Method for the visual display and analysis of anomalies of the multidimensional object or process

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to computer technology and can be used in data mining systems, including processing and analysis of geological and geophysical information and other data obtained in the study of natural or socio-economic objects or phenomena. The technical result is to render a representation of the anomalous values of the measurement parameters, providing estimates of the magnitude and spatial coordinates distribution anomalies, reducing labor costs in the preparation and formation of the matrix of experimental data, the increasing clarity of data presentation. The method is to convert the results of the evaluation of the current values of the measurement parameters of the object or process relevant information Cvetkovi signals of the visible spectrum, in the view of information Cvetkovi signals in the form of Cvetkovi matrix diagram, the columns of which correspond to one spatial coordinate, row, and cell color - identified estimates of abnormal values, and displaying on the screen multicolor video display. At the same time as atalo the second, or background value, as the results of the evaluation of abnormal values using positive and negative abnormal value of the measurement parameter. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to computer technology and can be used in data mining systems, including environmental monitoring, medical diagnostics, processing and analysis of geological and geophysical information and other data obtained in the study of natural and socio-economic objects or phenomena,

Known methods for input automatically read digital data in halftone images (EP 0493053 A2, G 06 To 1/12, 19/06, 15/00, 01.07.1992), data processing (EP 0493105 A2, G 06 F 15/17, 01.07.1992), as well as how to display the amplitude and frequency spectrum of the vibration signal (RF Patent for invention EN 1831670 A3, 30.07.1993), display telemetry data (RF Patent for invention EN 2060465 C1, 20.05.1996), monitoring and evaluation of technical condition of multivariable object according to the telemetry data (RF Patent for invention EN 2099792 C1, 20.12.1997), rapid diagnostic States multivariable object according to the measurement data (Patento (RF Patent for invention EN 2134897 C1, 20.08.1999), dynamic state analysis multivariate object or process (RF Patent for invention EN 2138849 C1, 27.09.1999), monitoring and evaluation of technical condition of multiparameter diagnostics object according to the measurement data (RF Patent for invention EN 2145735 C1, 20.02.2000), tsvetkovogo presentation and analysis of the characteristics of oscillatory processes (RF Patent for invention EN 2149455 C1, 20.05.2000), tsvetkovogo presentation and analysis of the dynamics of the situation multivariable object or process (RF Patent for invention EN 2150742 C1, 10.06.2000), operational dynamic analysis of fuzzy multivariable state of an object or process (RF Patent for invention EN 2156496 C1, 20.09.2000).

The considered methods are simultaneous display of multi-color video display multiple graphs of measurement data, each of which are in the form of some bands of the color spectrum, the selected color scale which corresponds to a particular characteristic of the signal measured parameter value changing in time. We present methods offer different solutions for the transition from traditional forms of presenting information (current znaczeniu description of the condition of the object of research. When the research object is a dynamic object, and forms (original and proposed) are functions of time, i.e., dependent on the temporal characteristics.

However, for visualization and analysis (diagnosis, detection, monitoring, identification of abnormal conditions of different relatively stable or stationary objects the methods are not suitable. For this class of objects is important to seek the unknown dependency changes of the examined characteristics not from time, and from other variables. While the characteristics studied are typically stationary or quasi-stationary characteristics, for example, when highlighting anomalies in geological and geophysical data, in medical diagnosis, the assessment of the environmental situation, the analysis of the economic situation, etc.

The closest in technical essence is a method for the rapid determination of the fact and the topology of the occurrence of an unknown source of radiation or vibrations (RF Patent for invention EN 2155370 C1, 27.08.2000). The method allows to detect the fact and the topology of the occurrence of an unknown source of radiation or vibrations of the object around the many of the observed meter is Ogadenia analysis of States of objects out of the time coordinate changes of parameters (signals). In other words, the method does not provide an assessment of the magnitude and spatial coordinates of the States studied multivariable object depending on other (non-temporal) characteristics, such as spatial or topological.

