The method of determining the psychological type of anuashvili

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to psychology and medicine. Reveal the dominance of one of the hemispheres of the brain by determining the difference between the amplitudes of oscillatory processes in the right and left hemispheres of the brain. Determine the degree of consistency of these oscillatory processes by assessing their coherence and define psychological type: Boolean stable, if dominated by the left hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres high; logical, if dominated by the left hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres medium; logical deltabilly, if dominated by the left hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres low; intuitive stable, if dominated by the right hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres high; intuitive, if dominated by the right hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres medium; intuitive deltabilly, if dominated by the right hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres low; stable, if the dominance of one hemisphere is the lack of is on of the hemispheres is missing and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres low. The method allows to determine the psychological personality type based on objective data. 4 Il.

The invention relates to the field of medicine and psychology, in particular to the identification, measurement, registration for the diagnosis, as well as conducting psychological experiments.

Since ancient times, attempts were made to divide people into different psychological types. Knowledge of psychological type of a man used to determine its nature and susceptibility to various diseases.

The first attempt at classification of psycho-physiological types of people goes back millennia and is reflected in the treatises of the ancient Indian medical system of Ayurveda. According to Ayurveda, in nature there are three modes - light, passion and darkness, various combinations of which provide mental heterogeneity of people. In the teachings of Ayurveda is difficult to trace any logical system that allows you to definitely divide people into psychological types.

The idea of dividing people into four psychological types dates back to the V century BC, to the teachings of Hippocrates that the human body consists of four elements: air, water, fire and earth. It was assumed that soedel - the connection of water and air, black bile - the Union of earth and water, yellow bile is the combination of fire and earth.

Greek doctor Claudius Galen (130-200 BC), based on the teachings of Hippocrates, proposed to distinguish four main psychological types: sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic. It was considered that:

the sanguine is dominated by blood (lat. sanguis) that is associated with the connection of fire and air (joy);

the phlegmatic is dominated by mucus (lat. phlegm) that is associated with the connection of water and air (calm);

the melancholic dominated by black bile (lat. melancholy) that is associated with the Union of earth and water (longing);

in choleric dominated by yellow bile (lat. hall), which is associated with the connection of earth and fire (anger).

This division of people into psychological types survived two thousand years of testing. It took many centuries before the psycho found physiological justification.

It is known that each psychological type is prone to certain diseases. For example, melancholic prone to cardiovascular diseases, vegetative-vascular dystonia, depression, schizoid psychopathy. Choleric prone to dysfunction of the gastro-is chapathi.

Therefore, knowledge of psychological types is of great importance in medicine for diagnosis, surgery and treatment.

In the twentieth century the study of psycho got a new development on the basis of psychoanalysis. The most significant are the Jung typology and Eysenck.

According to the typology of young people are divided into eight psychological types (Carl Gustav Jung. Psychological types. Moscow, "University book", 1996). Four of them are basic: thinking, feeling, feeling, and intuitive. Each of them can be manifested by extroversion and introversion. In this typology, there are inaccuracies, uncertainties, although Jung understands this and involves the refinement of its typology. Of the eight psychological types, the first four are associated with the four known types, and the remaining four types have no logical weight:

1. Thinking extroverted associated with sanguine.

2. Thinking introverted associated with the phlegmatic.

3. Feeling extroverted associated with choleric.

4. Feeling introverted associated with the melancholic.

5. Feeling extroverted one and the same uncertainty.

6. Feeling intranet.

8. Intuitive introverted one and the same uncertainty.

The fact that each person has all the basic properties, but in varying degrees. Psychological type is determined by the preferential expression of one of the properties. If a person has two opposite properties in equal measure, it is clear that these properties it is impossible to determine his psychological type, as none of them has mainly shown. Therefore, Jung's psychological type "Intuitive extravert" is meaningless, because it does not manifest itself mainly any property. Intuition and extraversion are the opposite properties. Intuition is a function of the right hemisphere, and extraversion - function of the left hemisphere. In this type of these functions are presented equally and hence the uncertainty. "Intuitive extravert" sounds like "Right-Left hemisphere". The intuitive person (right) can be extroverted (left) functions, but they may not be predominant. Otherwise, it would not be right (intuitive), and left (feeling, logical).

