Device for contactless control and recognition of the surfaces of three-dimensional objects

 

(57) Abstract:

Device for contactless control of the linear dimensions of three-dimensional objects is intended for the determination of surface profile and can be used to solve pattern recognition problems. Provides parallel-serial processing and registration of three-dimensional images due to the presence of N colored sources of optical radiation, N banners made in the form of aperiodic linear structures, N afocal optical systems for projecting image banner on a controlled surface, the receiving lens, forming together with N additional image of the picture appearing on the surface of the test object, N photoregistration, transforming formed adoptive lens image in the digital, each in its spectral range, N computing digital electronic units, counting a digital image in the values of the coordinates of the measured surface, and the electronic unit of the addition of digital images. The number N is determined by the formula N=Log2(L), where L is the number of pairs of elements of the resolution in the line of photographic. Each strip of illumination makes it possible to unambiguously calculate the height of the relief and a corresponding pair of coordinates. -Parallel image processing, divided into N spectral bands, increase the speed of control. 5 Il.

The invention relates to the field of measurement technology and can be used to visualize the profiles of three-dimensional objects, as well as for solving the problem of object recognition due to three-dimensional registration of their image.

Known methods and devices that implement the principle of "structured illumination", which are used in three-dimensional computer animation and some other applications to register the shape of the surface.

The known method and the device for its realization for contactless control of the linear dimensions of three-dimensional objects. How is that sequentially scan the individual contours of the surface luminous band that implements structured illumination and judge of controlled size on the degree of distortion of the image strip and the location of the strip in the Cartesian coordinate system. A device that implements the method that contains the laser, scanner, lens, photographic, and information processing (see, for example, the description of the patent PCT WO 98/27514 from 25.06.98 application PCT /I is control, associated with the operation and the scanning unit.

The known method and the device for its realization to control the linear dimensions of three-dimensional objects in the three Cartesian coordinates. The method consists in the fact that the object is projected system multicolored periodic stripes. As a result, in one frame is recorded entirely all fall within the field of view of the surface and judge of controlled size on the degree of distortion of the image of the many bands and location of bands in the Cartesian coordinate system. A device that implements the method for the contactless control of the linear dimensions of three-dimensional objects by the method of structured illumination, contains a source of optical radiation and successively installed along a radiation transparency, made in the form of a slide with a picture of rainbow stripes, lens projecting an image appearing on the surface of the test object distorted by the surface relief pattern of iridescent strips, photographic, transforming the projected image lens in a digital, and a digital electronic control unit, an input connected to the output of the photographic performing recalculation of the fixed photographic is/US99/70303, CL G 01 B 11/24, 23.11.2000).

A disadvantage of the known device is the low accuracy due to ambiguous reflection of the illumination beam from the surface color of the object and the lack of recorded picture information through holes.

The known method and implement its device control linear dimensions of three-dimensional objects in the three Cartesian coordinates. The method consists in the fact that the object is mapped, the system strips, created either by illumination by coherent radiation, containing speckle-structure or in the form of a system of concentric bands, either in the form of randomly-spaced zones which form a uniform. Altered the topography of the surface of the structured illumination is recorded while changing the wavelength of the radiation at least twice. Thus obtained pseudohalogens contains a system of interference fringes, the distance between them at different points corresponds to the height of the terrain. Appropriate processing on the mainframe data set on the amount of the above distances allows us to judge the relief of the surface of the test object (see , for example, M. Franson. Optics of speckles. - M.: Mir, 1980, S. 141-143).

Nedostatki the alignment surface on parts of the surface, the reflection which is very different from the diffuse. In addition, through holes thus also unable to identify as areas of the structured illumination is characterized by a high degree of similarity.

A device for contactless control of the linear dimensions of three-dimensional objects by the method of structured illumination, containing the source of optical radiation and successively installed along a radiation transparency, a lens projecting an image pattern of banding patterns that occur on the surface of the test object, distorted by the surface topography of the controlled object, photographic, transforming the projected image lens digital, digital electronic control unit, an input connected to the output of the photographic performing recalculation of fixed photographic digital images in the values of the coordinates of the measured surface by the formula: where Z is the height of the surface profile of the test object at the point with coordinates X,Y, crossed any strip line structure, the Y - value of the curvature of the strip at this point, the angle between the direction of radiation from the source optionscom the L. G 01 B 11/24, 1999 ). The disadvantages of the known devices is the high accuracy of control and limited functionality. High measurement error due to the fact that at the direction of the surface of the test object optical study, modulated by the transparency along one of the coordinates, there is an image with a linear structure and distortion of the picture caused by deep valleys, high points and, moreover, the through-hole, it is impossible to identify due to discontinuities in the image lines. Since the height of the relief is determined by the magnitude of the distortion of the lines in the image actually lines due to the presence of holes is not possible to recognize holes on the surface. In addition, for certain values of depressions and protuberances on the surface, the distortion of the bands, the value of which exceeds the distance between the bands, it is impossible to identify the height of the relief and the other two coordinates. Limited functionality due to the need to strictly target the controlled object at a certain distance from the radiation source.

The closest known for its tekhnicheskogo is a device for contactless control of the linear dimensions of three-dimensional objects by the method of structured illumination, contains a source of optical radiation and successively installed along a radiation transparency, the afocal optical system projecting the image pattern of banding patterns that occur on the surface of the test object, distorted by the surface topography of the controlled object, photographic, transforming the projected image lens digital, digital electronic unit that can adjust the booster photographic digital image values of the coordinates of the measured surface by the formula: where Z is the height of the surface profile of the test object at the point with coordinates X,Y, crossed any strip line structure, the Y - value of the curvature of the strip at this point, - the angle between the direction of radiation from the source optical image and an optical axis of the lens. With the aim of ensuring the independence of the configuration of the illumination source and the object in the known device provided by the afocal optical system consisting of two components, in particular, of the two lenses for projecting the image of the banner on a controlled surface, set for a banner at a distance equal project is inanim its input to an output of photographic, and output to the input of the first electronic digital unit. The banner is made in the form of managed spatial modulator intensity of optical radiation with the ability to form structured illumination in the form of aperiodic band system, the first electronic digital unit provided with an additional output connected with the control input of the modulator intensity of optical radiation and executed with the ability to manage spatial intensity modulation of optical radiation (see, for example, an application for the grant of a patent of the Russian Federation for the invention 2001104813/28(005075) from 21.02.2001, the decision to grant a patent 16.08.2001).

The disadvantage of this device is the low efficiency of information retrieval, due to the need to repeatedly register a controlled object, changing in time the transmission of transparency by controlling the spatial modulation. When solving problems recognize the time of registration of the object image monitoring and detection is often limited. Under other equal conditions, only the parallel processing of images distorted by the relief surface of the structured illumination can increase the rate determining reuleaux the Alov, each of which is structurally follows the well-known technical solution is impossible in principle, because in this case there are no features that discriminates a particular channel from the others.

The essence of the invention is expressed in a set of key characteristics, sufficient to achieve the proposed invention technical result, which is expressed in increasing the speed control of the linear dimensions of three-dimensional objects by simultaneously check in multiple spectral ranges of the necessary information about the surface topography of the test object.

The stated set of essential features is a direct causal relationship with the achieved result.

The novelty of the proposed device is seen in the fact that it is provided with an additional N-1 sources of radiation, each of which has a different spectral band of radiation from the rest, N-1 banners, each of which differs from the others in at least one band member structured illumination, N-1 lenses that are part of the afocal optical systems, installed behind the banners on the go) is eskay system, the second N-1 mirrors, installed behind the receiver lens at an angle of 45 angular degrees to the optical axis of the receiving lens, the N-1 secondary receiving lenses, each of which is set for each of the second N-1 mirrors and forms together with the receiving lens image paintings banding patterns that occur on the surface of the test object, distorted by the surface topography of the controlled object, N-1 fotoricettore, each of which has spectral sensitivity matching with the spectral range of the radiation of one of the N-1 sources of radiation, N-1 computing digital electronic units, the electronic unit of the addition of images made with a number of inputs equal to the number of computing digital electronic units, each of the inputs of the electronic unit of the addition of images connected to the output of each computing digital electronic unit, and the number N is determined by the formula N= Log2(L), where L is the number of pairs of pixels in the line of photographic.

A comparison of the claimed technical solution with the prototype allowed us to establish compliance with a criterion of "novelty", as it is not known from the prior art.

Proposed us what s new elements materials and technologies, because it consists of a component, commercially produced, and meets the criterion of "inventive step", in addition, it is not obvious from the prior art, while the latter does not identify any elements and relationships between elements, characterized by distinctive features of the prototype the essential features, aimed at the achievement of the technical result. Thus, the proposed technical solution meets the conditions of patentability of an invention.

In Fig.1 shows a functional diagram of the device. Multichannel unit 1 sources of structured illumination generates a lot different from other images aperiodic linear structures in N spectral bands on the surface of the registered object. Multi-block 2 registration and image processing is thus to record the image of the structured illumination at an angle to the optical axis of the source 1 of the structured illumination. In unit 2 is calculating and storing the coordinate values of the measured surface.

In Fig.2 shows circuit diagrams for the ion distance from the object. The splitters 2.1-2.N, which together form a many-sided pyramid, located behind the receiving lens 1 at an angle of 45 angular degrees to the optical axis of the lens along the rays. Additional lenses 3.1-3. N are respectively formed in each of the splitters 2.1-2. N channels and projecting the image distorted by the object's surface structured illumination for each of the TV cameras, each of which is installed in the corresponding N channels formed by the splitters 2.1-2.N. The outputs of each of the TV cameras are connected to the inputs of each of the analog-to-digital converters (ADC) that converts the recorded image into a digital code. TV-camera in conjunction with the ADC form fotoricettore with digital output. Signal processors 6.1-6.N is a concrete implementation of electronic digital computing blocks and connected by its inputs to the outputs of the ADC 5.1-5.N, i.e., the outputs of photoregistration. The CPU 7 is connected with its input to the outputs of signal processors 6.1-6. N. RAM storage device 8 stores each of the registered fotoricettore images of the structured illumination for parallel-serial processing in the center of the throne block the addition of images.

In Fig. 3 is a schematic diagram of unit 1 (Fig.1) multi-channel sources of structured illumination. The main lens 5 of the afocal system is located on the projection distance from the object and forms an image of the structured illumination on the object surface. The splitters 4.1-4.N located in front of the main lens 5. Lenses 3.1-3.N are located along the rays before each of the respective splitters 4.1-4.N. Banners 2.1-2. N is set in the object plane of the afocal optical system formed by the lenses 3.1-3.N and the lens 5 and is made in the form of code masks with bar aperiodic structure. Colored sources 1.1-1. N radiation provide illumination of each of the banners 2.1-2.N each in a different spectral range different from the others.

In Fig.4-5 shows the versions of code masks, forming banners 2.1-2.N.

The device operates as follows. Sources 1.1-1. N radiation illuminating the banners (Fig.3) 2.1-2.N in different spectral ranges. Image banners (Fig. 3) 2.1-2.N projected by the optical system formed by lenses 3.1-3.N, splitters 4.1-4.N and the main lens 5 on a channel-by-channel block 2 registration and image processing (Fig.1) in the following way. The image is distorted profile object structured illumination projected by the optical system (Fig.2), consisting of a main lens 1, splitters 2.1-2.N, lenses 3.1-3.N on TV-camera 4.1-4. N, included in photoregistration. Due to the fact that the spectral sensitivity of each of the N photoregistration and spectral ranges of each of the N radiation sources, structured illumination is completely identical, the same image distortion structured illumination are recorded in different channels, with a specific channel of illumination corresponds to one and only one channel recording unit and image processing.

Thus, the same image distortion structured illumination formed by the inhomogeneities of the surface profile of the object from different modifications of code masks banners 2.1-2.N (Fig.3) in different spectral ranges1,2,...,Ndefinitely register for each channel of the recording unit and image processing.

Therefore, when a single exposure of the recorded object register N images distorted by the object's surface structured illumination in different speedswitch. Each photographic generates a digital image of one and only one implementation of aperiodic band system, as configured on the wavelength range, different from the rest.

Each of the signal processors 6.1-6.N receives and processes one and only one implementation of the aperiodic system of bands, and converts it into the appropriate sequence of ones and zeros, the coding sequence of bands in structured illumination, formed in accordance with the transmission function of the banners 2.1-2.N ("1" line is, "0" line no").

In the memory device 8, which together with the Central processor 7 forms the electronic unit of the addition of images (Fig.2) is formed by the combined picture line patterns that occur on the surface of the test object, distorted by the surface topography of the test object (see Fig. 4). at the same time in the CPU 7 is formed code, obtained by summing the code sequences corresponding to codes of each transmission functions banners 2.1-2.N. Thus, for example, the sum of the two units (i.e. images of the two lines corresponds to a code "11"), and the sum image of the first surface by summing the results, received in blocks 6.1-6.N. Thus, each line (stripe) in digital (binary) image banding patterns that occur after adding the above image processor, is encoded as a binary code.

Since the distance between the strips forming the structural highlighting, registered picture is not repeated during image processing in a digital electronic unit each band, distorted by the surface topography of the controlled object is uniquely identified by its code (number) that, in turn, makes it possible to unambiguously calculate the height of the relief and a corresponding pair of coordinates. Due to the fact that image processing in each of the N channels occurs at the same time, N times increases the speed control. At the same time, each of the N channels is not identical to the others, because different spectral range of the emitter and, respectively, the spectral sensitivity of photographic.

This offer can be used in technological processes of formation of complex objects (turbine blades, etc). In addition, it can be used in various applications of computer three-dimensional the mo on the current level of technology and requires the development of new technologies. The cameras included in the proposed technical solutions are implemented on the charge-coupled devices (CCD), ADC, signal processors, processor (part of the micro-computer), random access memory is a constant component of modern digital microelectronics.

Literature

1. Technical vision robots. /Under. Ed. by A. Pugh, Per. s angl. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1987. S. 56-57.

2. M. Franson. Optics of speckles. - M.: Mir, 1980, S. 141-143.0

Device for contactless control and recognition of the surfaces of three-dimensional objects by the method of structured illumination, containing the source of optical radiation and successively installed along the radiation banner made with the possibility of the formation of aperiodic linear patterns of stripes, the afocal optical system for projecting an image of a banner on a controlled surface, the receiving lens forming the image pattern of banding patterns that occur on the surface of the test object, distorted by the surface topography of the controlled object, the photographic transforming formed adoptive lens image in the digital computing digital electronic is controlled surface according to the formula

< / BR>
where Z is the height of the surface profile of the test object at the point with coordinates X, Y, crossed any strip bar patterns;

Y - value of the curvature of the band at this point;

- the angle between the direction of radiation from the source optical image and an optical axis of the lens,

the electronic unit adding digital images, characterized in that it is provided with an additional N-1 sources of radiation, each of which has a different spectral band of radiation from the rest, N-1 banners, each of which differs from the others by at least one strip, N-1 lenses prescribed for streamers, N-1 mirrors set at an angle of 45 angle. grad. to the optical axis of each of N-1 of the lens before the second component of the afocal optical system, the second N-1 mirrors, installed behind the receiver lens at an angle of 45 angle. grad. to the optical axis of the receiving lens, the N-1 secondary receiving lenses, each of which is set for each of the second N-1 mirrors and forms together with the receiving lens image paintings banding patterns that occur on the surface of the test object, distorted surface topography is ti, coinciding with the spectral range of the radiation of one of the N-1 sources of radiation, N-1 computing digital electronic components, electronic component, the addition of images made with a number of inputs equal to the number of computing digital electronic units, each of the inputs of the electronic unit of the addition of images connected to the output of each computing digital electronic unit, and the number N is determined by the formula N=Log2(L), where L is the number of pairs of elements of spatial resolution photographic.

 

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