Sorbent for the purification of water and ground surfaces from oil and oil products and the method of its production

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of environmental protection and concerns sorption methods of cleaning water and ground surfaces from oil products and heavy metals. The sorbent contains steamed and ultraviolet radiation crushed lignite, surfactant OP-7 and/or OP-4 and are presented in the following ratio, wt.%: brown coal 70-85, the surfactant is 0.1-0.2, Aerosil 3,0-20. The method includes primary crushing of brown coal to a dispersion of not less than 1 mm, treatment with superheated steam at a temperature of 105-110oWithout access of air and simultaneous UV irradiation for 30 min, carbonization at a temperature of 280-340oWith up to full emission of volatile components, re-grinding of brown coal to a particle size of 0.5-100 μm with simultaneous addition of aerosol and surface-active substances. The invention solves the problem of eco-friendly sorbent with high capacity and low bulk density 2 s and 6 C.p. f-crystals, 3 tables.

The invention relates to the field of environmental protection and concerns sorbents and methods of cleaning water and ground surfaces from oil and nave, containing coal and silica or coal and surfactants [1, 2].

The closest sorbent for the purification of water and ground surfaces from oil, oil is the sorbent containing carbon and silicon dioxide [1].

The closest way to get sorbent for the purification of water and ground surfaces from oil and oil products is a method of obtaining carbon sorbent, including grinding, carbonization treatment with water vapor and drying coal and adding silicon dioxide [1].

However, the creation of environmentally friendly sorbents for the purification of water and ground surfaces from oil and petroleum products having a high absorption capacity with a low bulk density, is an important task.

The problem solved by this invention is an expanding Arsenal of carbon sorbents for the purification of water and ground surfaces from oil and oil products with higher sorption capacity, environmentally friendly and with a lower bulk density.

The problem is solved by obtaining new and environmentally friendly with high adsorption capacity and low bulk density of the sorbent, containing isolative substances (surfactants) OP-7 and/or OP-4 in the following ratio of components, wt.%:

Steamed and ultraviolet radiation lignite - 70-85

Aerosil - 3-20

SURFACTANT - 0,1-0,2

obtained by a process comprising grinding of brown coal to a particle size less than 1 mm before treatment with superheated steam at a temperature of 105-110oWith simultaneous UV irradiation for 30 minutes, followed by carbonization at a temperature of 280-340oWith up to full emission of volatile components, re-grinding of brown coal to a particle size of 0.5-100 μm with the simultaneous introduction of aerosol and surface-active substances OP-7 and/or OP-4 in the following ratio, wt. %:

Brown coal - 70-85

SURFACTANT - 0,1-0,2

Aerosil - 3-20

In the analyzed scientific-technical and patent literature not found in the population of the distinctive hallmarks of a staged task authors. This solution passed the experimental studies, therefore, this solution meets the criteria of the invention of "novelty", "inventive step" and "capable of industrial application".

The method is as follows.

In a known manner pulverized brown coal UP>oWith simultaneous irradiation with ultraviolet light for 30 minutes, and then produce the Stripping of volatile components and carbonization at a temperature of 280-340oWith up to full emission of volatile components and produce secondary crushing processed brown coal to a dispersion of 0.5-100 μm and at the same time introducing Aerosil and surfactant OP-7 and/or OP-4 in the following ratio, wt.%:

Brown coal - 70-85

Aerosil - 3-20

SURFACTANT - 0,1-0,2

Obtained as described above carbon sorbent contains crushed, treated with the superheated water vapor and ultraviolet irradiation brown coal, Aerosil and optionally surfactants OP-7 and/or OP-4 in the following ratio, wt.%:

Brown coal - 70-85

SURFACTANT - 0,1-0,2

Aerosil - 3-20

Rationale modes method: preliminary grinding to a particle size less than 1 micron enough for 30 minutes of processing of brown coal superheated steam occurred diffusion saturation of the water particles and the extraction of soluble salts. Simultaneous processing of brown coal UV irradiation leads to the formation of Altanbulag and hydrogen peroxide, which in turn about is ucih substances is performed at a temperature of 280-340oC. the lower limit is the boiling temperature of light fractions from brown coal, and the upper boundary of the selected empirically on the basis of differences in the chemical composition of various brown coals and corresponds to the end of the extraction process and the formation of particles with minimal porosity.

