The rotational extrusion heads and device for its implementation

 

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure, in particular to a pressure processing rollers without deliberate thinning of the wall is a flat or bowl-shaped workpiece. The workpiece plate is fixed on the perimeter of the ring on the mandrel and give it a rotary motion, in which the workpiece down the pressing roller, the movement of which is carried out along the radius of convexity of the bottom in the radial direction, while the source of the workpiece is performed in the form of a cone, and the movement of the roller is carried out in a plane that is offset from the center of the bottom, and also that the source of the workpiece is performed in the form of a cone with a height equal to 1,1-1,3 height of the bottom and the movement of the roller is carried out in a plane that is offset from the center of the bottom 1/8-1/4 of the diameter of the rolling roller. Device for rotary extrusion heads from a flat circular in plan sheet of the billets contains a rotating table with the mandrel for securing the workpiece on the perimeter and the pressing roller, mounted on the cross beam connected to the actuator her swing and fixed on the frame can be rotated along the radius of the bottom roller is installed with an offset from the center of rotation of the table, and the traverse is equipped with a mechanism oinoi axis of the bar and the United lever-hinge pivot mechanism driven swing beam and made of deployed relative to each other discs. Improved product quality by eliminating the thickness variation across the cross section of the bottom and productivity by reducing equipment units and operations. 2 S. and 3 C.p. f-crystals, 13 ill.

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure, in particular to a pressure processing rollers without deliberate thinning of the wall flat or cupped blanks.

There is a method of manufacture of the heads by the method of unijunction rotary hood (RIA), in which the flat sheet blank is pressed against the mandrel and lead her into rotational motion, and then bring the pressing roller, which produce the molding of the bottom (see, for example, the book of Burial N.And. Rotary extractor shell parts on the machines. -M.: Mashinostroenie, 1983, page 67, Fig. 4.18.II).

The main difficulties deep drawing spherical and dome-shaped parts according to this method lies in the deviation of the wall thickness from the set because of the tendency of the metal to thinning the sine rule. To reduce thinning of the walls of the parts when RIA resort to holding the hood on a removable mandrel, which is not economically justified because of the material of the mandrel and machine.

There is also known a method of manufacturing hoces the Ala on the workpiece formed by stamping the Central part of the bottom spherical shape, then on the undeformed part of the billet rotary extrusion is formed into a curved section of the Central axis of the base plate, is formed into the edges of the bottom, the diameter of a circle stamped Central part of the bottom is chosen equal to 0.4 to 0.5 of the original diameter of the workpiece (see, for example, USSR author's certificate 1704884, MKI 21 D 22/18, 51/24).

However, when forming the flat blank is the thinning of the walls of the bottom in the Central part, which degrades the quality of the bottom and, besides, there is buckling of thin-walled workpieces due to their lack of rigidity.

A device for the manufacture of the heads method RIA unijunction rotary hoods containing the drive mandrel, clamp and connected to the actuator moving the pressing roller (see, for example, the book of Burial N.And. Rotary extractor shell parts on the machines. -M.: Mashinostroenie, 1983, page 67, Fig. 4.18.II).

The main difficulties deep drawing spherical and dome parts lie in the tendency of the metal to thinning the sine rule. To reduce thinning of the walls of the parts when RIA resort to holding the hood on a removable mandrel in several operations. In the manufacture of parts of large diameter (for example, from 2 to 8 m) this Neuve is from the nomenclature of the bottoms, multiplied by the number of bars required for each diameter.

This deficiency is partially removed in the device for the manufacture of axisymmetric parts type bottoms of flat circular in plan sheet of the billets containing the mandrel with the holding ring mounted on the table turning-and-boring machine. On the slide carousel of the machine is fixed to the rail axis to install the led. In the sideways slide holder installed the mandrel to move the roller from the periphery to the center of the bottom (see, for example, book N.With. Artemova. Features of the production of chemical equipment from copper and copper alloys. Textbook for students of the system of training and refresher training. -M.: Mashinostroenie, 1994, p.111, Fig.3.10).

However, this device has disadvantages, namely, that produced the bottom has a thickness in the cross section details: the Central portion of the part has a smaller thickness than the peripheral part, and after the end of the rotary hood bottom there is a change in shape of parts, due to large internal stresses. Another disadvantage of this device is the necessity of using expensive equipment,lsih initial capital costs, not only for the acquisition of the carousel of the machine, but for the construction of premises for its occupancy.

In terms of total characteristics as the prototype of the method chosen the method according to the author's certificate USSR N 1704884, and as a prototype devices of the selected device, described in the book N.With. Artemova.

Object of the invention is the improvement of product quality by eliminating the thickness variation across the cross section of the bottom, the elimination of defects in the form of bumps and increases productivity by reducing the amount of equipment and operations in the manufacture of elliptical, spherical and torispherical heads.

