The method of heating
(57) Abstract:A method for heating of residential, public and industrial premises. The objective of the invention is the improvement of the ecology of the heated space, increasing the comfort level and efficiency of heating. This task is achieved by heating using heated sills and heated vertical side jambs of the window niches, heated thresholds and heated vertical side jambs of the door niches, heated podpotolocnye panel and vertical wall panels, which are placed on the floor in the lower part of the walls. In this case, the temperature of the facial surfaces of the heaters could be chosen so that the infrared radiation generated by them, was carried out with maximum intensity in the wavelength range of 8 to 10 μm, corresponding to the area of maximum efficiency of heat exchange of the human body with the environment. In accordance with the temperature of the front surface of the sills is chosen in the range of 25 - 40oC, the temperature of the front surface of the side jambs of the window and door poor, the temperature of the front surface of the door thresholds niches, the temperature of the front surface of Podpolkovnik and Steno is on design front surface heaters stones natural or artificial stone, as well as ceramic tiles. As a result of heating of the air heated by the window sill and heated vertical side jambs of the window niches in the window recess is formed of a heat insulating screen, consisting of dry air with a high dew point and low thermal conductivity, with virtually no convective flow of appreciable intensity. Consequently eliminated the conditions for fogging and frosting of the glass bottom of the window. In addition, heat loss caused by the movement of air along the cold glass, minimized that by some estimates saves energy used for space heating, up to 20-30%. The invention can be used in the design, construction and reconstruction of heating systems of residential, public and industrial buildings. 2 C.p. f-crystals. The invention relates to the heating of residential, public and industrial premises and is intended to satisfy vital human needs. It can be used for designing, construction and reconstruction of heating systems of residential, public and industrial buildings.As is known, the main task of heating lunastone being used convection and radiation (radiation) methods of space heating. The essence of the convection heating method is that by using different heating apparatus heats the air in the form of convective flow of warm air is distributed around the room and heats the objects.The essence of radiation (radiative) heating method is that by using sources of far-infrared radiation first of all heated objects in the room, and then the heat from the items is transferred to the air.Comparative analysis of convective and radiation methods of space heating, fulfilled Egorov and P. Tarasov in "Infrared radiant equipment" (Handbook "Builder", ed. IA "NORMA", 2000, 4, pp. 192, 193), showed that radiation method has significant advantages over convection.For example, when the convective heating method temperature gradient along the height of the room is 1.7 to 2.5oS/m, and the warm air naturally is at the top and cold at the bottom. Consequently, in areas with a height of 2.5 - 3.5 m, the temperature difference between the ceiling and floor can reach 6 - 7oC. in Addition, intense convective flows tagsnew mixture, that leads to negative consequences.Radiation heating method, the temperature at the surface of a floor higher than the ceiling, and the temperature gradient along the height is approximately 0.3oS/m At a temperature at the surface of the floor 18 - 19oWith a comfortable temperature at a height of 1.5 m can be reduced to 2 to 3oWith no damage to the health of man. Due to a significant reduction in heating costs ceiling part and lower comfort temperature radiation heating method housing 20 - 25% more economical than convective. As with radiation heating method convective flow of warm air are practically absent, the amount of dust contained in the air, much less than for the convective heating method.Typical infrared heaters, which is practically implemented radiation infrared space heating are electric ceiling infrared heaters "Ecoline" ceiling and gas infrared heaters "Biker". The use of gas as an energy source reduces operating costs for heating, however, there are problems associated with the tap of products of combustion, the change of the natural humidity and burning the same time for heating of residential and office space with a ceiling height of up to 3.5 m using ceiling infrared heaters with temperature of the radiating surface from 100 to 200oC. For heating rooms with a ceiling height of more than 3.5 m using ceiling infrared heaters with temperature of the radiating surface from 300 to 750oC.A significant drawback of infrared heaters with temperature of the radiating surface from 100 to 200oWith is the fact that the maximum intensity of infrared radiation lying in the wavelength range from 6 μm to 7.7 μm is within a wavelength range from 5.2 to 7.7 μm μm, in which the infrared radiation in the spectrum of sunlight reaching the Earth's surface, is completely absent, as the infrared radiation in this wavelength range is not passed the earth's atmosphere as a result of selective absorption by water vapour, CO2, ozone and other