A similar judgment is true and the e and irrational also not logical reasoning. Jung joined in one group thinking and feeling, which are opposite to each other, and called them rational. The content of the thinking type is indeed rational, as it perceives the external world by real recognize real images of reality, is stable: first think, then makes plans their actions can produce adequate forecast of the future and the appropriate tactics and strategy. Feeling content is irrational, so what is the perception of reality distorted, surreal, illusory, irrational. He increased sensitivity to external and internal stimuli, he is impulsive, destabilises: first does, then thinks, not planning their actions, and responds to stimuli impulsive, which leads to inadequate reactions. Unreal, irrational perception of the external world is the result of psychological protection from the real world, which is unbearable for his psyche.

Also illogical Jung refers to one group feeling and intuitive and calls them irrational, even though they are opposites. Actually Inalmost. For example, the intuition can serve as a rational (realistic) and irrational (illusory) perception of the surrounding world as a result of increased sensitivity to internal stimuli and the substitution of real images of their own impulsive imagination. At the same time, we know that intuitively people can perceive the images of the real world and then with your logic to decipher these images, to establish links between them. This is based realistic works, both scientific and artistic). Giving intuition only irrational function does not allow to distinguish a realistic work from irrational art, spirituality from madness, creative people from demented psychopaths. May be this explains existing in psychiatry chaos, which does not allow to distinguish people who created the spiritual heritage of mankind, from schizophrenics.

It should be noted that Jung in his other thoughts about intuition gives it as mental and sensory functions and could systematize this knowledge, but keep in mind that at the time Jung was not yet known about the functional asymmetry of the two hemispheres of the brain.

Thus, Jung his reflections on em systematization and formalization of this knowledge.

Eysenck, to a certain extent improved the detection of known four psycho Galen (sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholic, choleric). He tied the definition of psycho with extroversion, introversion and degree of neurotics.

A common disadvantage of the above typologies is that they are all based on contemplation, observation and speculative conclusions, not based on scientific experiments, formal analysis of objective data and generalizations. Often a lack of logical completeness, consistency, formality, and uniqueness, i.e., scientific approach. To identify psychological types using questionnaires. Answers the questions himself studied. Thus, the definition of psycho depends on subjective opinions of the sample, which reduces the reliability of the test and diagnostic (no one can evaluate yourself objectively, especially if he has a mental disorder). As standard questionnaires for psychological type implicitly uses the characteristic of the social medium of the type of society (society, which was seen). There are many different societies, and therefore standards and tests too much. This sozda type.

I. P. Pavlov made a great contribution to the objectification of the typology. He identified four types of higher nervous activity in strength, balance and mobility excitatory and inhibitory processes and showed the dependence of the four psychological types from the type of the Central nervous system. But there is not enough logically complete and uniquely built generalization.

Attempts objectification of determining the psycho man made also on the basis of physiognomy - the description of the facial features of the person, and also features his physique (Delacour J. B. Great dictionary of the characters. Moscow. "Zeus", 1997, pp. 35-38). Due to the large number of external signs of a person experiencing difficulties in developing an unambiguous measurement system, which reduces the reliability of determining the psycho. In addition, external characteristics basically, you can define the shape of the human psyche, and not its content, which complicates the identification of the qualities of a person and determine its psycho.

The closest technical solution to the proposed method from the point of view of using objective data should be considered the definition of psychological type based on the identification of dominance of one of the hemispheres of the human brain (that is, C8, page 29). According to this method, there are two types: left and right.

The disadvantage of this method is that the use of only one indicator (the domination of the hemisphere) and does not allow us to reliably determine the psycho.

The objective of the proposed technical solution is to increase the reliability of psychological types on the basis of objective data.

