A device for focusing x-rays and gamma radiation with a stokes line of the spectrum at the output
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to devices for visually-shadow gamma-ray imaging and can be used in industry and in medicine. The inventive device includes magnetoacoustic modulator made in the form of quartz tube conical shape with an external coil connected to a high frequency generator. The modulator is located on the same axis with the light source so that the larger diameter of the cone is directed towards the radiation source, and a smaller diameter in the direction of the irradiated object. With the passage of the radiation through the modulator is diffraction radiation. The alternating voltage supplied to the outer coil, acts on the crystals of the tube so that there is an increase or decrease in the database, given a temporary law. Changing the diameter of the cone along the length change of the diameter of the coils and determines the conditions of a constant glide angle in the cross section of the tube, providing the condition for total reflection x-ray or gamma radiation. The technical result consists in the possibility of using weak radiation sources and receiving narrow radiation that will allow inititialization method visual-shadow x-ray and gamma-ray imaging, used both in industry and in medicine.In this regard, x-ray and gamma-rays are almost unable to effectively focus, diffuse x-ray and gamma radiation does not permit sufficient for practical use precision to establish spatial inhomogeneities inside the investigated material and therefore is not used in nde. Passing x-rays and gamma rays can be used effectively for the purposes of nde in two ways: by scanning the examined object by a narrow beam and shadow, shining through the object wide beam.In that case, if you want to inspect welds in various metal structures, as well as introscopes study of metal of small thickness, applied x-ray electron optical introscopy. Electro-optical scanner ESI-1 consists of two parts: the x-ray machine and brightness intensifier x-ray image. The elements of the amplifier brightness x-ray images are x-ray-optical Converter (single-crystal screen of SJ (TD)), fast lens for LASS="ptx2">In medicine have become very popular in radiology electro-optical Converter. Its application in clinical practice has allowed to reduce the dose of x-rays 10-12 times and simultaneously increase the brightness of the fluorescent screen in the 1000-3000 times (1).Technical result achieved during the implementation of the claimed invention, is that it is possible to use weak sources of radiation as in x-ray and gamma ranges, to direct radiation of relatively narrow beam, and when used in medicine to reduce the dose burden to the patient due to irradiation strictly defined areas of the body.This technical result is achieved in that the device for focusing the x-ray and gamma radiation with a Stokes line of the spectrum at the output includes magneto-acoustic modulator through which the radiation, wherein the modulator is made in the form of a quartz tube of conical shape with an external coil connected to a high frequency generator, and is located on the same axis with the light source so that the larger diameter of the cone is directed towards the radiation source, and a smaller diameter in the direction obducta.Coaxially with the x-ray or gamma emitter 1 (in the experiment was used emitter type Arina-3") between the emitter and a fluorescent screen 2 is mounted quartz tube 3 conical shape with zamochennoy on the outer side of the winding 4 of a copper wire with a diameter of 1 mm, is connected to an RF generator (not shown) with a frequency of 27 to 28 kHz with a voltage of 0.15 CenturyThe radiation emerging from the output tubes with a diameter of 80 mm, served in a cone quartz tube 3 from its larger diameter (220 mm). The output radiation of the quartz tube 3 is made from small diameter (cross-section 1410 mm). At the start winding 4 at a distance of 400 mm from the conical quartz tube from the side of the small diameter on the fluorescent screen clearly shows the spot 1520 mm Lateral scattering of x-rays was observed.The angle of inclination of the walls of the tube conical shape, wall thickness and frequency of the RF oscillations on the winding tube is determined depending on the type of radiation and its power, and the smallest diameter of the cone is determined by the diameter of the investigated area on the object.The claimed device operates as follows.Under dastjerdi the increase, the decrease in the database, given a temporary law, determining the diffraction of x-rays or gamma-radiation on the crystal as a result of interference of radiation specularly reflected from the systems of parallel planes that pass through the nodes of the crystal lattice. Changing the diameter of the cone length and the change in diameter of the coils determines the conditions of a constant glide angle in the cross section of the tube, providing the condition for total reflection x-ray or gamma radiation.Ionization effect on the environment inside the tube and fluctuations in densities from the quartz tube in cooperation with an alternating electromagnetic field (as diffraction on volume phase grating) in the air within the tube, play the role of orderly spaced centers, coherent scattering of incident radiation, as defined by the diffraction Bragg (2). Interference of diffracted waves leads to the existence of only one difragirovavshej wave wave vector of Rd. In the field diffraction Bragg performs phase matching conditions for the wave vectors of the incident wave, difragirovavshej wave and the wave vector of the acoustic wave. Given that the wave vector is the frequency of the radiation in the direction of Stokes lines of the spectrum, moreover, the anti-Stokes component of the scattering due to the tapered cross section of the quartz tube is involved in the conjugation, determining in an environment that Stokes line spectrum brighter intensity of the primary radiation. A quartz tube together with the current from the high frequency generator winding and ionization processes is an acousto-optical modulator (2) and determines the diffraction on thin lattice characteristic of the reflection at the interface between the media, the deformed surface acoustic wave, fully reflecting the radiation to the inside of the cone. Thus, the claimed device can provide focus and autofocus radiation in very small amounts.In addition, the claimed device in which Raman scattering of gamma and x - ray radiation, like infrared spectrum can be used for studies of the structure of a molecule consisting of two identical atoms, which is practically impossible with the help of infrared spectra.Sources of information