impurities (Physical encyclopedia, Moscow, 1998, volume 2, page 183). Consequently, in the genetic memory of man there is no experience with IR-radiation in the wavelength range from 5.2 to 7.7 μm μm. Therefore, human exposure to IR-radiation in this wavelength range cannot be considered environmentally friendly and comfortable. This conclusion is also valid for the infrared radiation generated by the infrared heaters with temperature of the radiating surface 300-750oWith at wavelengths shorter of 5.2 μm.To slowage metabolism of the human body with the environment at different physical effects.Man is a powerful source of infrared radiation and absorbs it (the phenomenon of radiation exchange). The maximum intensity in the continuous spectrum of radiation and absorption of the human body has a wavelength in the range of 9.3 to 9.5 μm. At this wavelength has the largest penetration depth of the IR radiation in the human body (Bogolyubov C. M., Ponomarenko, N. General physiotherapy, Moscow, "Medicine", 1999, pp. 148-151).As is known, thermal radiation of absolutely black body is at a wavelength of, strictly corresponding to the temperature of its surface. Thermal radiation of a real body is usually in a range of wavelengths with a maximum intensity at the wavelength corresponding to the wavelength of thermal radiation of absolutely black body with the same surface temperature. For example, a solid body with a surface temperature of 40oWith has the IR-radiation with maximum intensity in the wavelength range from 8 μm to 10 μm.Known methods of heating using radiators and panels, heated steam, hot water or electricity. The closest analogue (prototype) of the invention "Method of heating is spasm (Khrenkov N. Under floor system Teplolux, "Construction", ed. IA "NORMA", 2000, 43, pages 196-198) or hot water flowing through a system of pipes laid under the floor surface (Alternative floor system heating WIRSBO. "Construction", ed. IA "NORMA", 2001, 7, page 180).The disadvantage of this technical solution is that it generates a number of restrictions on placement in the room of furniture and household items, which are contraindicated heated from below: refrigerators, bookcases, tables, beds, sofas, carpets, etc. While there are difficulties of a psychological nature, due to the disruption of stereotype views about the appropriate placement in the room of furniture and household items. Warm floors are best combined with coverings made of marble or tile in the bathrooms and bath houses.In addition, there is a serious problem with fogging and even icing glass bottom of the window, especially when the wide windowsill. This phenomenon is due to the fact that types of glazing beads in the space formed downward flow of air as it moves down and cooling allocates the moisture deposited on the cooler glass. In this case, as govolo heating, or electric heaters that create convection currents of warm air, counteracting downward. However, the effectiveness of such measures, the lower, wider than the window sill. If the width of the sill more than 30-35 cm, the window still "crying". In addition, radiators and electric heaters impedes sanitary cleaning of the premises.The purpose of the invention is the creation of optimal method of heating the room, providing environmental improvement heated space, increasing the comfort level and efficiency of heating while maintaining the prevailing views about the appropriate placement in the room heating appliances, furniture and household items. This goal is achieved by the fact that for heating using heated sills and heated vertical side jambs of the window niches, heated thresholds and heated vertical side jambs of the door niches, heated podpotolocnye panel and vertical wall panels, which are placed on the floor in the lower part of the walls, and the temperature of the facial surfaces of the heaters could be chosen so that the infrared radiation generated by them, was carried out with maximum intensity in dia the ISM of man with the environment. In accordance with the temperature of the front surface of the sills choose in the temperature range from 25oWith up to 40oC, the temperature of the front surface of the side jambs of door and window niches, the temperature of the front surface of the door thresholds niches, the temperature of the front surface of Podpolkovnik and wall panels chosen in the temperature range from 25oWith up to 55oC. To increase the intensity of infrared radiation and creating the necessary design front surface heaters stones natural or artificial stone, and also ceramic tiles.As a result of heating of the air heated by the window sill and heated vertical side jambs of the window niches in the window recess is formed of a heat insulating screen, consisting of dry air with a high dew point and low thermal conductivity, with virtually no convective flow of appreciable intensity. Consequently eliminated the conditions for fogging and frosting of the glass bottom of the window. In addition, heat loss caused by the movement of air along the cold glass, are minimized, which is beneficial to conserve energy needed for heating n the by the glass up to 20 - 30% (Century Gaidukevich. Energy-saving electrical equipment of buildings. Reference "Builder", ed. IA "NORMA", 2000, 4, page 195).In accordance with the classification of infrared radiation is the wavelength range of 0.76 μm to 1000 μm. In this case, the nature of the impact of PA human body infrared radiation in the wavelength range from 8 to 10 microns called soft IR radiation.The described patterns were used to select intervals of the heated temperatures of radiating surfaces to provide the most environmentally friendly and comfortable conditions of stay of people in a room with minimal energy consumption for heating