This object is achieved in that in the method of identification of psychological types, which reveal the dominance of one hemisphere of the human brain and the dominance of the right or the left hemisphere is judged on his psychological type, the dominance of one of the hemispheres revealed by determining the difference between the amplitudes of oscillatory processes in the right and left hemispheres of the brain, identify the degree of consistency of these oscillatory processes by assessing their coherence and define psychological type as:

logical stable, if dominated by the left hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres high,

logical, if dominated by the left hemisphere and consistency kalabat asavanant oscillatory processes in hemispheres low,

intuitive stable, if dominated by the right hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres high,

intuitive, if dominated by the right hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres average,

intuitive deltabilly, if dominated by the right hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres low,

stable, if the dominance of one of the hemispheres is missing and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres high,

deltabilly, if the dominance of one of the hemispheres is missing and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres low,

moreover, the standard for determining the degree of consistency of these two oscillatory processes pick up empirically.

The essence of the invention, which is characterized by a set of features, is that the dominance of the cerebral hemispheres and the degree of coherence of what is happening in them oscillatory processes are judged on the psychological type of person.

The presence in the claimed method of the combination of these essential features can solve the problem of increasing the reliability of the here proposed.

In Fig. 1 shows a 3-dimensional graph showing the qualitative side of the character changes in the extent of personal harmony (N) depending on the dominance of one hemisphere (a) and the stability of communication between the hemispheres ().

In Fig.2 is a table illustrating a generalization of the well-known typologies, and their reduction to one scheme and comparison with the proposed typology.

In Fig.3 is a table of psychological types, specifying subtypes depending on the percentage dominance of the left (logical - L) or right (intuitive - I) hemisphere, and percent consistency (stability - S or destabilase - D) oscillatory processes in the hemispheres.

In Fig. 4 as the example shows a functional diagram of a device that implements the proposed method.

A device that implements the proposed method contains the analyzer 1, the phase detector 2 connected to the analyzer unit subtracting signals 3 connected to the analyzer, the sensor oscillations 4, connected to the phase detector unit and subtracting the signals, and sensor oscillation 5, coupled with the phase detector and the block subtraction of signals.

The proposed method is based on following the local, that the brain emits electromagnetic waves and this phenomenon is used in electroencephalography.

In the proposed method uses a model of the brain, according to which the two hemispheres of the human brain are treated as two independent generator of oscillatory processes (waves).

The following is a mathematical description of the specified wave model of the brain.

Oscillatory processes in the hemispheres, we write as follows:

Fl= Alei(lt+l)(1)

Fr= Arei(rt+r)(2)

In formulas (1) and (2)

ANDland arthe amplitude of the oscillations, respectively in the left and right hemispheres,

landr- the circular frequency, respectively in the left and right hemispheres,

landr- the initial phase of the oscillations, respectively in the left and right hemispheres.

Conditions coherent the intersection of the two oscillatory processes expressed by the formulas (1) and (2) imply the multiplication of paired values at the coincidence frequency isl=r.

The instantaneous value of the coherent intersection of oscillatory processes is labeling processes, what is happening in the left and right hemispheres.

From the physical point of view at the intersection of two coherent oscillations arise so-called standing wave intensity. These waves represent the spatial interference structure, which when registering in a sensitive environment forms the hologram.

Iwithrepresents the intensity of the interference patterns and determines its contrast (efficiency).

The degree of coherence of oscillatory processes in the hemisphere is defined as the average intensity value of the specified interference patterns (coherent component):

< / BR>
In (4) T is the averaging time, the value of which corresponds to the exposure time (the time of formation of the interference patterns in a sensitive environment).

If in the process of formation of the interference patterns (for averaging time T) the parameters of the two oscillatory processes are not changed and the phase difference is constant

= const,

the average intensity value (coherent component) will be equal to its instantaneous value is maximum (for a given value of the phase difference) and a constant:

Cconst= Ichanging over the averaging time (T), the coherent component will decrease. For example, if the phase of oscillatory processes in the left and right hemispheres are randomly changed, the phase difference will also be a random value. This circumstance can lead to random alternating change pointering expression in (4) and the coherent component will tend to zero.