The purpose of the invention: visualization representation and detection of abnormal values of the measurement parameters (anomalies) on a set of experimental data (measurement parameters), providing estimates of the magnitude and spatial coordinates distribution anomalies, reducing labor costs in the preparation and formation of matrices (tables, charts) experimental data, enhancing the visibility of the view data.

The goal achieved by implementation of the proposed method visual display and analysis of anomalies of the multidimensional object or process, the essence of which is to transform the results of the evaluation of the current values of the measurement parameters of the object or process relevant information Cvetkovi signals of the visible spectrum, in the view of information Cvetkovi signals in the form of Cvetkovi matrix diagram and display multicolor video display. At the same time as measures or ematicheskie, weighted, quadratic, exponential, etc.), average (expectation, variance) or background value, select the measurement parameter and the above-mentioned measure of its anomalous values provides expert-analyst, as the results of the evaluation of abnormal values measurement parameter used for the assessment of multiplicity (degree) changes in selected measures, which represent classes of anomalous values measurement parameter of an object or process, the conversion operation is carried out by formation of the corresponding information tsvetkovogo signal depending on the results of the evaluation of abnormal values measurement parameter and the spatial coordinates of the measurements represent information Cvetkovi signals through Cvetkovi matrix diagrams lines which correspond to one of the spatial coordinates, columns a different spatial coordinate, the color of the cells of the matrix - identified estimates of abnormal values measurement parameter display information Cvetkovi signals for analysis on any physical media, including on paper, the screen, the screen in which I anomalous values of the measurement parameters define the location or coordinates of the sources of the anomalies of the multidimensional object or process. In addition, as the results of the evaluation of abnormal values measurement parameter depending on the spatial coordinate measurements using different assessment of multiplicity (degree) changes mentioned measures, representing positive and negative anomalous values of the measuring object parameter.

Let multidimensional object of the study are presented in the form of a finite set M of experimental data. Traditionally such data for complex objects are multidimensional arrays of information, the analysis of which causes certain difficulties.

Traditionally one of the main goals of the analysis is the localization of anomalies that characterize a particular (critical, unusual, atypical, abnormal, etc.,) state of the investigated object and / or the external environment. Under the anomaly is traditionally understood as a deviation from the norm, from the General law. Accordingly, under the abnormal condition of the object to understand his condition, which is characterized by the anomaly. The sources of the anomalies, and hence the purpose of localization of anomalies can be very different. For example, for geological and geophysical objects source anomalies may mechs). In the first case, the localization of anomalies (anomalous values of the experimental data is the Foundation on which is based the search for mineral deposits. In the second case, the goal of localization is suppressed (exception) random noise. In ecology the source of the anomalies can be deviations in the content of various harmful chemicals in the environment. An important task of environmental monitoring is to identify the sources and areas of contamination of the natural environment.

Clarify the concept of anomalies. We believe that all necessary information about the state of the object and the environment contained in the original set (matrix) of the experimental data. We assume that the results of some observations on the research object is represented in a data matrix whose rows correspond to different measurement parameters, and columns specific values (scalars), describing the current values of these parameters. Let the studied object or process is characterized by some finite number n of measurement parameters with the number m of the specific values of each of them. Then the source data set on the object can be written as Mutrie, test) for the i-th measurement parameter or by the i-th sample (realization).

In practice, for multidimensional objects and processes the data matrix (1) is large amounts of measurement data, processing and analysis of which causes certain difficulties. There is a class of objects for which the processing for even one measurement parameter, represented as a data matrix (1) where the index i represents the number of the sample (realization) of a large array of experimental data, causes considerable difficulties, known in the literature as the "curse of dimensionality". It is this class of objects and processes will be considered in the future.

For the analysis of large amounts of measurement data multidimensional objects, which, as a rule, it is in a granular form, a person (the expert analyst) uses this technique, as a generalization. We propose the following approach.