The physical phenomenon underlying the proposed method of heating described above. The essence of the invention. Therefore, the possibility of carrying out the invention means that the implementation of the heated surfaces of the sill, side jambs of the window and papadogonas panel and temperature control of the heating of these surfaces.Currently widely used heating surfaces of different shapes by means of an electrical cable, evenly distributed under the heated surface. The electric power cabinetries temperature sensors and temperature controllers (thermostats).It is possible to carry out heating surfaces using heated to the appropriate temperature of water flowing through pipes laid under the heated surface. The choice of method of heating surfaces is determined only technical and economic feasibility.Facing the window sill, side jambs of the window niches and papadogonas panel natural or artificial stone, decorative ceramic tile is a well-developed technological operation.Thus, the ability to implement the proposed method of heating does not cause doubts.Sources of information
1. Patent of the Russian Federation, C1, 2121772 from 10.11. 1998 Cable system for space heating (options).2. Patent of the Russian Federation, C1, 2125208 from 20.01.1999, radiant Panel heating.3. Patent of the Russian Federation, C1, 2132610 from 10.07.1999, the heating Device of farm animals and poultry.4. SNiP 2. 04. 05 91. Heating, ventilation and air conditioning. Gosstroy, 1991.5. With "warm floors" will not freeze. "Construction", ed. IA "NORMA", 2001, 7, page 185.6. Heating is easy. "Construction", ed. IL "NORMA", 2001, 12, pp. 244.7. A gift to the holiday season. "Construction", ed. Eeyore CLASS="ptx2">9. Ecoline - warmth and comfort in your home. "Warm house", ed. "Stratiform", 2001, 2, page 123.10. Century Egorov. Stationary direct electrical heating of a country house. "Construction", ed. IA "NORMA", 2001, 22, pp. 225, 226. 1. The method of heating the premises, containing at least one aperture that hosts window niche, containing a window sill and side jambs, and at least one opening, in which is placed the door is a niche containing a door, the door and side slopes, characterized in that for heating use windowsills, and/or side slopes of the window niches and thresholds, and/or side slopes door niches that perform heated, and the temperature of the front surface of the sills is chosen in the range of 25-40oC, the temperature of the front surface of the side jambs of door and window niches and the temperature of the front surface of the door thresholds niches chosen in the range of 25-55oC.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the additional heating use wall panels that perform heated and placed on the floor in the lower part of the walls, for example under the sills, and the temperature of the front surface of the heated wall panels chosen in the range of 25-55
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to elements of building structures, namely to volumetric units for sanitary purposes, intended for organization of natural ventilation in residential, social, administrative buildings, as well as to erection of building structures, and can be used in construction of monolithic walls, floors and partition walls of buildings and structures used in various industries, where it is necessary to construction thereof. Ventilation unit is made of whole monolithic concrete and has shape of hollow rectangular parallelepiped, consisting of four walls with fastening elements arranged on them and two internal partitions dividing inner space of unit on main channel and two side satellite channels. As fasteners key groove is used made along perimeter of walls with outer side, parallel to upper cut of ventilation unit for jamming in flooring. Two reinforcement rods are arranged in through holes in upper part of walls and inner partitions. Besides, at least, one of walls is equipped with anchor for fixation of brace to it during installation of ventilation unit. Method of mounting of the ventilation unit includes installation of ventilation units on each other and fixed with help of fasteners to floorings; installation of first (start) ventilation unit at lower flooring before grouting of top floor slab with temporary attachment to brace by means of anchor; assembly of top inter-floor slab formwork; reinforcement of upper plate of inter-floor slab with simultaneous installation of two reinforcement rods in through holes of ventilation unit; closure of rim of ventilation unit with temporary cover to prevent ingress of concrete into inner space of unit; concreting floor plate of upper covering, during which deepening-key to upper part of ventilation unit is filled with concrete mix, and fixation of reinforcement bars in inter-floor slab; formwork, top cover, bracing removal after achievement of set design strength of concrete; installation of above located ventilation unit.
EFFECT: technical result consists in simplifying design of ventilation unit and faster process of construction of multistory buildings.
12 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly floor members for underfloor heating/cooling systems.
SUBSTANCE: floor member comprises sheet with at least one groove, heat-conducting layer extending over one main sheet surface and along each groove side to form depression for heat-conducting wire receiving opened from top side thereof. Depression tightly encloses wire and passes over half of cross-sectional perimeter thereof. Upper wire side is flush with upper sheet surface or located below thereof. Sheet has thin foldable foil with thickness of less than 200 μm.
EFFECT: reduced floor member thickness, increased simplicity of floor member dimension selection by cutting foil inside the groove.
6 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: hot-water central heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: plate heating panel comprises top and bottom plates made in block one opposite to the other to define inner passage for hot water, a number of joining members each of which passes symmetrically from the top and bottom plates to the bottom and top plates and connects the top plate with the bottom plate, inner passage for hot water defined by a number of joining members, and two connecting members for supplying and discharging hot water.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydron or panel radiant heating or cooling systems used for heating living quarters and production facilities, and can be used in floor heating or cooling system both in independent systems wherein thermal conditions are provided by various heat sources, and in central heating system. Floor heating system of living quarters and production facilities consists of supply and return pipelines and heat energy transfer means, which are arranged in parallel grooves that are located at an equal distance from each other and routed in upper surface of heating panels above which there installed is heat-conducting surface. In the grooves of heating panels there arranged is a set of jet-type tubes serving as heat energy transfer means and made in the form of separate sealed metal housings with evaporation and condensation zones, into inner cavity of which there pumped in vacuum is liquid heat conductor, at that, each of those tubes is connected to supply pipeline at an angle of 2-3° relative to the base of heating panels.
EFFECT: reducing the volume of heat carrier and decreasing costs required for fuel and energy, reducing heating time and time of response to change of heating loads, and simplifying the system design and operation thereof.
3 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: structure comprises bearing layer, in which at least one slot is provided, passing from layer surface deep down. Slot is intended to locate line to maintain even temperature. Slot has several sections, axes of which are displaced and/or arranged at the angle relative to each other. Sections follow each other directly or via transition parts. For fixation of line at least one lateral side of slot in specified areas in sections of slot and/or on transition sections is partially arranged with undercut. Slot continuously narrows to its mouth in one area between bottom and mouth of slot.
EFFECT: simple and reliable fixation of line for maintenance of even temperature.
18 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to develop heating devices based on resistive film elements is carried out by cutting sections from a heat film roll, which are connected by current-conducting buses with a stapler with the help of brackets, areas of connection of current-conducting buses with heat film sections and with assembly wires are coated with an insulating tape. The current-conducting bus is a solid copper bus. Connection of the current-conducting bus and the wire is carried out by wire bending and fixation with brackets, areas of connection of current-conducting buses with heat film sections are glued with a heat-resistant insulating tape, which is applied at one side of the insulated heat film, and the second side is insulated, bending the insulating tape along the line of heat film cutting.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to accelerate process of assembly, to increase heat emission and to reduce its cost.