Secondary grinding of complex sorbent to the dispersion of 0.5-100 μm, while the introduction of surfactants and Aerosil on the lower limit determined by the maximum sorption capacity for heavy oil fractions. At the upper limit of 100 μm, the maximum sorption capacity for light fractions of oil and gasoline.

When the boundary concentrations of surfactant 0.1% Aerosil 20% of the maximum sorption capacity for light fractions, and with the boundary concentrations of surfactant 0.2% and Aerosil 3% of the maximum are sorbed heavy fractions of crude oil and petroleum products.

Specific examples of the complete method.

Example 1.

In a known manner pulverized 80 kg of brown coal to a particle size less than 1000 microns. The crushed lignite is exposed to superheated steam at a temperature of 105oC for 30 minutes. At the same time entering the steam passes first through a quartz tube and povezavo pipe. Then processed in the above manner brown coal is subjected to the distillation of volatile substances and carbonization at a temperature of 300oWith before the end of the emission of volatile components. After dry distillation of brown coal again crushed to a particle size less than 30 microns and simultaneously injected surfactant OP-7 in the amount of 0.15 kg and Aerosil-380 in the number 10,85 kg

Example 2.

In a known manner pulverized to 85 kg of brown coal to the dispersion. The crushed lignite is exposed to superheated steam at a temperature of 110oC for 30 minutes. At the same time entering the steam passes first through a quartz tube and exposed to ultraviolet radiation from a quartz mercury lamps along the perimeter of the quartz tube. Then the processed coal is subjected to dry distillation and carbonization at a temperature of 340oWith up to full emission of volatile components. After dry distillation of brown coal again crushed to a particle size less than 0.7 μm and simultaneously injected surfactant OP-4 in an amount of 0.1 kg and Aerosil in the amount of 14.9 kg

The sorbent powder dark brown or black. Characterized mesoporous structure, Nisbet formed in the water disperse system, after 10 hours of exposure the bottom of the dispersed phase is about 20% of the total weight of the sorbent. The sorbent has good oil capacity, 1.5 to 3.0 times by weight.

The main characteristics are given in table 1.

The sorbent and its water extract was analysed in accredited laboratories, Tomsk, and Novosibirsk.

The test sorbent for the sorption ability to collect dirt, oil and oil products

To test the sorption capacity of sorbent used the following petroleum products:

petrol AND 80;

- summer diesel fuel;

- a mixture of mineral oils;

- oil.

Sorption capacity was determined by the absorption of a certain mass of oil and oil products by mass of sorbent from the solid surface soil and Bonami from the water surface.

The test sorbent for the sorption capacity was performed at least 5 times for each type of oil and petroleum products at temperatures of -15, +4, +20oC. the Results are given in table 2.

The absorption of oil and petroleum products occurs throughout the volume of the sorbent. At the end of the sorbent absorption oil is a viscous substance shiny black color. In n the ASS="ptx2">

The use of sorbent for oil collection and oil from hard surfaces and soil.

Sorption capacity of the sorbent for the collection of oil and oil products from the solid surface and soil were carried out at ambient temperature -15, +4, +20oWith and under different exposure time spent sorbent with oil and oil products.

Good sorption capacity demonstrated sorbent to collect oil spills from the solid surface and ground for oil 2,5-3,0, diesel fuel and oils of 2.0-2.5, gasoline 1.5 to 2.0 times by weight. Ambient temperature has virtually no effect on the sorption capacity. The spent sorbent with oil after 5 minutes of sorption has the form of a viscous substance shiny black color. When storing 30 hours or more turns in a solid black color, with a light pressure crumbles. The sorbent is applicable for industrial and emergency spills of oil and oil products in their production, processing, transportation and consumption.

