Method for continuous carrying out gas-liquid reactions

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a method for carrying out gas-liquid reactions, which proceed with participation of the mechanism of dispersion gas to liquid and liquid to gas. Method for continuous receipt of addition polymerisation products of accelerated and initiator growth chain with at least one active hydrogen atom comprises the following stages: a) preparation of n reaction units, each of which is provided a tubular reactor and a heat exchanger located in the direction of the process stream after this tubular reactor, b) feeding to the reactor of the first reaction initiator installation of chain growth, pre-heated to a predetermined temperature, and accelerated, in) conducting interaction initiator growth of chain alkalization with the first mixture, g) cooling the first mixture through a heat exchanger, d) the flow in the reactor following reaction setup chilled mixture and accelerated, e) repetition cycle stages to the last reaction setup and then unloading the last of the mixture containing the target product. An object of the invention is to develop a method of obtaining products of polyaddition is e, to improve the overall plant performance and product quality. 11 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to a method for carrying out gas-liquid reactions, which proceed with participation of the mechanism of dispersion gas to liquid and liquid to gas.

In particular, an object of the present invention is a method of continuous receipt of addition polymerisation products of alkalisation by the reaction of addition polymerization initiator growth chain that contains at least one active hydrogen atom.

These products, in particular products of polyaddition of ethylene and propylenoxide, is primarily used as nonionic surfactants and polyether polyols.

Nonionic surfactants are very widely used as wetting agents, dispersing agents, stabilizers, emulsifiers and intialisation, defoamers and foam, as well as in the more General case as an auxiliary chemicals and functional fluids for the treatment of textile materials, paper and pulp, pharmaceutical, food industry, cosmetics, paints, yuusei industry. In particular, we should mention the use of nonionic surfactants based on natural and synthetic fatty alcohols as a main component in the preparation of household and industrial detergents, and polyether polyols as the main intermediates in the preparation of polyurethanes (rigid, semi-rigid, flexible foams, elastomers, adhesives, sealants and so on).

In the patent Italy 1226405 describes a method for polymerization products of alkalisation using as source material alkalisation, the most widely used ethylene - and/or propylenoxide, and compounds containing active or movable hydrogen atom, together with suitable for this purpose catalysts. In the method according to this patent is applied two-piece reactor upper section which is called the gas-liquid reactor, and the bottom, located almost horizontally, represents the cumulative vessel. Gas-liquid reaction proceeds in the upper section, and the initiator of the chain growth is served from a variety of spray nozzles at the Central distributor, whereas the lower part of the body performs the functions bramcindy product, coming from the upper section, again send to this last to continue the polymerization reaction.

However, the method described in the above patent has certain disadvantages. First of all, because the patent focuses on semi-continuous process, the productivity per unit of time is substantially limited by the necessity of unloading the contents of the reactor.

As provided by internal valves, the ratio surface/volume (S/V) in the reactor used in this way is very high, thus increasing the possibility for the occurrence of secondary reactions. Internal distributors also creates inside the reactor dead space, which makes it difficult for the emptying and cleaning of the reactor, thereby increasing problems arising from the replacement of one of the obtained product to others.

It should also be noted that the movement by gravity of the reaction product, which accumulates in the upper, horizontal section and then flows through the channels down into the bottom section, initiates reverse diffusion and additional oxidative atmosphere.

In U.S. patent 4261922 describes how continuous is minoxidol and containing a hydroxyl group compounds selected from the group comprising water and mono-, di-, tri - and paleoliticheskie alcohols. This method is carried out using coiled reactor, whose length is at least 1.2 m and which is immersed in the appropriate heat transfer fluid environment. A mixture of hydroxyl-containing compounds with the alkaline catalyst is continuously served in the reactor and enter into contact with 1,2-alkalisation, dosed with many devices placed along the entire length of the reactor. To optimize the kinetics of these reactions are the metering device is placed at such intervals, in which each point is provided by the creation of an optimal concentration of unreacted oxide.

However, the processes carried out in this reactor, characterized by serious drawback consisting in the extreme rigidity of the regime, because it does not allow for any variation of the reaction parameters such as temperature, type of initiator growth of the chain and so on, in fact every time there is any change, the necessity of re-adjusting the position of the metering devices along the entire coil as it is because of this change there is a change con is merisalo at the stage of initiation of the speed of polymerization growth stage circuit, the metering device cannot be placed along the reactor at regular intervals. Thus, the change of technological parameters requires independent of re-regulation in accordance with each of them.