1 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to room floor heating and/or cooling systems and can be used for creation of optimum microclimate parameters in domestic and office buildings and structures. A floor heating (cooling) system containing a heat-insulating layer, a concrete layer with a low-inertia heat exchange coil arranged in it for circulation of a heat carrier or a cooling medium, which is located near the floor surface, a heat-conducting metallic material, additionally contains an accumulation heat exchange coil located deep in the concrete layer, with that, low-inertia and accumulation heat exchange coils are combined with bypass lines provided with gate valves and a circulating pump, and a metal mesh contacting the low-inertia heat exchange coil is used as a heat-conducting material.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing efficiency of use of cold (heat) accumulated in solid mass of the flooring and control of cold (heat) release to maintain the most optimum room microclimate parameters.
SUBSTANCE: floor heating system of residential and industrial rooms, filled with heat carrier includes supply and return pipelines and heat energy transfer tubes laid equidistant from each other. Set of tubes is connected with one end to one check valve, and with other end - to the second check valve located in the hydraulic pump. Hydraulic pump housing has corrugated metal pipe with thin wall, one end of which is connected to the supply pipeline, and the other is plugged, wherein the source of thermal energy through supply pipeline is connected with flow converter, connected through the return pipeline with a circulation pump and heat energy source.
EFFECT: it allows to increase heat transfer coefficient of heat exchange surfaces and increase capacity of heating system, as well as provide reliable heat carrier circulation in pipeline circuit.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, particularly, to development of design solutions to create efficient, environmentally friendly buildings and structures, where the specified air temperature is maintained, and can be used in construction of facilities for heating and/or cooling rooms in residential and industrial buildings, warehouses and livestock farms, in greenhouses for heating the soil when growing early vegetables, by means of pipes with passing in them a heat carrier or a coolant. Assigned task is solved by that method of construction of energy-efficient structures, according to which a foundation is erected in a process sequence, on the foundation a base is installed, after that, wall are erected, then mounted are covering, elements of the roof and the roof, ventilation and heating system is mounted by means of which the specified temperature is maintained in premises, in the heating system to transfer the floor heat of the specified temperature heating mats are used, which are made modular in the form of multilayer panels, which are placed on a prepared base with a hydraulic insulating heat-reflecting layer and are connected to the power supply system of the structure. Herewith each heating mat is equipped with a thermal element and is made with a heat-insulating and a heat-accumulating layers, which are made from sieving into fractions of 3-16 mm of encapsulated porous aggregate, mainly, expanded clay, the porous aggregate is bound with a cement-glue composition only at contact points of capsules, herewith the aggregate layers are laid one by one and continuously by fractions, the heat-insulating layer is laid of the aggregate with fractions of 5-16 mm, the heat-retaining layer is laid of the aggregate with fractions of 3-10 mm, herewith the heat-insulating layer is laid with thickness of not less than 20 mm, and the heat-retaining layer - with thickness of not less than 30 mm and not less than 3.5 diameters of the thermal element. Besides, a system for maintaining temperature in the construction containing the heating device accommodating thermal elements for heating and heat transfer to the floor. Herewith the heating device is made in the form of a heating mat with a heat-insulation layer and a heat-retaining layer, and the thermal element is made in the form of a corrugated thin-wall pipe and is arranged in the heat-retaining layer between two metal grids mounted on distancers, inside the thermal element there is a heating element in the form of a wire or a spiral, which is made from a heat-resistant and chemical-resistant alloyed with rare-earth metals alloy, and the free thermal element inner space is filled with a mixture of non-conducting electricity-refractory, fire-refractory materials.
EFFECT: technical task of invention is to develop a project of a building and a structure, in which supported is a preset uniform temperature, for which a system for maintaining a preset temperature in a room shall be developed, including for this purpose a heating device shall be developed supporting the specified temperature.
7 cl, 3 dwg