The well-known concept of measure (benchmark) is invariant to the object of measurement. In other words, the properties of the test object does not depend on the adopted measure its properties. This state of Affairs from the point of view of the analysis of the properties of the investigated multidimensional byamerican information. The way out of this situation is the transition to other more common measurement scale, i.e., the change of measure. More interesting results can be obtained using the measure, which carries information about the state of the object or process. We introduce the notion of a measure or a standard of measurement (estimation) of the anomalous values of the measuring multidimensional parameter object or process.

We believe that the value of the element aijmatrix (1) is determined under consideration of the physical quantities characterizing the object of interest, and some spatial or temporal coordinates. Each element andijdepending on the state of the object, obtaining conditions (measurement) of this element, etc. can be normal (within the tolerance, normal) or abnormal (not tolerance, not OK). However, the concept of "norm" in this case is subjective and vague (fuzzy) concept. We will use instead the "norm" when it comes to defining abnormality other clear concepts, such as minimum, average (arithmetic mean, weighted, quadratic, exponential, etc.), average (expectation and variance), background znachenie be represented in the form

Uicf= |Uimax|-|Uimin|/2 (2)

where Umaxiand Uminirespectively the maximum and minimum value of the i-th measurement of the parameter.

Define the expression (2) as the unit of measure of abnormal values measurement parameter of an object or process. Then this unit of measure can be used as a benchmark for evaluation of characteristics of the anomalous values of the measurement parameters and, respectively, to assess the characteristics of abnormal conditions (anomalies) of the object or process in General. Similarly, as the unit of measure (estimate) the anomalous values measurement parameter you can use the minimum, average or background value.

The set of possible anomalous values measurement parameter can be represented by some set of classes of anomalies). Imagine the possible classes of anomalous values of the i-th measurement of the parameter in the form

Ai={A01,A1i,A2i,...,Aki},kK (3)

where A0iclass values measurement parameter corresponding to some norm, the value of which can be the CSOs measuring parameter, for example, in the form of minimum, average, average, or background values, A1i- a slight excess, A2i- a two-fold excess or double anomaly, A3ia threefold excess or triple anomaly, etc.

For some types of objects, the characteristics of the anomalies can be represented by the anomalous values of the i-th measurement of the parameter in the form

Ai={A0i,A1+i,A1-i,A2+i,A2-i,...,Aki},kK (4)

where A1+i- a small positive excess or positive one-time anomaly, A1-i- minor negative excess or negative one-time anomaly, A2+ipositive two-fold excess of positive or twice anomaly, A2-i- negative two-fold excess or double negative anomaly, etc.

Depending on the purpose of analysis and characteristics of the object (the source of perturbations or abnormalities) a specific value of the measurement parameter may vary depending on those or other space is otrastanie (l - length, h - width and g is the depth or height, where lL, hH, gG) variables. Many of the observed values of the measurement parameter (an array of experimental data), estimated in accordance with expressions(3)-(4) depending on varying spatial or temporal variable that specifies respectively the state of the object or process from the point of view of the impact of anomalies on the parameter in question. As R can be defined any variable, which leads to a change of the measuring values of the parameter.

We propose the following approach. Using Tsvetkova form view, you can convert the original data matrix (1) in Tsvetkova matrix is a state diagram of the test object. Thus, by encoding specific color code of the visible spectrum of each of the selected classes (3)-(4) anomalous values measurement parameter of the investigated object or process, the resulting three-dimensional Tsvetkova matrix-chart

M=<PP2z(A(P1,R2))> (5)

where z(A(P1, R2)) - Tsvetkova information of the visible spectrum, corresponding to a specific value A(P1P2) measuring a parameter depending on(anomalies), sign Cartesian product of sets.

The physical content of the measuring parameter is determined by the characteristics of the studied object or process, and may be different. Therefore, to consider the anomalies of the form (3)-(4) it is possible for objects of any physical nature, such as gravity and magnetic (electromagnetic) anomalies, anomalies in the content of chemical elements in a sample or in the analysis in medical diagnosis, etc., However, despite the differences in the objectives of the analysis of abnormal values of the measurement parameters, the proposed method is invariant with respect to the object of analysis.