Article: Anuashvili A. N. New Principle of Moving Object Image Reception. (CIS Selected papers: Coherent Measuring and Data Processing Methods and Devices. Volume 1978, pp.147-155. Published by SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, Washington, USA, 1993) shows the output of a mathematical formula that reflects the nature of the reduction of the intensity of the hologram depending on the change of the phase difference between the reference and object waves during the exposure. As follows from the above mentioned article, the coherent component in the result of changing the phase difference will be reduced from its stable values to values close to zero, the sine law:

.

The change in the phase difference, according to this model, associated with the movement of the vibration source within the hemisphere. The maximum value and the stability of the phase difference are in the case when the sources of fluctuations in both hemispheres are stable in the center of the brain in place of the deposits can start moving toward the periphery of the hemisphere. When this phase difference will change and the value will decrease as a result of violations of coherence oscillations in the two hemispheres.

If in this hemisphere, the vibration source is moving and, accordingly, moves away from the original position to the periphery, in the formation of the coherent component (C) will dominate the other hemisphere, because the amplitude of this hemisphere will decrease in the formation of standing waves (in the field of biomembranes). In other words, the intensity of the standing waves to a greater extent will be determined by the other hemisphere.

Thus, the dominance of one hemisphere can be defined by the extent of movement of the vibration source during exposure or proportional to the magnitude of the difference between the amplitudes of oscillatory processes in the hemispheres:

A = Al- Ar. (5)

The dominance of one hemisphere and the degree of coherence (consistency) of oscillatory processes in hemispheres determine the degree of harmony of the person (N). The degree of harmony of the personality is a function of these two variables and will also vary according to the sine law:

< / BR>
(6) the difference of the amplitudes and the degree of coherence have uslovno is the nature of the changes in the extent of personal harmony (N) depending on the dominance of one hemisphere (a) and the stability of communication between the hemispheres (degree of coherence - C).

The degree of harmony of the person from the physical point of view corresponds to the degree of coherence of oscillatory processes in the hemispheres. With medico-psychological point of view, the degree of harmony of the person corresponds to the psychological immunity from life's upheavals and diseases. With a high degree of harmony of the personality of man can realize his logic intuition to decipher intuitively perceived images in the language of logic, to perceive the qualitative information from the real world and to develop an appropriate behavior. In violation of the harmony of the personal reality of the human psyche unbearable, there is a psychological defense against the information he perceives the world around him surreal, irrational, illusory, behaving inappropriately, and that leads to life shocks and disease.

Using the predominant manifestation of H, C and A, as well as graph the degree of harmony of the person (as a visual tool), you can determine the psychological types of people.

It should be noted that the coherence (consistency) of oscillatory processes in the hemispheres (C) corresponds to the stability of communication between the hemispheres or cabinteely, and the left hemisphere - logic.

As can be seen from the graph, the greatest degree of personal harmony is achieved when the maximum stability of communication between the hemispheres and equal amplitudes. This type is called stable. Accordingly, the lowest degree of harmony of the person takes place at the minimum of the stability of communication between the hemispheres and equal amplitudes. This type is named destabilised.

With the average stability of communication between the hemispheres and the dominance of the left hemisphere psychological type is defined as logical. Accordingly, when the average stability of communication between the hemispheres and the dominance of the right hemisphere psychological type is defined as intuitive.

These are the four basic psychological type. Four psychological types are defined as derivatives of the basic (intermediate): intuitive, stable, intuitive deltabilly, logical, stable, logical deltabilly. The above 3-dimensional graph, these types are located between the main psychological types.

A generalization of the well-known typologies and one diagram (Fig.2) on the basis of this typology shows that well-known typology represent what rosary and the degree of stability of communication between them.