1. A. P. Merkulov, "Beyond the visible", ed. 2nd Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 19762. G. L. Kiselev. Devices for quantum electronics, Moscow, Higher school", the spectrum at the output, including magnetoacoustic modulator through which the radiation, wherein the modulator is made in the form of a quartz tube of conical shape with an external coil connected to a high frequency generator, and is located on the same axis with the light source so that the larger diameter of the cone is directed towards the radiation source, and a smaller diameter in the direction of the irradiated object.
FIELD: X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography methods for studying the structure and quality control of materials during nondestructive testing.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is intended for X-ray beam shaping, in particular, the synchrotron radiation beam, by means of crystals-monochromators. The device for X-ray beam shaping has two crystals-monochromators in the dispersionless diffraction scheme. It is ensured by the possibility of displacement of one from crystals in the direction of the primary beam with crystal fixing in two discrete positions. Both crystals-monochromators have the possibility of rotation for realization of the successive Bragg diffraction. Device for crystal bending has displacement mechanism, two immovable and two movable cylindrical rods, between of which the end parts of a bent crystal are located. The axes of these parts are displaced one in respect to the other. The immovable rods are leaned against the upper surface of a flat parallel plate near its end faces. The L-shaped brackets are attached to the end faces of plate. The parallel surfaces of the brackets contact with immovable rods. The parallel surfaces of the end faces of the upper joints of L-shaped brackets contact with movable rods. The plate with L-shaped brackets is embraced with crooked shoulders of floating rocker with cylindrical pins, installed on the rocker ends. The pins are leaned against the surfaces of movable rods perpendicularly to them. The displacement mechanism is located between the lower surface of plate and middle point of the rocker.
EFFECT: increasing the energy range of X-ray beam when maintaining its spatial position; improving the uniformity of bending force distribution and homogeneity of crystal deformation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: roentgen optics; roentgen ray flux reflecting, focusing, and monochromatization.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method for controlling X-ray flux by means of controlled energy actions on control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate includes change of substrate and diffraction medium surface geometry and diffractive parameters of this medium by simultaneous action on control-unit substrate and on outer surface of control-unit diffraction medium with heterogeneous energy. X-ray flux control system has X-ray source and control unit incorporating diffraction medium and substrate; in addition, it is provided with diffraction beam angular shift corrector connected to recording chamber; control unit is provided with temperature controller and positioner; substrate has alternating members controlling its geometric parameters which are functionally coupled with physical parameters of members, their geometric parameters, and amount of energy acting upon them. Diffraction medium can be made in the form of crystalline or multilayer periodic structure covered with energy-absorbing coating.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of roentgen-ray flux control due to dynamic correction of focal spot shape and size.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.
EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: optical trap matrix control and particle matrix formation.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method and device are implemented by laser and variable-time optical diffraction element enabling dynamic control of optical-trap matrices followed by controlling particle matrices and also using plurality of optical traps to provide for handling single objects.
EFFECT: improved method and system for producing plurality of optical traps.
30 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to method, for manufacturing lens with required focal distance F, one or several lenses are made with focal distance, determined from formula , where N - number of lenses, and F0=Rc/2δ, where Rc - parabolic profile curvature radius, δ - decrement of refraction characteristic of lens material related to class of roentgen refracting materials, after that required amount of lens material is injected, where ρ - density of lens material, R - lens radius, in liquid state into cylindrically shaped carrier with same internal radius, material of which provides wetting angle to aforementioned liquid, determined by condition , carrier is moved to centrifuge, carrier with lens material are rotated until reach of homogeneity at angular rotation frequency , where η - viscosity of lens material in liquid state, Re - Reynolds number, then lens material is transferred to solid state during rotation, rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in holder.