The essence of the proposed method is illustrated on the example of detection of various anomalies in the analysis of geological and geophysical data. The main task of search of Geology in the search fields or other mineral is identification data inhomogeneities (anomalies) and the explanation of their nature. Natural (geological) environment is heterogeneous in time and space, as reflected in the various physico-chemical fields, i.e. the environment is heterogeneous (different from the average condition) some quantitative characteristic variables. As such variables R can be the spatial position or the topology of the source (aggregate) sources of anomalies. When geochemical studies of the source of the anomaly is significant variation in the content of a given chemical element from the norm (given measure). In this case, as the variable R can be as spatial coordinates (drilling depth), and their derivatives, such as the number of samples.

Pinpoint the source of the anomalies (anomalous values measurement parameter of the object or process). Consider the geophysical anomalies, which understand the plot of the geological environment with coordinates [P1, R2], where P1=l is the length, R2= h - width of the investigated terrain, characterized by different from background values of physical parameters. Let this terrain is characterized by high or low values of the analyzed measurement parameter or the intensity of the magnetic field in comparison with the background values (normal field) associated with spatial clusters of minerals (ore mass, oil or gas deposits, and so on).

Let the value of the magician is determined by the choice of an expert analyst of the specific measures of abnormal values of this parameter, A1+i- single positive magnetic anomaly, A1-i- single negative magnetic anomaly, A2+i- double positive anomaly, etc.

Integral evaluation of the entire set of experimental data can be obtained by generalizing the expression (4) on the whole set of measurements, for example, only a subset of measurements for the considered geological terrain. Applying the proposed method obtained Tsvetkova matrix-chart state geological site under the measuring parameter is the magnetic field strength:

M=<lz(A(1,h))> (6)

where z(A(l, h)) - Tsvetkova information corresponding to a specific (measured) value of A(l, h) measuring a parameter depending on the spatial coordinates of this site (location of the depth and geometrical parameters of the source of disturbance or anomaly).

Visual analysis of the received view (Fig.1), revealing the essence of the proposed method allows to:

to determine the location of the source of the anomalies (prospective mineral deposits) in mind Cvetkovi diagrams and characteristic of the soap is abrazandote magnetic field). So, for the intervals (l3-l4) and (l10-l11) on the x-axis and the interval (h3-h4) on the axis of ordinates is most likely timed anomalousness objects or their reflection in the physical (physical-chemical) fields;

to estimate the distribution of Cvetkovi charts depending on the topology (location, depth, height) locate the source of disturbance (anomalies). This assessment is conducted at the visual level in appearance and topology distribution diagram in double, triple anomalies;

a visual assessment of the correlation (matching and mutual distribution) anomalies (anomalous values measurement parameter) different level Cooktown charts depending on the topology locate the source of the anomalies.

It should be noted that the proposed form of presentation of information in the form of Cvetkovi matrix diagrams (5)-(6) is very capacious, as it allows to describe and visualize large amounts of experimental data. So, the basic tzvetkova the cell located at the intersection of the h-th row and the 1st column (Fig.1), with a large number of measurements (h>>100, 1>>100) on the screen MES the new matrix-chart) to the human eye is represented in the form of a graphical image, in which areas with anomalous values of the measuring parameter highlights relevant (bright, contrasting) colors (Fig. 2). The presence of contrast in the image or sudden changes colors and their distribution in the investigated area is characterized (displays) and the topology of the distribution of the investigated source of the anomaly on the considered spatial coordinates. Obviously, such information is necessary for the visual analysis of the studied object or process, which is performed by an experienced expert analyst.