This object is achieved in that according to the rotational extrusion of the bottoms of the circular sheet of the original workpiece, wherein the workpiece plate is fixed on the perimeter of the ring on the mandrel and give it a rotary motion, in which the workpiece down the pressing roller, the movement of which is carried out along the radius of convexity of the bottom in the radial direction, while the source of the workpiece is performed in the form of a cone, and the movement of the roller is carried out in a plane that is offset from the center of the bottom, and also that the source of the workpiece is performed in the form of a cone with a height equal to 1,1-1,3 height of the bottom rolling roller.

The task is achieved by the fact that the device for rotary extrusion heads from a flat circular in plan sheet of the billets containing a rotating table with the mandrel for securing the workpiece on the perimeter and a pressure roller mounted on the cross beam connected to the actuator her swing and fixed on the frame can be rotated along the radius of the bottom, a pressure roller mounted offset relative to the center of rotation of the table, and the traverse is equipped with a mechanism for axially moving the pressure roller, mounted on cross beam can be rotated about the longitudinal axis of the bar and connected lever-hinge pivot mechanism driven swing beam and made of deployed relative to each other discs.

The execution of the original piece in the form of a cone provides an exception crown plate during rotation of the extrusion of the billet through the redistribution of material in his section and also reduce distortion by reducing the magnitude of the stresses in the material. This improves the quality of the bottom.

The implementation of motion of the pressing roller in a plane offset from the rotation center of the bottom, provides the include extrusion in the absence of shear deformation, that occur during the passage of the pressure roller through the center of the workpiece and after its removal leads to the formation of spherical protrusion inward of the bottom.

The execution of the original piece in the form of a cone with a height equal to 1,1-1,3 height of the bottom provides the products to the desired height, as when rotating extrusion plate is contraction of the Central portion due to the deformation of the wall radius. With a smaller height of the workpiece is thinning of the Central part, and with the excess height is not achieved receiving the bottoms of the required form. Ceteris paribus, the magnitude of the density depends on the desired diameter of the bottom, the thickness of its physical and mechanical properties (especially ductility and susceptibility to strain hardening) of the processed material, as well as the regulatory requirements for the accurate performance of the desired product. The larger the diameter of the bottom and plastically used for fabrication of the bottom material, the relatively smaller height you want the bottom and Vice versa. The same can be said about the influence of the thickness of the workpiece on the choice of pitch cone of the blank. Thus, the choice of the optimal height of the cone is empirically for each dia is siteline center of the bottom 1/8-1/4 of the diameter of the rolling roller, achieve the desired shape of the bottom. With a larger offset is education not formed the Central part, and when the offset is less than 1/8 in the Central part of the bottom is formed a protrusion, facing the inside of the bottom due to the emergence of large elastic deformations in the Central part of the workpiece.

The offset of the plane of rotation of the rod relative to the center of rotation of the table aligns the shear deformation in the center of the workpiece and the peripheral portion of the workpiece by rotating the hood. This ensures obtaining the necessary sphericity in the center of the part and its preservation during subsequent processing.

Supply traverse mechanism of the axial movement of the pressing roller provides adjustment modes rotary extrusion depending on the physico-mechanical properties of the workpiece material. In the high elasticity of the material forming the roller extends for a greater distance in order to compensate for the change in the shape of the bottom under the action of the elastic deformation. In addition, it simplifies the installation of the workpiece on the mandrel, and removing the finished bottom after process rotary extrusion.

Install a pressure roller to traverse with in the and driven swing beam provides automatic achievement of the reversal of the pressure roller. Since the nomination of thrust changes the angle between the transverse beam and draught of a drive of its swing, it is a reversal of the pressing roller at a greater angle, near his approach to the center of rotation of the workpiece. This improves the quality of the bottom by equalizing the magnitude of shear deformation in the material on the whole surface of the bottom, reducing its distortion and improving the quality of surface finish.

Performing a pressure roller of the deployed relative to each other discs provides improved surface quality of the bottom. In the process rotary extrusion facing toward the center of the workpiece disk pre-forming, the Central performs the main operation of rotary extrusion, and turned to the periphery of the workpiece disk produces smoothing molded surface. At the same time this design pressure roller provides improved performance by reducing the number of passes of the tool.