Based on the foregoing, the present invention was used to develop this method of obtaining products of polyaddition of alkalisation, which could be applied to any initiator of the chain growth, the catalyst and alkalinized and which would also solve the above problem.

In accordance with the invention this task is solved by the method of continuous receipt of addition polymerisation products of accelerated and initiator growth chain that contains at least one active hydrogen atom. This method is characterized in that it comprises the following stages:

a) preparation of n reaction units, where n denotes an integer from 2 to 100, each of which is provided a tubular reactor, which is oriented almost vertically and includes upper part and lower part, and a heat exchanger located in the direction of the process stream after the tubular reactor, and pipes the least one second feeding device and the outlet, while these devices are placed on the inner surface of the upper part of the tubular reactor,

b) feeding to the reactor of the first reaction of n units initiator growth chain, pre-heated to a predetermined temperature, using at least one of the second feeding device and accelerated using at least one of the first feeding device,

C) conducting interaction initiator growth of chain alkalization with the first liquid mixture containing the intermediate product

g) cooling the first liquid mixture by using a heat exchanger

d) feeding to the reactor of the second reaction of n units of the first liquid mixture using at least one of the second feeding device and accelerated using at least one of the first feeding device,

e) conducting interaction of the first liquid mixture oxide to obtain a second liquid mixture,

g) repeating stages d), d) and e) in each of the remaining n-2 reaction installations with obtaining the nth liquid mixture containing the target product,

C) cooling and discharge of nth liquid mixture containing the target product.

The term "tubular" in the context of the present description isolatie covers reactors with two different diameters, with a tapered end and mushroom reactors.

The initiators of the growth of the chain, which can be used in the method according to the present invention, are compounds containing at least one active hydrogen atom in accordance with the final product, which you want to retrieve. As examples of such initiators growth of the chain can be called ALKYLPHENOLS, such as op, Nonylphenol, dodecylphenol, dinonylphenol, tridirectional; natural and synthetic fatty alcohols and their mixtures, such as decroly alcohol, tridecylamine alcohol, alerby alcohol, operacyjny alcohol, cetylstearyl alcohol, lanolin, cholesterol, acetylenyl; fatty amines and hydrogenated amines, such as laurylamine, oleylamine, cocoamine, amines, solid fats and soya amines, soya aminopropylene, abatellis; amides of fatty acids, such as laurylamine, stearylamine, amides, derivateservlet of the fatty acids of coconut, soy oils and solid fats; fatty acids, such as acids of coconut oil, lauric acid, acid solid fats, stearic, palmitic, oleic, myristic, linolenic acid, abietic and naphthenic acid; sorbitane esters, such as monooleate, exactearth; monoglycerides and monostearate, for example, coconut oil and glycerin; esters of pentaerythritol, such as monolaurate, monooleate and lanolin; etilenglikoli, such as mono-, di-, triethyleneglycol and glycols; propylene glycols such as mono-, with-, tripropyleneglycol and polypropyleneglycol; ethylene oxide-propyleneoxide block copolymers and their disordered sequence on the basis of different initiators growth chain, such as fatty amines, fatty alcohols, glycerin, dipropyleneglycol and so on; oils, such as castor oil, hydrogenated castor oil, grease mink, solid fats, tall oil; mercaptans, such as dodecylmercaptan, ammonia and alcohols of the formula ROH, where R is C1-C4alkyl.

In a preferred variant of the method according to the present invention is performed with the use of accelerated selected from the group comprising ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylenes and mixtures thereof.

To start the reaction alkoxysilane, for its acceleration, and whenever necessary, the initiator of the chain growth is mixed with the catalyst in the mixing plant, located in the direction of the process stream to the reaction set is th hydroxides and alcoholate of alkali metals and hydroxides of alkaline-earth metals. However, you can even choose acid catalysts, although they are not preferred because they possess the disadvantage consisting in increasing the concentration of dioxane in the product or an aqueous solution.