Given the objectivity of the proposed method, it is possible to introduce a measure in the typology. You can define a large number of psychological subtypes and patterns of transition from one type to another. Shown in Fig.3 table of psychological types contains 49 subtypes depending on the percentage of hemisphere dominance and percentage of coherence of oscillatory processes in the hemispheres. It is assumed that these values vary from 20% to 80%. It is accepted that for most people, one hemisphere can dominate over the other is not more than 4 times and coherence of oscillatory processes in the hemispheres (the stability of communication between the hemispheres) may not be changed more than 4 times. This avoids the anomalous cases. The letters stand for psychological type, and the numbers (percentages) - subtypes. Four basic psychological type identified as: logical - L, intuitive - I, stable - S, destabilises - D. for Example: L70S80-subtype belongs to the logical stable types with the dominance of the logic of 70% and stability of the psyche by 80%, LID60means the same development of logic and intuition when destabilase psyche at 60%, I80SD indicates the dominance of intuition by 80% when the average stabile what omashu sensors fluctuations 4 and 5 remove signals of oscillatory processes, what is happening in the left and right hemispheres of the human brain. These sensors can be performed, for example, by analogy with sensors entsefalografa. Next, in block subtraction signal 3 determines the difference between the amplitudes of oscillatory processes in the hemispheres. In the phase detector (mixer) 2 determine the intensity of the resulting oscillatory process by mixing (intersection) of the oscillations of the two sensors. In the analyzer 1 determine the dominance of one of the hemispheres on the basis of the difference of the amplitudes according to the above formula (5), is determined by the formula (4) coherence of oscillatory processes in the hemispheres (degree of coherence), based on the intensity of the resulting oscillatory process and define psychological type as one of the following eight types:

1) logical stable, if dominated by the left hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres high,

2) logical, if dominated by the left hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres average,

3) logical deltabilly, if dominated by the left hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres low,

4) intuitive stabilility, if dominated by the right hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres average,

6) intuitive deltabilly, if dominated by the right hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres low,

7) is stable, if the dominance of one of the hemispheres is missing and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres high,

8) destabilises, if the dominance of one of the hemispheres is missing and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres low.

The sensors can be contactless. The number of sensors can be more than two. Possible indirect methods for determining these parameters of the brain, such as the reflection of the condition of the brain in the eyes or on the face.

The criterion for assessing the degree of coherence of oscillatory processes in the hemispheres (low, medium, high) is determined empirically.

For example, it was found that the maximum coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres for most healthy people does not exceed 80%, and the minimum not lower than 20%. This range can be divided into three parts:

low - 20 - 40%

average - 41 - 60%

high - 61 - 80%

This typology does not depend on formie from the shape of the human psyche: nationality, religion, way of life, traditions and customs, language, place of residence, etc. of Course, the content of the human psyche to some extent depends on the above factors, but this method of determining the content of the human psyche does not depend on these factors. In other words, for determining the psycho in this way does not require any information about the above physical appearance and body shape of the human psyche.

Thus, according to the proposed method by determining the dominance of one of the hemispheres of the human brain and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres is possible to determine the psychological type of person on the basis of objective data, i.e. with higher reliability.

The method of definition of psychological type, namely, that reveal the dominance of one hemisphere of the human brain, on the basis of which is determined by its psychological type, characterized in that the dominance of one hemisphere is detected by determining the difference between the amplitudes of oscillatory processes in the right and left hemispheres of the brain, identify the degree of consistency of these oscillatory processes by osteoclastogenesis oscillatory processes in hemispheres high; deltabilly, if no one hemisphere dominates and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres low; logical, if dominated by the left hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres medium; intuitive, if dominated by the right hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres medium; Boolean stable, if dominated by the left hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres high; logical deltabilly, if dominated by the left hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres low; intuitive stable, if dominated by the right hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres high; intuitive deltabilly, if dominated by the right hemisphere and coherence of oscillatory processes in hemispheres low.

 

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