EFFECT: production of lenses having aperture increased up to several millimeters, having perfect refracting profile in form of paraboloid of revolution with absent micro-irregularities (roughness) of surface.
FIELD: medical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves manufacturing lens from material capable of photopolymerization, forming one or several lenses with required focal distance by introducing required quantity of the lens material in liquid state into cylindrical holder which material possesses required wetting angle for given liquid. The holder is placed on centrifuge and rotated together with the lens material to achieve uniformity under preset rotation frequency condition. Then, when rotating, the lens material is transformed into solid state due to light source radiation flow being applied. Rotation is stopped and lens is assembled in the holder. Oligomer composition, capable of frontal free radical photopolymerization with monomer corresponding to it, and reaction photoinitiator, is taken as the lens material. Working temperature is to be not less than on 30-40°С higher than polymer glass-transition temperature during polymerization. The lens material transformation into solid state by applying rotation is carried out by means of frontal photopolymerization method with polymerization front moving along the lens axis from below upwards or along the lens radius.
EFFECT: enhanced effectiveness in producing x-ray lenses having paraboloid-of-revolution refraction structure and having aperture increased to several millimeters without microroughnesses available on the surface.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns resorts for formation of a directed bundle of a X-rays from a divergent bundle created by the point or quasi-point source. The device for formation of a directed bundle of X-rays contains a catopter in the form of a surface of gyration and has a focal point. The focal point is located on an axial line of the specified surface of gyration. Forming surfaces has the curve shape. The tangent to the specified curve in any point of this curve forms with a direction on a focal point the same angle. This angle does not exceed a critical angle of the full exterior reflexion for X-rays of the used range. The catopter is or an interior surface of the shaped tubular device or a surface of the shaped channel in a monolithic body, or boundary between the surface of the shaped monolithic core and a stratum of the coat superimposed on this core. The specified tubular device or the channel is executed from a material reflecting X-rays or has a coat from such material. The specified core is executed from a radiotransparent material. The specified coat of the core is executed from a material reflecting X-rays.
EFFECT: increase of radiation source angle capture.
8 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: application: for manufacturing of X-ray refractory lenses. Substance: consists in the fact that lens matrix is manufactured from material capable of photopolymerisation, formation of one or several lenses with required focus distance, talking into account number and geometric characteristics of these lenses, characteristics of these lenses material and holder material, and also dynamic mode, in which lens matrix is generated, besides, produced matrix is used to form one or several bases for lenses, for this purpose material is introduced, which has no adhesion to matrix material, in matrix base material is transferred into solid phase, produced base is separated from matrix, is placed in bath with liquid photopolymer on piston with precision travel of linear displacement, then photopolymerisation is carried out through set of masks with annular clearances and radial slots, where internal radius of annular clearance is identified as , and external radius - as , where m is even number, base is shifted by value equal to even number of phase shift lengths L=mλ/δ, operations of exposure through the subsequent masks and shift are repeated until specified number of segments is obtained, lens is separated from base, and lens is installed in holder.
EFFECT: improved focusing properties of lenses with rotation profiles.
7 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to generation of radiation in a given direction and required wavelength range. The method of generating radiation in a given direction in the required wavelength range involves generation of initial radiation using a radiation source and filtration of the initial radiation through controlled distribution of refraction index of beams in the control region. Filtration provides for selective deviation of beams of initial radiation depending on their wavelength and selection of beams with given wavelength. Control of distribution of refraction index of beams is achieved through controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The device for generating radiation has a source of initial radiation and filtering apparatus. The filtering apparatus have apparatus for providing for controlled distribution of refraction index of beams. The latter, in their turn, have apparatus for controlling distribution of electron density in the control region. The lithography device contains the said device for generating radiation.
EFFECT: invention reduces probability of damage to filtration apparatus, while retaining the stream of radiation incident on them, and provides for generation of radiation at required wavelength.
28 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has a stationary vacuumised neutron guide made in the form of a stainless steep pipe, nickel or copper. The device is additionally equipped with a section of a neutron guide made as a flexible polyvinyl chloride tube, the inner wall of which has mirror surface. Values of average roughness of the inner wall of the flexible polyvinyl chloride tube do not exceed the length of the ultracold neutron wave length.
EFFECT: reduced losses of low energy neutrons during transportation, capability of delivering them into hard-to-access areas.
8 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl