(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of catalysis. Catalyst body contains many of the streamline in the preferred direction of the channels. Each channel is perpendicular to the preferred direction approximately rectangular cross-section. Number of channels per unit area is in the range from 0.5 to 2.5 cm-2. The longitudinal sides of the first group of channels are approximately orthogonal to the longitudinal sides of the second group of channels. Channels in the combined group and the channels in each subgroup relative to their cross-sectional form approximately square location. The invention reduces the number of cracks in the catalyst during its manufacture and to improve the efficiency of the catalyst. 6 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill. The invention relates to a catalyst body, which contains many of the streamline in the preferred direction of the channels.Catalysts are used, for example, to remove nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and/or dioxins from waste gas incinerators. Such catalysts can be in the form of cell catalysts. In the case of cell Kagami in the preferred direction of the fluid and/or gas, for example, the exhaust gas.Such cell catalyst may be provided for the recovery or for the oxidation of harmful substances. Intended as DeNOx-catalyst cell catalyst, for example, restores the so-called SCR-method (method of selective catalytic reduction) adding a reducing oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in nitrogen (N2) and water (H2About). Known SCR activity, however, also has cell catalyst made as dioxindole catalyst. Dioxines catalyst oxidizes molecular oxygen, for example, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans.For catalytic cleaning of stationary or mobile installations for the incineration or combustion engines use cell catalysts, whose bodies have quadratic geometry of the channels. From DE 2819378 C2-known cell catalyst with continuous cells, which generally have a rectangular shape. Thus the longitudinal side of the first group of channels are approximately perpendicular to the longitudinal sides of the second group of channels. The number of channels may be at this 10/6,452 cm2. Also the application for ne structured body with a honeycomb body, channels which have an approximately rectangular cross-section, in addition, it is known in principle from the book "House of technology" professional other-ing. E. Shtajnmetts (publisher), publishing house of the Volcano Essen (1992), S. 23.In such catalyst bodies there are, of course, the risk of mechanical blockage of cell holes chalk dust. To ensure reliable operation of the catalyst is therefore necessary regular, relatively time-consuming cleaning of the catalyst. Additionally, during the production of this catalyst bodies there is a problem that, due to its own tension catalyst bodies in the manufacturing process appears cracking.The basis of the invention lies task is to specify catalyst body of the aforementioned type, which can very safely be operated at low cost for treatment. Also the cracks in the process of manufacturing a catalyst body should appear particularly rare.This task is solved by the catalyst body of the aforementioned type, in which each channel is perpendicular to the preferred direction has an approximately rectangular cross-section defined longitudinal side and the more short the longitudinal side of the first group of channels are approximately perpendicular to the longitudinal sides of the second group of channels, and in which according to the invention, the channels in the combined group and the channels in each subgroup relative to their cross-sectional form approximately square location, and each subgroup is composed respectively of the channels of the same group.The invention thus proceeds from the consideration that the catalyst body operates particularly reliably also at low cleaning costs if the risk of mechanical clogging of the channels is kept small. Also catalyst body, made for a particularly low risk of clogging of channels, must possess high catalytic activity. As it turned out, especially suitable for this purpose is the catalyst body, in which the number of channels per unit area is in the range from 0.5 to 2.5 cm-2preferably, from 0.9 to 1.6 cm-2and channels which have a virtually rectangular cross-sectional shape.Measure the catalytic activity of the catalyst body is the so-called value AP. It is defined as the ratio of the geometric surface of the catalyst body to its spatial extent. With the same value up catalyst body, the channels which have approximately the selected edges, than the catalyst body, the cross section of the channels is approximately square. The lower is the number of channel edges, the less the tendency to mechanical blockage of the channels, so as fugitive dust is collected preferably in the area of the channel edges.In order to keep their own voltage when the production of honeycomb catalyst bodies and the associated formation of cracks in the manufacturing process is particularly small, the preferred way of longitudinal side of the first group of channels are approximately orthogonal to the longitudinal sides of the second group of channels. In addition, the channels in subgroups, with each subgroup consists of channels of the same group. The channels of these subgroups with respect to their cross-sectional form approximately square location. Such subgroups allows particularly simple and flexible arrangement of the channels in the catalyst body. Neighboring subgroups may - depending on the feasibility is to be assigned to the first or second group of channels. In both cases, is especially stable overall structure. Such catalyst body can withstand relative to each external s form of execution of the invention subgroups combined in layers. Layers, which are alternately subgroups of the first and second channel groups, are particularly suitable, as each similarly performed layer is itself particularly insensitive to cracking in the manufacturing process.In an alternative preferred form of execution of all channels of one layer belong to the same group of channels.The preferred location of channels such catalyst body obtained due to the fact that belonging to the first and second group of channels, the layers are arranged alternately.Catalyst body can be performed as a catalyst on the carrier in which the carrier is coated with a catalytically active layer. The preferred way, however, the catalyst body is made in a single piece of extruded products. In this case, the catalyst body consists exclusively of catalyst material. The solid extruded product may occur by using an extrusion machine, which produces molded products made of a soft plastic mass.Freely available gas and/or liquid surface of each channel may preferably is of indena (YPA3from 5 to 20 wt.% and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) less than 5 wt.%. Such catalyst body is preferably provided as DeNOx-catalyst.Achieved by the advantages of the invention consist in particular in that the catalyst body, the channels which are perpendicular to the preferred direction approximately rectangular cross section, with the same AP value is less risk of mechanical clogging of channels than the catalyst body, the channels which have approximately square cross-section. Catalyst body, the number of channels which is in the range from 0.5 to 2.5 cm-2has a particularly high value AP and particularly low risk of mechanical clogging of the channels. Catalyst body, therefore, is particularly suitable for use on coal-fired power plants. Flue gas may have a load of chalk dust for high-grade coal from 6 to 20 grams per normal cubic meter, for deballasting, off-grade coal from 6 to 50 g per normal cubic meter. However due to the formation of sub-channels is especially simple orchestration volume catalizatorilor body is kept particularly small.Examples of carrying out the invention are explained in more detail using the drawings, which show:
Fig.1 is schematically DeNOxcatalyst modular unit of the nine catalyst bodies,
Fig.2 - neckline catalyst body according to Fig.1 in cross-section in the first form of execution and
Fig.3 - neckline catalyst body according to Fig.1 in cross section a second form of execution.DeNOxcatalyst modular unit 2 according to Fig.1 contains a lot of respectively the same type of catalyst bodies 4, which are placed in the housing 6. While DeNOxcatalyst modular unit may also contain more or less of the catalyst bodies 4, than it shows Fig.1. Each catalyst body 4 contains a number of channels 8, which are streamlined in a preferred direction 10 of the exhaust gas incinerators and are perpendicular to the preferred direction 10 is approximately rectangular cross-section. Each channel 8 limited longitudinal side 8A and shorter in comparison to the transverse side 8B.The outer walls 14 and 16 of the respective catalyst body 4 are respectively a length of 150 mm Channels 8P>-2. Thus the number of channels 8 is in the range from 112 to 562 on the catalyst body 4. These channels 8 in the schematic drawing of Fig.1 is not shown, and only the target.The catalyst body 4 are respectively in the form of a solid extruded product and contain materials titanium dioxide (TiO2) from 70 to 95 weight. % tungsten trioxide (WO3and/or molybdenum trioxide (Moo3from 5 to 20 weight. % and the vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) less than 5 wt.