The initiator of the chain growth and the catalyst is advisable to refer to the stage of drying in the installation, located in the direction of the process stream to the first reaction of n units and after mixing plant that provides the ability to remove water produced during the formation of the alcoholate, water, in which dissolve the catalyst, and any moisture contained in the initiator growth chain. To this end, apply the evaporator falling film, in which to accelerate the removal of water the atmosphere can be evacuated to create a vacuum varying degrees. In this evaporator dries the mixture is forced to flow along the heated walls in the form of a thin film, providing, thus, the high mass and energy exchange. However, the proposed method does not preclude the use of other conventional evaporators.

In the preferred embodiment, there are fifteen of the reaction units, divided into three groups of five installations that are placed in cascade. Also in the preferred verluca carrying out reactions of this type, when you want a shorter total length of stay in these reactors.

In a particularly preferred embodiment of the method according to the invention the n-th liquid mixture is sent to the stage, which reduces the content of free accelerated. This purpose is provided by the presence of one or more cylindrical reactor, the longitudinal axis of each of which are oriented almost vertically and each of which is provided with a feeding device for feeding the liquid mixture and the outlet. In one or more of these reactors accelerated and the initiator of the chain growth, which can still be in the mix, to interact until the content of free oxide in the mixture comprising the reaction product will not fall to the level of not more than 1 part./million In order to avoid back diffusion of the liquid, which runs through the reactor (reactors) must, to the extent possible, to keep calm. Thus, we achieve the same length of stay, providing almost complete consumption of the free accelerated.

In a particularly preferred variant of the method according to the present invention stage reduction Sodom.

In the preferred embodiment, as a device for conveying accelerated and initiator growth chain reaction setup used nozzles, each of which represents a hollow body is essentially in the shape of a truncated cone protruding from the inside wall of the reactor at the end of larger diameter, on which the nozzles are communicated with the respective channels for feeding the reaction mixture and accelerated, and in this hollow body is made of many nozzles, which are evenly distributed across its surface.

It should be emphasized that the shape of a truncated cone spray allows you to Orient the nozzles in the reactor so that they are finely sprayed liquid in the form of a cone with a wide angle.

In another embodiment, for the supply and distribution of accelerated and initiator of the chain growth can be applied conventional devices, such as nozzles, Venturi and nozzle type.

The method according to the invention can be realized by carrying out a continuous process, therefore, provides an opportunity to improve the overall performance of the installation and simplifies maintenance, cleaning, etc.

The method according to the invention, the call is free alkalization during the reaction, much less the fact that they engaged in the installation of known construction. Because the oxide is served in small portions along the entire path of the reaction stream, the prevailing part of the free oxide is consumed immediately, and its concentration along the entire path of the reaction stream is maintained at a constant and relatively low. Thanks postreaction the stage at which the content is free of oxide in the final product in all cases reduce to a very low level, also significantly attenuated the undesirable influence of the process on the environment, which eliminates the conduct degassing operations that are common on completion of the periodic process. Since the process is continuous, due to the absence of cross-contamination by impurities due to the replacement of one of the target product to others in the case of periodic processes also increases the quality of the product.

The method according to the invention can also be implemented using a wide range of initiators growth of the chain and can be easily adapted to the kinetics of any type and target product of any type, receiving the opportunity in all cases to achieve optimal kacem to vary the regulation in its liquid level using the appropriate computer. As for the method according to the present invention, the total length of stay can also be adjusted with the exception of one or more reaction units and applied to the respective bypass lines.

In the present invention it is also proposed a method of continuous receipt of addition polymerisation products of accelerated and initiator growth chain that contains at least one active hydrogen atom, characterized in that it comprises the following stages:

a) preparation of the reaction setup, which provided almost vertical tubular reactor comprising an upper part and a lower part, and a heat exchanger located in the direction of the process stream after this tubular reactor and a tubular reactor provided with at least one first feeding device for feeding accelerated at least one second feeding device and the outlet, the said feeding device is placed on the inner surface of the upper part of the tubular reactor,

b) feeding to the reactor for this reaction initiator installation of chain growth, pre-heated to a predetermined temperature, using at least STS,

C) conducting interaction initiator growth of chain alkalization to form a liquid mixture containing the target product,

g) cooling the liquid mixture through the heat exchanger.

