A device for focusing x-rays and gamma radiation with a stokes line of the spectrum at the output

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to devices for visually-shadow gamma-ray imaging and can be used in industry and in medicine. The inventive device includes magnetoacoustic modulator made in the form of quartz tube conical shape with an external coil connected to a high frequency generator. The modulator is located on the same axis with the light source so that the larger diameter of the cone is directed towards the radiation source, and a smaller diameter in the direction of the irradiated object. With the passage of the radiation through the modulator is diffraction radiation. The alternating voltage supplied to the outer coil, acts on the crystals of the tube so that there is an increase or decrease in the database, given a temporary law. Changing the diameter of the cone along the length change of the diameter of the coils and determines the conditions of a constant glide angle in the cross section of the tube, providing the condition for total reflection x-ray or gamma radiation. The technical result consists in the possibility of using weak radiation sources and receiving narrow radiation that will allow inititialization method visual-shadow x-ray and gamma-ray imaging, used both in industry and in medicine.

In this regard, x-ray and gamma-rays are almost unable to effectively focus, diffuse x-ray and gamma radiation does not permit sufficient for practical use precision to establish spatial inhomogeneities inside the investigated material and therefore is not used in nde. Passing x-rays and gamma rays can be used effectively for the purposes of nde in two ways: by scanning the examined object by a narrow beam and shadow, shining through the object wide beam.

In that case, if you want to inspect welds in various metal structures, as well as introscopes study of metal of small thickness, applied x-ray electron optical introscopy. Electro-optical scanner ESI-1 consists of two parts: the x-ray machine and brightness intensifier x-ray image. The elements of the amplifier brightness x-ray images are x-ray-optical Converter (single-crystal screen of SJ (TD)), fast lens for LASS="ptx2">

In medicine have become very popular in radiology electro-optical Converter. Its application in clinical practice has allowed to reduce the dose of x-rays 10-12 times and simultaneously increase the brightness of the fluorescent screen in the 1000-3000 times (1).

Technical result achieved during the implementation of the claimed invention, is that it is possible to use weak sources of radiation as in x-ray and gamma ranges, to direct radiation of relatively narrow beam, and when used in medicine to reduce the dose burden to the patient due to irradiation strictly defined areas of the body.

This technical result is achieved in that the device for focusing the x-ray and gamma radiation with a Stokes line of the spectrum at the output includes magneto-acoustic modulator through which the radiation, wherein the modulator is made in the form of a quartz tube of conical shape with an external coil connected to a high frequency generator, and is located on the same axis with the light source so that the larger diameter of the cone is directed towards the radiation source, and a smaller diameter in the direction obducta.

Coaxially with the x-ray or gamma emitter 1 (in the experiment was used emitter type Arina-3") between the emitter and a fluorescent screen 2 is mounted quartz tube 3 conical shape with zamochennoy on the outer side of the winding 4 of a copper wire with a diameter of 1 mm, is connected to an RF generator (not shown) with a frequency of 27 to 28 kHz with a voltage of 0.15 Century

The radiation emerging from the output tubes with a diameter of 80 mm, served in a cone quartz tube 3 from its larger diameter (220 mm). The output radiation of the quartz tube 3 is made from small diameter (cross-section 1410 mm). At the start winding 4 at a distance of 400 mm from the conical quartz tube from the side of the small diameter on the fluorescent screen clearly shows the spot 1520 mm Lateral scattering of x-rays was observed.

The angle of inclination of the walls of the tube conical shape, wall thickness and frequency of the RF oscillations on the winding tube is determined depending on the type of radiation and its power, and the smallest diameter of the cone is determined by the diameter of the investigated area on the object.

The claimed device operates as follows.

Under dastjerdi the increase, the decrease in the database, given a temporary law, determining the diffraction of x-rays or gamma-radiation on the crystal as a result of interference of radiation specularly reflected from the systems of parallel planes that pass through the nodes of the crystal lattice. Changing the diameter of the cone length and the change in diameter of the coils determines the conditions of a constant glide angle in the cross section of the tube, providing the condition for total reflection x-ray or gamma radiation.

Ionization effect on the environment inside the tube and fluctuations in densities from the quartz tube in cooperation with an alternating electromagnetic field (as diffraction on volume phase grating) in the air within the tube, play the role of orderly spaced centers, coherent scattering of incident radiation, as defined by the diffraction Bragg (2). Interference of diffracted waves leads to the existence of only one difragirovavshej wave wave vector of Rd. In the field diffraction Bragg performs phase matching conditions for the wave vectors of the incident wave, difragirovavshej wave and the wave vector of the acoustic wave. Given that the wave vector is the frequency of the radiation in the direction of Stokes lines of the spectrum, moreover, the anti-Stokes component of the scattering due to the tapered cross section of the quartz tube is involved in the conjugation, determining in an environment that Stokes line spectrum brighter intensity of the primary radiation. A quartz tube together with the current from the high frequency generator winding and ionization processes is an acousto-optical modulator (2) and determines the diffraction on thin lattice characteristic of the reflection at the interface between the media, the deformed surface acoustic wave, fully reflecting the radiation to the inside of the cone. Thus, the claimed device can provide focus and autofocus radiation in very small amounts.

In addition, the claimed device in which Raman scattering of gamma and x - ray radiation, like infrared spectrum can be used for studies of the structure of a molecule consisting of two identical atoms, which is practically impossible with the help of infrared spectra.

Sources of information

1. A. P. Merkulov, "Beyond the visible", ed. 2nd Moscow, Mashinostroenie, 1976

2. G. L. Kiselev. Devices for quantum electronics, Moscow, Higher school", the spectrum at the output, including magnetoacoustic modulator through which the radiation, wherein the modulator is made in the form of a quartz tube of conical shape with an external coil connected to a high frequency generator, and is located on the same axis with the light source so that the larger diameter of the cone is directed towards the radiation source, and a smaller diameter in the direction of the irradiated object.

 

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