%. Alternative catalyst body 4 may also contain a carrier, which has a coating of the above materials.Fig.2 and 3 show the neckline catalyst body 4 according to Fig.1 in cross-section in the first and second form of execution. In both forms of execution channels 8 is divided into the first group 20 and the second group 22. The 8 channels of the first group 20 are arranged in relation to their longitudinal sides 8A at right angles to the channels 8 of the second group 22. Groups 20, 22 channels 8 respectively contain subgroups 24. Subgroup 24 is formed from two adjacent channels 8 of the same group 20, 22. The channels 8 of these subgroups together in regard to their cross-section is approximately square location. Many subgroups 24, in St. Eremenko are subgroups 24 of the first group of 20 channels 8 and the second group 22 of the channels 8. The longitudinal sides 8A of each channel 8 respectively have a length 11,36 mm, their respective transverse side 8B - length 5,16 mm Number of channels 8 per unit area of each catalyst body 4 is of 1.28 cm-2. Thus, each catalyst body contains 288 channels and free streamlined cross section of 75% is set up equal to 423 m2/m3.In the example of execution according to Fig.3 layer 26 is made exclusively from channel 8 one of the groups 20 or 22. Layers 26 are arranged alternately in such a way that adjacent layers 26 do not belong to the same group 20, 22 channels 8. The longitudinal sides 8A of each channel 8 catalyst body 4 according to Fig.3 have a length 11,59 mm, their respective transverse side 8B - length of 5.39 mm Each catalyst body 4 contains 288 channels. Thus the number of channels 8 per unit area is of 1.28 cm-2. In a free streamlined cross section of 80% of each catalyst body 4 is set up equal to 435 m2/m3.Both examples perform the catalyst body 4 according to Fig.2 and 3 are of a particularly high value AP and particularly low risk of mechanical clogging of the channels 8. So pest from waste gas incinerators. When this catalyst body 4 are of a particularly high reliability when only small cleanup costs. In addition, due to the formation of sub-channels 8 are provided especially easy negotiating the terms of the respective catalyst body 4 with different geometric executions, and the manufacturing costs for a separate catalyst bodies 4 are supported particularly small. 1. Catalyst body with many streamlined in the preferred direction of the channels, each of which is perpendicular to the preferred direction approximately rectangular cross-section defined longitudinal side and shorter in comparison to the transverse side, and the number of channels per unit area is in the range from 0.5 to 2.5 cm-2and in which the longitudinal side of the first group of channels are approximately at right angles to the longitudinal sides of the second group of channels, wherein the channels in the combined group and the channels in each subgroup relative to their cross-sectional form approximately square location, and each sub-group is composed respectively of the channels of the same group.2. Catalyst body under item 1, autocatalator body p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the subgroups form the layers, with each layer are alternately subgroups of the first group and second group.4. Catalyst body under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the subgroups form the layers, all the channels of one layer belong to the same group of channels.5. Catalyst body according to p. 4, characterized in that the layers belonging to the first group and the second group of channels are arranged alternately.6. Catalyst body according to any one of paragraphs. 1-5, characterized in that it is made in the form of a solid extruded product and contains materials of titanium dioxide (TiO2) from 70 to 95 weight. % tungsten trioxide (WO3and/or molybdenum trioxide (Moo3from 5 to 20 weight. % and the vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) less than 5 weight. %.7. Catalyst body according to any one of paragraphs. 1-6, characterized in that it is part of DeNOxcatalyst modular block.
FIELD: production of honeycomb substrates for catalyst converters for two-wheeled or diesel vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with production of honeycomb substrates made out metal sheets piled or rolled in a package and minimized to the honeycomb elements used first of all as honeycomb substrates for catalyst converters in the systems of exhaust gas (EG) neutralization. There is a description of a honeycomb element (1) first of all as a honeycomb substrate for a catalyst converter for systems of two-wheeled vehicles exhaust gas neutralization. The honeycomb substrate for catalyst converter consists of some layers of metal sheets (2, 3) packed as a package or minimized in a roll, which are at least on separate sections are structured or profiled in such a manner, that they form for EG flowing channels (4). At that the metal sheets (2, 3) represent the sheets of high-quality steel of more than 0.08 mm thick with a share of aluminum from 6 up to 12 mass % multiplied by 0.02 mm and divide by "d" - thickness of the metal sheets (2, 3). The technical result - a possibility to use metal sheets depending on the share of aluminum in them and their thickness, that allows to use the sheets taken from production process of manufacture of a material subjected to a hot aluminization.