The essence of the claimed solution is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 shows a scan of a flat initial workpiece; Fig.2 is a cross - section of the original piece; Fig.3 is a cross - section of the conical workpiece mounted on the device for rotary revealing the source of the conical workpiece; in Fig.5 - prefabricated plate after forming according to the specified radius of the surface in the peripheral portion, and Fig.6 - finished bottom after surfacing, which separates the conical part of Fig.7 is a diagram of a rotating extrusion plate; Fig.8 is a diagram of a rotary extrusion heads; Fig.9 - layout of the table, the head plate and the pressing roller, top view; Fig.10 - attachment of the bar to the frame of the device (section a-a) of Fig.11 is a structural variant of the device with automatic reversal of the pressure roller in the mode rotary hood and polishing the inner surface of the bottom of Fig.12 is a cross section along B-B of Fig.13 is a cross - section of a composite rolling roller.

The rotational extrusion heads is as follows.

The circular sheet source of the workpiece 1 from the sheet receiving one of the known methods, for example, by clipping on a disk scissors (see Fig.1 and 2). From the original piece on the press, equipped with the necessary pots in the form of a conical concave and convex sectors, is formed into a cone, the edge of the workpiece for forming connected by welding (see Fig.3), the source of the workpiece is calculated from the fact that the height of the cone must be equal to 1,1-1,3 height of the finished workpiece bring the pressing roller 4, used by rotary extrusion of semi-finished product, as shown in Fig.7. While the pressing roller moves in an arc lying in a plane parallel to and passing through its center of rotation of the workpiece, and his movement is carried out in a plane that is offset from the center of the bottom 1/8-1/4 of the diameter of the rolling roller. For rotary extrusion of materials with relatively low plasticity carry out the reversal of the pressure roller in a plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bar 7, on which it is fixed.

In the rotary extrusion is obtained semi-finished product with a configuration close to the target. Subsequent processing is carried out either on the same device, if you have plastic properties and the thickness of the material, the configuration of the pressing roller is chosen close to the small radius of the bottom. The bottom of the large diameter and made of less plastic material is processed on special machines for rotary extrusion, in which the deformation of the peripheral part of the semi-finished product is a pressure roller that moves in an arc corresponding to the smaller radius of the bottom resting on the spherical mandrel connected to p is, it is shown in Fig.5. The semi-finished product is subjected to trimming lathe, boring machine, and finish the bottom (see Fig.6) is fed to the subsequent processing and polishing.

Example 1. Manufacturer torispherical heads with a surface diameter of 2400 mm and a thickness of 6 mm steel 081810. First made flat round billet diameter 2794 mm, with cut angle at the apex of the 27o46" disk scissors model N-4420 made of sheet steel of a thickness of 6 mm At a special press with the punch and the matrix in the form of sectors of truncated cones, flat blanks formed into cones with an angle at the apex 134o46", height 665 mm and a diameter 2715 mm, and then made the connection edges along by welding in a protective atmosphere with subsequent Stripping flush weld. Installed on a dedicated device for rotary extrusion spheres with the diameter of the table 3200 mm was formed the Central part of the material with a radius of curvature of 1900 mm by deformation of the rotating workpiece pressing roller. Then was formed the peripheral part of the semi-finished product with a radius of 400 mm and a cylindrical part with a height of 25 mm, the resulting intermediate product is then installed on the vertical machine is OMCI for welding. Finished bottom after facing sanded and polished.

Example 2. Manufacturer torispherical heads with a surface diameter of 5600 mm and thickness of 6 mm steel 081810. First made flat round billet diameter 6416 mm, with cut corner at the top of the 16o39" on the disk scissors model N-4420 made of sheet steel of a thickness of 6 mm At a special press with the punch and the matrix in the form of sectors of truncated cones, flat blanks formed into cones with angle at the vertex 145o10", height 1080 mm and a diameter 6120 mm, and then made the connection edges along by welding in a protective atmosphere with subsequent Stripping flush weld. Installed on a dedicated device for rotary extrusion spheres with the diameter of the table 3200 mm was formed the Central part of the material with a radius of curvature of 5600 mm by deformation of the rotating workpiece pressing roller. Then was formed the peripheral part of the semi-finished product with a radius of 560 mm and a cylindrical part with a height of 35 mm, the resulting intermediate product is then installed on the vertical machine with the diameter of the table 3200 mm and was produced by beveling the edges of the bottom to obtain a height of 1000 mm, and performed the cutting krommenie bottoms contains designed for securing workpieces 1 frame 2 with the holding ring 3 and the pressing roller 4, when interacting with the workpiece 1 is formed of the bottom due to the rotation of the extrusion billet. The mandrel 2 is installed on is provided with radial grooves 5 table 6 connected to the rotation drive (not shown conventionally). The mandrel 2 is made in the form of two horizontal rings, connected by a vertical mandrel or drum. The lower ring is fixed in the radial grooves 5 of table 6, and the top provided with a tapered bore for mounting the workpiece plate 1. It is possible to manufacture the mandrel in the form of sectors that are installed with the possibility of moving in the radial grooves 5. The pressing roller 4 is offset from the middle of the base of the head plate 7, provided with a drive axial movement 8 and fixed on the frame 9 with axis 10. On the frame 9 threaded socket 11, and the side surfaces of the head plate 7 holes 12 in which are mounted a shaft 10, which are set depending on the required radius of the bottom. The distance between the screw holes and the holes 12 are identical and are selected in the range from 100 to 300 mm depending on the nomenclature bottoms and stroke actuator axial movement 8. To ensure the rotation axis 10 tfig.11 and 12 shows a variant of construction of the lower part of the bar 7, in the lower part of which is mounted a bearing 15 and the pivot holder 16, which is made in the form of a rotatable cylindrical rod. On bottom of the holder 16 has a pressure roller 4. On the middle part of the holder 16 is installed with the possibility of axial movement of the sleeve 17, the hinge 18 is connected to the actuator 19. Above the sleeve 17 on the holder 16 fixed ferrule 20 with the rotary sleeve 21, in which the gap is part of the finger 22, fixed to the tip 23 of the actuator 19 mounted on the frame 9. In Fig.13 shows the embodiment of a pressure roller made from deployed at an angle to each other discs 24.

The proposed device operates as follows.

For the manufacture of the bottom of the desired diameter, the following preparatory work. Install the mandrel 2 with the corresponding diameter of the conical bore, for which it is secured to the table 6 by means of bolts that are installed in the slots 5. When using pie mandrel 2 of its sectors diluted to the desired diameter and fixed in the radial grooves 5 of table 6. This controls no offset bore relative to the center of rotation of the table 6. The mandrel 2 is mounted a conical workpiece 1 and the hall is set the pressing roller 4 with radius equal to the smaller diameter of the bottom (see Fig.8). Then set the axis 10 in the hole 12 of the bar 7 and the threaded socket 11 on both sides of the frame 9. Drive axial movement 8 the pressing roller 4 is given in the upper position, and the actuator swing 14 yoke 7 is given in one of their extreme positions. This activates the drive motor 14 and due to the rotation of the screw nut moving along the screw, thrust 13 rotates the yoke 7 around axis 11.

After the training enables the drive rotation of the table 6. Drive swing 14 yoke 7 is moved inside the cone 1 from the edge of the workpiece 1 to the center. The same action is repeated several times with the gradual advance of the pressing roller 4 by means of the axial movement mechanism 8. After the formation of large radius are forming small radius and Board. This operation can be performed on the proposed device, if you allow the plastic properties of the material of the bottom. If the material of the bottom heavily negatives in the process rotary extrusion, then the final shaping can be carried out in known devices for rotary extrusion using the reference drive roller and stops. The pressing roller 4 driven axial movement is translated to its extreme upper position. Traverse 7 drive swing arm 14 is shown in one of the end positions. Removed the clamping ring 3 and extracted molded plate 1.

When using a rotary version of traverse operation is similar to that described above. Because when you move the head plate 7 changes the angle between the axes of the actuator 19 and the head plate 7, when you turn the actuator rod 19 to its tip 23 acts on the hinge 18 of the movable sleeve 17 by turning the holder 16 in the bearing 15 to the desired angle. When the finger 22 is at an angle in the rotary sleeve 21, thereby rotating the holder 20 and its associated tool holder 16. When this occurs, the movement of the sleeve 17 along the cylindrical part of the tool holder 16.

When performing the pressing roller in the form of detailed in relation to each other discs 24 at the drives perform auxiliary functions: they produce a preliminary deformation and smoothing the material of the workpiece, and the average disk performs a rotational extrusion.

The proposed solution provides quality products due to the exclusion of marriage due to the thickness variation of the bottoms in their section and also allows the poor.

Claims

1. The rotational extrusion of the bottoms of the circular sheet of the billets, comprising a workpiece plate along the perimeter of the ring on the mandrel, the message she rotational motion and forming a moving pressure roller, characterized in that from the original sheet do the workpiece in the form of a cone, and its forming is performed by the movement of the pressing roller in a plane offset from the center of the bottom.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the height of the cone is equal to 1,1-1,3 height of the bottom, and the movement of the pressure roller is carried out in a plane that is offset from the center of the bottom 1/8-1/4 of the diameter of the pressing roller.

3. Device for rotary extrusion bottoms of the circular sheet of the billets containing a rotating table with the mandrel for securing the workpiece on the perimeter and a pressure roller mounted on the cross beam connected to the actuator her swing and placed on a frame that can be rotated, characterized in that the pressing roller is set in a plane offset from the center of the bottom, and the traverse mechanism has axial movement of the pressing roller.

4. The device according to p. 3, otli axis and is connected to drive her swing lever-hinge mechanism of the rotation.

5. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that the pressing roller is made in the form of detailed in relation to each other discs.

 

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