, is used as the coolant. The coolant enters the retort 1 through the pipe 4 by means of the vane 3. Exhaust flue gases with an open damper 5 go in the chimney flue 6, where after passing gas purification from impurities in the electrostatic precipitator 7, which does not reduce cravings, are released into the atmosphere due to the draught of a chimney 8.

Download the retort 1 is produced in such sequence. From stock lumber waste 9 lump wood waste (clippings, ends, Reiki, croakers, and so on ) humidity up to 50% of Kalasasaya (e.g., oak) and absently-vascular (e.g., birch) hardwood sent to korobchinsky drum 10 for debarking. Barking is because the bark has a poor thermal conductivity, which is ukhudshe the AK during thermal processing of the crushed wood pieces because of the best charring is more durable coal, than thermal processing of large pieces.

Crushing is carried out in a crushing machine 11 to receive workpieces, the size of which satisfy the range from 50 to 150 mm, then debarked and fragmented wood serves for pre-drying in the drying chamber 12, which is heated by the coolant on the principle of co-current. To protect the drying chamber 12 from the heat exchange with the environment and prevent heat loss through the wall of the drying chamber 12 is equipped with placed outside the insulating coating 13 of the combined type of the binding of the coating, mixed with mineral fiber (for example, binding of the coating of diatomaceous earth mixed with the fiber of acroteria). Debarked, fragmented and dried the wood moisture content of 1025% is directed into the chamber chemical processing 14, where for reducing the losses of the wood mass (heat treatment process) and provide crosslinking structural units stronger bonds in the solid polymer non-volatile residue (charcoal) it was soaked 2040% solution of inorganic polonovski oxygen-containing acid of General formula (1)
HnTon,
where n

From the chemical treatment chamber 14 through the tape conveyor 15 wood delivered to the storage hopper 16 where it skipanim lift 17 is fed to the entrance of the wood of the retort 1 (zone I). Wood slowly moves down in the retort 1 and goes through the following zones: zone of dried wood (zone II) at 150280oWith, the zone of pyrolysis of wood (zone III) at 280480oWith zone, calcining coal (zone IV) at 480600oWith, the cooling zone of the coal (zone V) at a temperature of from 600 to 70oAnd the area facing coal (zone VI), where with the help of the unloader 18 received coal is poured in Kubel 19, which is sent to the warehouse for sorting and shipment to consumers.

The formation fluid for pre-drying the wood in the drying chamber 12 is as follows.

Exhaust fluid from the drying chamber 12 (containing up to 7% oxygen O2) served by fan 20 is partially in the refrigerator 21 and then into the cooling zone of coal and partially into the chamber 22 where it mixes with the combustion gases generated from the burning of steam and gas in the furnace drying chamber 23. The criminal code is and air with oxygen content in the coolant 1,5-7,0%.

Gas flows is organized as follows.

In the lower part of the retort 1 (in the cooling zone of coal) which is supplied with coolant through the pipe 24 by means of a fan 25 of the refrigerator 21, there is a division of flow: a smaller part of the cold flue gases extends parallel with the cooled coal through the zone facing coal (zone VI) in the atmosphere, producing saturation of the coal with oxygen, which stabilizes the coal against his spontaneous, and most of the cold flue gas moves countercurrent to the coal, the cooling in the cooling zone of the coal (zone V) and heated from 70 to 350oC. In the zone calcining coal (zone IV) of the pre-heated flue gases coming from the drying chamber 12 begins to burn the oxygen in contact with methane CH4that is part of the steam and gas released during the heating coal. The temperature of the gases is increased to 600oC. However, at temperatures over 450oWith action on coal (C) of hot carbon dioxide (CO2), along with methane (CH4), which is part of steam and gas, charcoal becomes transected by steam and gas, fractured. Therefore, to prevent this hot steam and gas with a temperature of 600oWith the output from the zone of pyrolysis of wood (zone III), where the temperature is 280oAnd coal, but there is thermally decomposing wood. As a result the temperature in the pyrolysis zone is averaged and becomes equal to 440oC. Then from the furnace retort 2 in the zone of pyrolysis of wood (zone III) serves the flue gases resulting from combustion of the fuel), followed by a burn-oxygen O2(part of these flue gases), in contact with methane CH4(part of the steam and gas). Due to the released heat temperature in the pyrolysis zone of the wood is increased from 440 to 550oWith increasing pleadest get coal. For a complete utilization of thermal energy of the steam and gas directed from the zone of pyrolysis of wood (zone III) flow in the area dried wood (zone II). Here the steam and gas give heat to the wood, and they are cooled to 150oWith, after which they are removed from the upper part of the retort (zone II) in the furnace drying chamber 23, where they are burned at 12001300oWith a small excess of air (oxygen gases 1,57,0%). When this excess steam and gas is expelled through the pipe 29 into the candle 30, where burns in the form of a torch, which excludes hazardous atmospheric composition of steam and gas, flue gas, received in the chamber of the drying chamber 23 from the combustion of steam and gas, the excess heat is provided in the exhaust-heat boiler 31 and transported by fan 32 into the mixing chamber 22.

The necessary temperature for wood drying process in the drying chamber 12 is provided in the mixing chamber 22 due to the supply of exhaust fluid taken from the drying chamber 12 by fan 20. The specified excess heat can be utilized also by the allocation of commodity resins in the cyclone 33 or emission of flue gases into the atmosphere through the vent plug 34.

Thus, in this way producing charcoal proposed process to ensure the production of high quality charcoal with increasing uglerodnoi and strength due to the optimization of the technological process on the steps of pre-drying and subsequent heat treatment of wood, while reducing heat loss and increasing the yield of the target product without pollution.


Claims

Method of producing charcoal, including pre-drying the wood to a moisture content of 10-25% and its subsequent heat treatment in prisutstvie with the formation of charcoal, calcination and cooling when the countercurrent flow of the cooled flue gases through these areas and with the use of these gases after passage of cooling zone as a coolant in the areas of baking, pyrolysis and dried, characterized in that the wood prior to drying crushed to obtain workpieces, the size of which satisfy the range of 50 to 150 mm, and after pre-drying process 20-40% solution of inorganic oxygen-containing polonovski acids of General formula HnTonwhere n3 - the number of hydrogen atoms and the valence of the acid residue; N is hydrogen; To - acid balance, and formed during heat treatment of wood the steam and gas are removed from the calcining zone of the coal and bring them into the pyrolysis zone of the wood, and then from the furnace retort in this area serves coolant representing flue gases from combustion of the fuel.

 

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FIELD: wood-chemical production.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of resin industry, in particular, to wood-chemical production and also intended for production of charcoal and for complex utilization of wood wastes. The charcoal kiln contains a heat-insulated chamber of pyrolysis and drying used for installation of containers with firewood, a fire box, a scatter, a pipeline with an air blower and a cooler. At that the drying chamber is supplied with a heater and it is stand-alone unit. The scatter represents vertically placed perforated headers fixed in the lower part of the container communicating with a gas duct of the fire-box through a compactor. The fire box is made in the form of in series connected a gas generator and a combustion chamber. The pipeline is supplied with a heat insulation. The cooler is made in the form of a jacket-tubular heat-exchanger, the inter-pipe space of which is connected with the heater of the stand-alone drying chamber and the air blower is located behind the cooler. The invention allows to improve the operational characteristics of the charcoal kiln at production of the high quality charcoal.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improved the charcoal kiln operational characteristics at production of the high quality charcoal.

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Ablative reactor // 2281313

FIELD: chemical mechanical engineering; reactors for fast pyrolysis of wood and peat.

SUBSTANCE: proposed reactor has pyrolizer equipped with rotor made in form of hollow cylinder with blades rigidly secured on its lateral surface and located at equal distance relative to one another for smooth heating of its lateral surface; reactor is also provided with loading bin. Pyrolizer is provided with turbine mounted under rotor; turbine has several blades rigidly secured on its shaft. Turbine shaft and hollow cylinder of rotor are rigidly interconnected. Loading bin is engageable with hollow cylinder. Pyrolizer is made in form of truncated cone whose larger base is directed upward; it is mounted in housing for rotation about its axis. Rotor is located in upper part of pyrolizer coaxially relative to it for rotation around its axis in direction opposite to direction of rotation of pyrolizer at rate equal to rate of pyrolizer. Blades of rotor and turbine are made in form of right-angled trapeziums whose large bases are directed upward.

EFFECT: high yield of vapor-and-gas product.

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FIELD: environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises furnace, heating chamber, plate, vertical removable retort tightly mounted on the plate for permitting pyrolytic gases to be discharged in the bottom section of the retort, and gas duct for supplying gases to the furnace. The plate is made of heat-resistant material and has opening that receives unmovable device for discharging pyrolytic gases to the gas duct. The plate is provided with gate valve made of a heat-resistant loose material . The retort is tightly mounted on the valve gate. The device for discharging the pyrolytic gases is made of a section or two sections of a pipe. The plate is made of a heat-resistant steel.

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2 cl, 2 dwg

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SUBSTANCE: hydrocarbon stock processing that can be used in production of activated carbon comprises preliminary thermal treatment thereof using gaseous heat carrier followed by processing at 200-900°C in reactor under reductive gas atmosphere in presence of saturated steam supply, cooling, and discharging activated carbon. Reductive gas is generated by combusting hydrocarbon fuel with air consumption ratio below 1.0 and then mixed with thermochemical processing gases in proportion 1:(0.1-10). In order to control temperature conditions, reductive gas is fed to at least three reaction zones and, prior to be fed to each individual reaction zone, reductive gas is preliminarily mixed in proportion ensuring specified temperature conditions in different zones, whereas process is carried out according to known temperature regimes in production of products with specified parameters.

EFFECT: expanded process possibilities due to enabled temperature conditions control, increased accuracy in achieving specified parameters of product, and reduced power consumption.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; medicine; woodworking industry; methods and devices used for production of the charcoal.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the wood pyrolysis in the retorts. The invention provides for, that on the charging platform the retorts are loaded with the raw, for example, the raw wood. Then the first retort is placed in the chamber with the minimum heating temperature of 200°С and kept there till the complete removal of the water. At the following stage the first retort is moved in the chamber with the heating temperature up to 400°С, and on its place the second retort is located. At the second stage the separation of the wood gas, resins, acids and alcohol is exercised. In the second half of the second stage the first retort is placed back into the chamber with the heating temperature of 200°С, and the second retort is placed in the chamber with the heating temperature of up to 400°С. Then the first retort is relocated into the chamber with the heating temperature of up to 550°С. At that they exercise separation of the mixture of the gases and the solid fractions of the product, the second retort is placed in the chamber with the heating temperature up to 400°С, and the third retort - in the chamber with the heating temperature of 200°С. Upon termination of the process the first retort is placed on the site for cooling. The rest retorts are relocated according to the above mentioned scheme. After cooling the first retort is placed on the turnover device, where the retort contents moved to the receiving hopper. The invention allows to improve the quality and to increase output of the charcoal.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved quality and increased output of the charcoal.

2 cl, 2 dwg

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SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction of power stations operated from carbonaceous refuse, and can be used for construction of lower-power power stations using plant refuse as fuel (wood chips of dry and sick trees, milled root crops, canes, branches, grapevine, wood processing refuse). Biopower station contains pyrolysis plant and gas-operated power facility, equipped with moisture separator and gasholder. Pyrolysis plant comprises inclined gasproof thermal enclosure with in-built angularly 45-50° hermetically sealed ribbed pipe retorts connected to vertical hermetically sealed loading and unloading box-type feeders. Upper part of retorts is attached to gas pipelines connected through moisture separator and gasholder with power facility. Exhaust pass of power facility is connected with thermal enclosure in its bottom section. Biopower station is additionally equipped with starting combustor and recovery boiler.

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FIELD: woodworking.

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EFFECT: usage of mentioned above inventions provides increasing of utilisation level of wood refuses with receiving of bio-fuel with high energy density, increasing of method dedicated throughput and module and providing of ecology at the expense of toxic discharges into environmental absence.

4 cl, 5 dwg

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FIELD: heating systems, drying.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used when utilising industrial wood residue. Dried raw material is put into pyrolysis chamber 1. Into drying chamber 2 live wood is put. Industrial wood residue supplied to silo 26 is fed to gas-generating furnace 5 with screw feeder 14. Gases generated in gas-generating furnace 5 are supplied via gas duct to pyrolysis chamber 1. At wood warming-up stage there supplied is generator gas, with the help of gas blower 4, from pyrolysis chamber 1 through outlet branch pipe 27 and condenser 3 to burner device 7, where it is burning. Flue gases appearing during generator gas burning provide for an additional heating of raw material through pyrolysis chamber 1 wall. After that flue gases are supplied to drying chamber 2 through outlet branch pipe 31 of combustion chamber 6.

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