Thus, the proposed method for the visual display and analysis of anomalies of the multidimensional object or process can be considered as a new approach in the selection of anomalies according to the results of visual analysis of abnormal values measurement parameter. On the other hand, the proposed method can be considered as a universal form of visualization of anomalies (anomalous values of the measurement parameters) of any multidimensional object or process obtained by other known filters highlight anomalies. As an example, consider the problem of allocating local and weak magnetic anomalies, the solution to which such as the filter optimal filter (optimal filtering), the method of smoothing by C. N. Strakhova, megprobalna correlation, the method of inverse probability, the way self-tuning filtering, etc. Regardless of the nature of the allocation algorithm anomalies of these methods, all of them oriented to obtain the extreme values of the investigated magnetic field in the target coordinates of a certain space (geographical coordinates, elevation of the earth's surface). However, the representation of this information for subsequent analysis and interpretation of inhomogeneous magnetic field remains at a very low level. This significantly limits the ability of complex analysis, interpretation, and identification of local and weak anomalies. Application of the proposed method for visualization and analysis of anomalies of the multidimensional object or process eliminates this disadvantage. The resulting visualization of images allows for the efficient conduct a comprehensive visual analysis, interpretation, and identification of local and weak anomalies.

A practical example of implementation of the proposed method shows its feasibility with the help of computers, therefore, vypolnite used on small, and on large sets of experimental data. On the other hand, the way allows you to visualize for analysis and identification of anomalies in the processing results of the measurement parameters obtained using other methods (filters), which confirms the universality of the proposed representations, and the feasibility of the proposed method on a computer.

The set of essential features that lead to the desired result, in the patent and scientific literature is not detected, indicating that the "inventive step" of the proposed technical solutions. The novelty of the proposed method in comparison with the prototype and known methods of presentation and analysis of anomalies, is that developed logical sequence of steps for visual display and analysis of anomalies of the multidimensional object, which leads to the achievement of the objectives of the invention.

The object of study, the observed measurement parameters can be very different. Cvetkovi description of the object can also be different (classes of anomalies, colors, descriptions of classes of anomalies, the characteristics of the distribution of anomalies). However, the situation is based to the nature of the object or process, what is undoubted advantage of the proposed method. In addition, the proposed universal form for data representation does not depend on the number (capacity) of the initial set of experimental data (values of the measurement parameters, samples), and processing methods (classification), etc. This property allows you to visualize aggregated information about almost any multidimensional (multivariate) objects or processes that can be monitored by an expert analyst abnormal States. Thus, the resulting invariance property descriptions and representations Cvetkovi matrix diagrams maximizes generalization that allows widespread implementation of the proposed method in various practical applications.

For conducting on-line (real measurements) analysis of anomalies of multidimensional objects or processes a very effective use of this method is the mode of observation or monitoring (on-line viewing of data by computer). Operational analysis can be performed on a particular object, and when viewing the analyst data (you is videomonitor various data from the databases of geological and geophysical data on a local or regional level, etc.

1. Method for the visual display and analysis of anomalies of the multidimensional object or process, which consists in converting the results of the evaluation values of the measurement parameters of the object or process relevant information Cvetkovi signals of the visible spectrum, in the view of information Cvetkovi signals in the form of Cvetkovi matrix diagram and display multi-color video monitor, characterized in that as a measure or standard of measurement (estimation) of the anomalous values of the measurement parameter used its minimum, or mean, or average, or background values, conduct the selection of the measurement parameter and the above-mentioned measure of its anomalous values, as the results of the evaluation of abnormal values measurement parameter used for the assessment of multiplicity (degree) changes in selected measures of anomalous dimensions of the measuring values of the parameter, which represent classes of anomalous values measurement parameter of an object or process, when presenting information Cvetkovi signals through Cvetkovi matrix diagram, its rows correspond to one of the spatial coordinates, length, or Shi depth, color matrix cells - identified estimates of abnormal values measurement parameter display information Cvetkovi signals for analysis on any physical media, including paper, screen, screen, video projection equipment, visual appearance, brightness, and pattern of distribution of the color gamut of the image Cvetkovi matrix diagram anomalous values of the measurement parameters define the location or coordinates of the sources of the anomalies of the multidimensional object or process.

2. Method for the visual display and analysis of anomalies of the multidimensional object or process under item 1, characterized in that the quality of the evaluation of abnormal values measurement parameter used different assessment of multiplicity (degree) changes mentioned measures, representing positive and negative abnormal values measurement parameter multidimensional object or process.

 

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