Further, the invention proposes a method of continuous receipt of alkanolamine using as initial products of ammonia and ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, characterized in that it comprises the following stages:

a) preparation of n reaction units, where n denotes an integer of 2-100, each of which is provided by almost vertical tubular reactor comprising an upper part and a lower part, and a heat exchanger located in the direction of the process stream after this tubular reactor and a tubular reactor provided with at least one first feeding device for feeding of ethylene oxide, at least one second feeding device and the outlet, the said feeding device is placed on the inner surface of the upper part of the tubular reactor,

b) feeding to the reactor a first of the n reaction of ammonia preheated to a predetermined temperature, using at least one of the second feeding device the action of ammonia with ethylene oxide to obtain a first liquid mixture, containing intermediate product,

g) cooling the first liquid mixture by using a heat exchanger

d) feeding to the reactor of the second reaction of n units of the first liquid mixture with at least one second power supply units and of ethylene oxide with at least one of the first feeding device,

e) conducting interaction of the first liquid mixture oxide to obtain a second liquid mixture,

g) repeating stages d), d) and e) in each of the remaining n-2 reaction installations with obtaining the nth liquid mixture containing the target product,

C) cooling and discharge of nth liquid mixture containing the target product.

In the present invention it is also proposed a method of continuous receipt of glycol ether of ethylene oxide and an alcohol of the formula ROH, in which R denotes a1-C4alkyl group, characterized in that it comprises the following stages:

a) preparation of n reaction units, where n denotes an integer of 2-100, each of which is provided by almost vertical tubular reactor comprising an upper part and a lower part, and a heat exchanger located in the direction of the process stream after this tubular reactor, preencha least one second feeding device and the outlet, these power supply units are placed on the inner surface of the upper part of the tubular reactor,

b) feeding to the reactor of the first reaction of n units of alcohol, pre-heated to a predetermined temperature, using at least one second power supply units and of ethylene oxide with at least one of the first feeding device,

C) conducting interaction of alcohol with ethylene oxide to obtain a first liquid mixture containing the intermediate product

g) cooling the first liquid mixture by using a heat exchanger

d) feeding to the reactor of the second reaction of n units of the first liquid mixture with at least one second power supply units and of ethylene oxide with at least one of the first feeding device,

e) conducting interaction of the first liquid mixture oxide to obtain a second liquid mixture,

g) repeating stages d), d) and e) in each of the remaining n-2 reaction installations with obtaining the nth liquid mixture containing the target product,

C) cooling and discharge of nth liquid mixture containing the target product.

Below the invention is explained in more detail on the example non-limiting predpochtenija scheme.

In accordance with this drawing initiator growth of the chain is continuously withdrawn from the storage tanks (not shown) and sent through the pipeline 1 and the heat exchanger 2, which is continuously injected water vapor, so that it is heated to the reaction temperature. In another embodiment, the heat exchanger 2 can be entered teplopostachannju the fluid or water under pressure.

The pipe 3 in the direction of the process stream after the heat exchanger 2 enter in the necessary quantities of catalyst for the reaction, which in the static mixer 4 appropriately mixed with the initiator of the chain growth.

Further, the heated initiator growth of the chain and the catalyst nozzle 5 is directed to the drying unit 6, which is line 7 remove the water produced during the formation of the alcoholate, water, in which dissolve the catalyst, and any moisture contained in the initiator growth chain. The drying unit 6 is an evaporator falling film, in which you can create a vacuum and the walls of which are heated by the fluid supplied through the pipe 8. Alternatively, instead of the evaporator with a falling film can be applied conventional drying unit.

Then dried, containing the catalyst, initiator, heated to the reaction temperature, is introduced into contact with alkalization. To this end, apply the multiple reaction units, in this example, three groups of five plants in each, and the drawing shows the first three and the last of these reaction systems. Each reaction apparatus includes a reactor 11 and the heat exchanger 14, located in the direction of the process stream after the reactor 11. Each reactor is tubular and is oriented so that its longitudinal axis runs vertically and has an upper and lower part. Dried, containing the catalyst initiator growth of the chain coming from the heat exchanger 10, through many nozzles 12 (in this example, one), placed in the upper part of the reactor 11, is introduced into the reactor 11, the first reaction of the installation, where it comes in contact with alkalization is supplied through pipe 16 and sprayed multiple nozzles 13 (in this Pius mass flow rate and the reaction pressure. The result is initiated by the absorption of the oxide droplets containing catalyst initiator growth chain in the upper part of the reactor 11, and therefore, a chemical reaction in the lower part.

In fact, in the reactor 11 drops, saturated alkalization converge on the free surface of the liquid phase, where the reaction takes place alkoxysilane. After the appropriate length of stay liquid phase discharged through the opening 15, is pumped through the heat exchanger 14, through which is disposed the heat released in the exothermic reaction, and the pipe 22 through the nozzles 12 is introduced into the reactor 11 second reaction setup. Then this cycle is repeated in fourteen other reactive, and after each reaction setup in the direction of the process stream is achieved by a pronounced increase of the molecule.

When in order to reduce the overall length of stay and thereby reduce the overall degree of growth molecules used only some of the available reactors, using bypass lines that are not shown, you can exclude one or more reaction units, starting with the last and acting in the opposite NAPAT strictly constant by automatic control of liquid level in the reactor 11. Since the mass flow rate of accelerated and initiator of the chain growth withdrawn from the base of the reactor 11, remain constant, the mass flow rate of the reaction product withdrawn from each reactor 11, is constant.

When the reaction is finished, the reaction mixture is sent to the stage at which reduce the content of free accelerated. To this end, the stream withdrawn from the reactor 11 last used reaction setup, served in the first of many reactors 17 posted by the cascade (in the present example, three), and these reactors are tubular and are oriented so that their longitudinal axes are almost vertically, and each of them is equipped with a feeding device 18 for supplying the reaction mixture emerging from the previous reactor, and the outlet 23.

In those cases when it is advisable to disable one or more of the 17 reactors in order to reduce the overall length of stay, as provided for by-pass pipes.

After reducing the amount of accelerated to the specified level, the product is cooled to a temperature of the discharge through the heat exchanger 19. If necessary, the product at the end is 2">

Because the process is carried out in accordance with the invention, continuous heat reaction alkoxysilane entering the heat exchangers 14, may be disposed with a receiving water low pressure steam to heat pressurized water or disposed of, for pre-heating the initiator growth chain.

Example 1

Getting 2500 kg/h of fatty12-C14alcohol +1.8 mol of ethylene oxide

In the setup described above, 1777 kg/h of fatty alcohol (195 Mw) was heated to 140oC, was mixed with 7.5 kg/h of a 50% aqueous solution of KOH and under a residual pressure of 5 mbar was dried in a setting of 6. Containing the dried catalyst initiator growth chain was initially heated in a process line 160oWith, and then sent to the first reactor 11, and for this reaction alkoxysilane were involved in the first ten of the fifteen reactionary attitudes.

Each reactor was characterized by the ratio S/V of 15.5 m-1the reaction pressure of 6 bar and a reaction temperature of 160oC.

In the reactor 11, the first reaction setup was applied to 72.3 kg/h of ethylene oxide, which interacted with the initiator of the chain growth with formation of a reaction product, which is nick 14 to the reaction temperature of 160oWith directed into the reactor 11 second reaction setup.

The above cycle was repeated in each of the reaction setup and the product of the last of them were unloaded in the first of three reactors 17, through which one could spend the remaining oxide. The total length of stay in three reactors 17 was 30 minutes

In conclusion, the product was cooled to 60oWith neutralized 8 kg/h of glacial acetic acid and eventually unloaded.

The finished product had the following quality indicators:

appearance (25o(C) transparent liquid;

coloration (in units of the American public health Association, AAS) max 5;

the water content (frequent. /mn) maximum 0,1; pH (3% aqueous solution, 25oC) 6-7;

hydroxyl number (mg KOH/g) 204,52,0;

the content of polyethylene glycol (wt.%) max 0,50;

the content of dioxane (part./million) max 1;

the content of free ethylene oxide (part./million) a maximum of 1.

Example 2

Getting 2500 kg/h of fatty12-C14alcohol + 2,8 mol of ethylene oxide

1531 kg/h of fatty alcohol (195 Mw) was heated to 140oC, was mixed with 7.5 kg/h of a 50% aqueous solution of KOH and under a residual pressure of 5 mbar sushi is th line 160oWith, and then sent to the first reactor 11 first reaction setup, and for this reaction alkoxysilane were involved in the first fourteen reactionary attitudes.

Each reactor was characterized by the value of the ratio S/V of 15.5 m-1the reaction pressure of 6 bar and a reaction temperature of 160oC.

In the first reaction setup was filed 69,2 kg/h of ethylene oxide, which interacted with the initiator of the chain growth with formation of a reaction product, which after a length of stay of approximately 3 min unloaded and after cooling with heat exchanger 14 to the reaction temperature of 160oWith directed into the reactor of the second reaction setup.

The above cycle was repeated in each of the reaction setup and the product of the last installation was unloaded in the first of three reactors with 17 in order to spend the remaining oxide. The total length of stay in three reactors 17 was 30 minutes

In conclusion, the product was cooled to 60oWith neutralized 8 kg/h of glacial acetic acid and eventually unloaded.

The finished product had the following quality indicators:

appearance (25othe first aqueous solution, 25oC) 6-7;

hydroxyl number (mg KOH/g) 176,02,0;

the content of polyethylene glycol (wt.%) max 0,50;

the content of dioxane (part./million) max 1;

the content of free ethylene oxide (part./million) 1 max.

1. Method for continuous receipt of addition polymerisation products of accelerated and initiator growth chain that contains at least one active hydrogen atom, characterized in that it comprises the following stages: a) preparation of n reaction units, where n denotes an integer of 2-100, each of which is provided a tubular reactor, which is oriented almost vertically and includes upper part and lower part, and a heat exchanger located in the direction of the process stream after this tubular reactor and a tubular reactor provided with at least one first feeding device for feeding accelerated, at least one second feeding device and the outlet, the device is placed on the inner surface of the upper part of the tubular reactor, b) feeding to the reactor of the first reaction of n units initiator growth chain, pre-heated to a predetermined temperature, with the melting device, C) conducting interaction initiator growth of chain alkalization with the first liquid mixture containing the intermediate product, g) cooling the first liquid mixture by using a heat exchanger, d) feeding to the reactor of the second reaction of n units of the first liquid mixture using at least one of the second feeding device and accelerated using at least one of the first power supply units (e) the interaction of the first liquid mixture oxide to obtain a second liquid mixture; g) repeating stages d), d) and (e) each of the remaining n-2 reaction installations with obtaining the n-th liquid mixture containing the target product, C) cooling and unloading of the n-th liquid mixture containing the target product.

2. The method according to p. 1, in which the initiator of the chain growth is mixed with the catalyst in the mixing plant, located in the direction of the process stream to the first reaction setup, getting the initiator of growth in the circuit containing the catalyst.

3. The method according to p. 2, in which the initiator of the growth of the chain containing the catalyst is dried in the installation, located in the direction of the process stream to the first reaction setup and after mixing plant.

5. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, in which there are fifteen of the reaction units, divided into three groups of five plants.

6. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, in which the n-th liquid mixture containing the target product, are sent to the stage at which reduce the content of free accelerated, and on the stage of neutralization.

7. The method according to p. 6, in which the stage at which reduce the content of free accelerated carried out in one or more cylindrical reactors, oriented so that their axes are almost vertically, with this one or each of the several reactors equipped with a feeding device for feeding the n-th liquid mixture and an outlet hole.

8. The method according to p. 7, in which one or more cylindrical reactors represent the three reactor in the form of a cascade.

9. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs in which accelerated selected from the group including ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylenes and mixtures thereof.

10. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, in which the initiator of the growth of the chain are selected from the group including alkyl phenols, natural and sinteticheskie esters, monoglycerides and monostearate, esters of pentaerythritol, etilenglikoli, propylene glycols, block copolymers derived from ethylene oxide/propylene oxide, and polymers obtained from disordered sequences of the latter on the basis of different initiators growth chain, such as, for example, fatty amines, fatty alcohols, glycerin, dipropyleneglycol etc. , castor oil, hydrogenated castor oil, solid fats, fat mink, tall oil and mercaptans.

11. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, in which the catalyst is chosen from the group comprising hydroxides and alcoholate of alkali metals and hydroxides of alkaline earth metals.

12. The method according to any of the preceding paragraphs, in which the power devices are the nozzles, each of which includes a hollow body essentially in the shape of a truncated cone protruding from the inside wall of the reactor at the end of larger diameter, on which the nozzles are communicated with the respective channels for feeding the reaction mixture and accelerated, and in this hollow body is made of many nozzles, which are evenly spread across its surface.

 

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Polyether-polyols // 2263684

FIELD: polymer production.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of producing polyether-polyols via catalytic addition of at least two alkylene oxides to H-functional initiators, during which operation at least one oxyalkylene unit is incorporated as a result of joint dosage of at least two alkylene oxides. Catalyst utilized is at least one metal cyanide-based compound. When performing joint dosage ratios of alkylene oxides to each other is varied.

EFFECT: enabled production of polyether-polyols without clouding and having processing-appropriate viscosity.

8 cl, 12 ex

FIELD: chemistry of polymers, chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing a water-soluble copolymer. Method involves interaction of epichlorohydrin excess with primary or secondary amine or with a mixture of primary or secondary amine and ammonia and the following addition of tertiary aliphatic amine as inhibitor of gel formation. Epichlorohydrin is dosed to primary or secondary amine aqueous solution or a mixture of primary or secondary amine with ammonia at temperature 25-40°C. Then the reaction mixture is heated to 90°C followed by dosing the additional amount of epichlorohydrin wherein the total mole ratio of epichlorohydrin to primary or secondary amine or to a mixture of primary or secondary amine with ammonia = (1.03-1.10):1, respectively. Inhibitor of gel formation is added in the amount 0.2-0.5 mole per 1 mole of epichlorohydrin excess. Invention provides preparing copolymer with structure that provides avoiding formation of gel.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

2 cl, 1 tbl, 23 ex

FIELD: industrial organic synthesis.

SUBSTANCE: polyetherpolyols are synthesized via reaction of diols or polyols with ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylene oxide, or mixtures thereof in presence of suspended multimetallic cyanide complex catalyst in reactor provided with stirrer, wherein reaction mixture is recycled with the aid of pump through externally located heat-exchanger.

EFFECT: increased productivity based on unit volume in unit at high quality of product.

9 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: continuous production of polyoxyalkylene polyether product.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes introduction of first portion of mixture of double metallocyanide catalyst with initial starter into continuous-action reactor for initiating polyoxyalkynylation of initial starter after introduction of alkylene oxide. Proposed method includes: (a) continuous introduction of one or more alkylene oxides into said reactor; (a')continuous introduction of mixture of double metallocyanide catalyst with starter into inlet hole of said reactor for maintenance of catalytic activity at required level; (a")continuous introduction of one or several additional starters in addition to starter introduced into said inlet hole of reactor together with catalyst; these additional starters may be identical to said starter or may differ from it and may contain additional double metallocyanide catalyst; (b) polyoxyalkynylation of combined starters of continuous action of stages (a), (a') and (a") for obtaining polyoxyalkylene polyether product having required average molecular mass; and (c) continuous removal of said polyoxyalkylene polyether product from reactor. Proposed method makes it possible to obtain polyoxyalkylene polyether product of low degree of nonsaturation and narrow polydispersity practically containing no fractions of high molecular mass.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.

29 cl, 6 dwg, 7 ex

FIELD: organic chemistry, polymers.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to catalysts for polymerization of cyclic esters of formula , wherein M represents tin or germanium atom L and L are independently group of formula -E14(R14)(R'14)(R''14), E15(R15)(R'15) or E16(R16); E14 represents element of 14 group; E15 represents element of 15 group; and E14 represents element of 16 group; R14, R'14, R''14, R15, R'15, and R16 are independently hydrogen atom; alkyl, cycloalkyl or aryl optionally substituted with halogen atom, alkyl cycloalkyl, aryl, nitro or cyano; rest of formula -E'14RR'R''; -E'14 represents element of 14 group; R, R', R'' are independently hydrogen atom; alkyl, cycloalkyl or aryl optionally substituted with halogen atom, alkyl cycloalkyl, aryl, nitro or cyano. Also invention relates to method for production of block- or random copolymers of cyclic esters and copolymers.

EFFECT: improved catalysts for production of heterocyclic compound copolymers.

9 cl, 6 ex

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