EFFECT: the invention ensures a possibility to use metal sheets for the purpose depending on the share of aluminum in them and their thickness.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: gas treatment catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention, in particular, relates to internal combustion engine exhaust gas neutralizers. Method of invention comprises rolling refractory metallic tape into block by way of overlapping its smooth and corrugated sides to form channels, performing ultrasound-assisted chemical cleaning of thus rolled tape in alkali solution followed by joining alternate layers of metallic tape with each other by diffusion welding in vacuo within a range of 5·10-5-1·10-5 mm Hg using stepwise heating to 1250 ± 10°С and isothermal exposure to this temperature for 12-17 min to form monolithic structure consisting of triangular and trapezoidal channel at density up to 600 channels per 1 inch2. Invention further describes carrier for catalytic exhaust gas neutralizers representing monolithic metallic structure in the form of cylindrical block or block with oval cross-section, which block consists of parallel channels, 200-600 per 1 inch2, density of channels varying along the cross-section of carrier: from center and extending to 0.55 0,7 diameter if cylindrical block or large axis of oval cross-section, density of channels is 400-600 per 1 inch2 and farther it decreases to 200 or 400 channel/inch2, respectively.
EFFECT: simplified manufacture technology and increased strength of monolithic cellular structure.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: heterogeneous catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: catalyst contains porous carrier, buffer layer, interphase layer, and catalytically active layer on the surface wherein carrier has average pore size from 1 to 1000 μm and is selected from foam, felt, and combination thereof. Buffer layer is located between carrier and interphase layer and the latter between catalytically active layer and buffer layer. Catalyst preparation process comprises precipitation of buffer layer from vapor phase onto porous carrier and precipitation of interphase layer onto buffer layer. Catalytic processes involving the catalyst and relevant apparatus are also described.
EFFECT: improved heat expansion coefficients, resistance to temperature variation, and reduced side reactions such as coking.
55 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: production of non-metallic elements.
SUBSTANCE: reactor comprises means for supplying hydrocarbon raw material and water vapor, means for discharging the product, and porous metallic load-bearing structure that receives catalyzer of reforming with water vapor. The porous load-bearing metallic structure is secured to the inner wall of the reactor by means of gluing or diffusion bounding.
EFFECT: improved functional capabilities.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; trapping nitric oxides and other harmful substances from the waste gases.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to chemical industry and is used for trapping nitric oxides and other harmful substances from the waste gases. The offered reactor contains a body with the connection pipes for introduction of the initial reactants. Inside the body there is a modular catalyst of a cellular structure. The through channels of the catalyst in respect to the incoming stream are oriented at an angel of 90°. The hydraulic diameter of the through channels of the different geometrical shape, beginning from the first channel, along the stream run is monotonically enlarging, reaching the ratio of the hydraulic diameters of the last channel to the first one first channel of no more than 1.5. No more than 1/6-th of the height from the bottom of the block the modular catalyst of the cellular structure has a mesh-cellular structure with a mesh size from 1.5 up to 3 mm and a specific surface up to 8...10 m2/g. The given engineering solution ensures an increased access to the internal surface of the bottom part of the modular catalyst of the cellular structure and its complete participation in operation.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increased access to the internal surface of the bottom part of the modular catalyst of the cellular structure and its complete participation in operation.
FIELD: catalyst preparation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to supported catalysts and provides a method for preparing catalyst-containing solid product comprising step, wherein ceramic carrier is applied onto metallic surface, and depositing catalytically active material onto ceramic carrier, which was preliminarily coated with supporting porous metallic material, ceramic carrier being applied onto and/or into supporting porous metallic material. Invention also describes device used in preparation of catalyst-containing solid product for applying supporting porous material onto inside or outside metallic surfaces of the hollow body.
EFFECT: increased stability of catalyst.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technology for preparing caprolactam by the cyclization reaction of derivatives of aminocaproic acid. Method is carried out by cyclizing hydrolysis of compound chosen from the group comprising aminocaproic acid esters or amides, or their mixtures. The process is carried out in the presence of water, in vapor phase at temperature 200-450°C in the presence of a solid catalyst comprising of aluminum oxide that comprises at least one macroporosity with pores volume corresponding to pores with diameter above 500 Å taken in the concentration 5 ml/100 g of above. Preferably, the specific square of catalyst particles is above 10 m2/g and the total volume of pores is 10 ml/100 g or above wherein pores volume corresponds to pores with diameter above 500 Å is 10 ml/100 g or above. Invention provides improving the process indices due to the improved properties of the solid catalyst.
EFFECT: improved preparing method.
5 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: catalyst preparation methods.
SUBSTANCE: method involves preparing porous carrier and forming catalyst layer by impregnation of carrier with aqueous solution of transition group metal salts followed by drying and calcination. Porous catalyst carrier is a porous substrate of organic polymer material: polyurethane or polypropylene, which is dipped into aqueous suspension of powdered metal selected from metals having magnetic susceptibility χ from 3.6·106 to 150·106 Gs·e/g: iron, cobalt, chromium, nickel, or alloys thereof, or vanadium and polyvinylacetate glue as binder until leaving of air from substrate is completed, after which carrier blank is dried at ambient temperature and then fired at 750°C in vacuum oven and caked at 900-1300°C. Caked blank is molded and then subjected to rolling of outside surface to produce carrier having variable-density structure with density maximum located on emitting area. Formation of catalyst layer is achieved by multiple impregnations of the carrier with aqueous solution of acetates or sulfates of transition group metals: iron, cobalt, chromium, nickel, or alloys thereof in alternative order with dryings at ambient temperature and calcinations to produced catalyst bed 50-80 μm in thickness. In another embodiment of invention, formation of catalyst layer on carrier is accomplished by placing carrier in oven followed by forcing transition group metal carbonate vapors into oven for 60-120 min while gradually raising oven temperature to 850°C until layer of catalyst is grown up to its thickness 50-80 μm.
EFFECT: improved quality of catalyst and reduced its hydrodynamic resistance.
8 cl, 1 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: catalyst preparation methods.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing catalyst and to catalyst no honeycomb-structure block ceramic and metallic carrier. Preparation procedure includes preliminarily calcining inert honeycomb block carrier and simultaneously applying onto its surface intermediate coating composed of modified alumina and active phase of one or several platinum group metals from water-alcohol suspension containing, wt %: boehmite 15-30, aluminum nitrate 1-2, cerium nitrate 4-8, 25% ammonium hydroxide solution 10-20, one or several precipitate group metal salts (calculated as metals) 0.020-0.052, water-to-alcohol weight ratio being 1:5 to 1:10; drying; and reduction. Thus prepared catalyst has following characteristics: specific coating area 100-200 m2/g, Al2O3 content 5-13%, CeO2 content 0.5-1,3%, active phase (on conversion to platinum group metals) 0.12-0.26%.
EFFECT: simplified technology due to reduced number of stages, accelerated operation, and high-efficiency catalyst.
5 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: organic chemistry, chemical technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for liquid-phase catalytic alkylation of aromatic amines. Method involves alkylation reaction of aromatic amines in the presence of hydrogen and lower alcohols at temperature 50-70°C on a heterogeneous catalyst. The distinctive specificity of method represents alkylation of amine with formaldehyde solution in reactor with reaction zone filled with catalyst consisting of aluminum oxide-base block high-porous cellular carrier with porosity value 7-95%, not less, and palladium as an active component with the mass content = 1.3-2%. As a rule, in the alkylation process catalyst prepared by impregnation of block high-porous cellular carrier with palladium salts treated preliminary in the constant magnetic field is used. Usually, in the case of alkylation of aniline and for preferential synthesis of monomethylaniline the molar ratio aniline to formaldehyde solution = 1.6:(1.1-1.6) is used. Proposed method as compared with the nearest analog in the case of alkylation of aniline provides preparing monomethylaniline mainly, to decrease the content of palladium as an active component in catalyst and to decrease the reaction pressure and hydraulic resistance of catalytic layer also. Invention can be used in producing antiknock additives to motor fuels (gasolines).
EFFECT: improved alkylation method.
3 cl, 4 ex