The use of sorbent for oil collection and oil from the water surface.

Sorption capacity of the sorbent to collect oil spills from water surfaces were determined:
- grading spots of oil to the waterfront.

The sorbent provides good removal of the filling oil from the water surface oil and oil products powder sorbent and Bonami, but for use in an industrial scale is difficult due to the loss of the sorbent with oil and booms at the bottom of the reservoir, thereby contaminating his waste.

The collection of oil from the water surface is possible when grading Bonami spots of oil to the shore. On the shore of the oil is collected in tanks and used on purpose or he is neutralized by the application of the powder sorbent on the surface of the oil to education pasty waste.

Opportunities for the recycling and reuse of spent sorbent as an artificial solid fuel

Was investigated the spent sorbent with oil collected from the surface soil, aged 1 day and 7 days.

Comparative data from the original brown coal and spent sorbent are given in table 3.

From table 3 it follows that the ash content of the spent sorbent decreased 1.7-4.3 times lower calorific value increased 1.8-2.1 times. Thus, when using sorbent for spill of oil and oil products exhaust arbitratry waste sorbent with oil is not soluble in water. For long term storage of waste in the water on the surface is not formed iridescent film of oil. Apparently adsorbed substances catalytically oxidized restrukturizuota to elementary organic compounds. Humic acid contained in brown coal and sorbent, catalytically accelerate the process of oxidation and degradation of oils, fuels and lubricants.

Thus, the technology of spill of oil and oil products is a waste due to the use of waste as a solid fuel.

The sorbent is designed for collection of oil and oil products from the solid surface, ground and surface water and is applicable for industrial accidents and spills in the areas of production, processing, transportation and consumption.

The results of laboratory studies of the sorbent and its aqueous extract found that the sorbent is an environmentally safe material and has a number of properties that allow you to effectively apply for collection of oil and oil products.

These properties include:

the low bulk density of the sorbent for the long stay on the surface of the water bills;

- high sorption capacity Via the possibility of using waste sorbent as a solid fuel;

- the spent sorbent with oil and oil products has a high calorific value, lower heating value of the product 2 times higher than that of brown coal;

- the spent sorbent with oil is not soluble in water, does not form an iridescent film of oil on the water surface. The waste can be stored long-term at the place of gathering of the oil spill, not polluting the environment.

The main raw material for the manufacture of the sorbent is a natural material - brown coal with the addition of small amounts of substances of the 4th class of toxicity.

Cleaning the environment from spills of oil and petroleum products involves the development of an effective sorbent.

Developed natural sorbent on the basis of brown coal is characterized by a mesoporous structure, low bulk density, which ensures its long stay on the surface of the water, good oil capacity.

The sorbent is applicable for collection of oil and oil products in the areas of production, processing, transportation, production and outflows from the solid surface, ground and water surface.

The sorbent may be used in tank farms, oil wells, vessels when transporting Neah.

Sources of information

1. DE 2411829 C2 (WILZ-PAULS), 09.12.1981.

2. EP 0129259 A1 (LABORATORIUM FUR ADSORPT), 27.12.1984.

1. Sorbent for the purification of water and ground surfaces from oil and oil products containing carbon and silicon dioxide, characterized in that it contains crushed lignite, steamed and ultraviolet radiation, aerosol, and optionally surface-active substances in the following ratio, wt.%:

Steamed and ultraviolet radiation lignite - 70-85

Aerosil - 3-20

SURFACTANT - 0,1-0,2

2. The sorbent under item 1, characterized in that it as a surfactant contains OP-7 and/or OP-4.

3. A method of producing a sorbent comprising grinding, carbonization treatment with water vapor and drying coal and adding silicon dioxide, characterized in that the quality of coal used coal, treatment is carried out by superheated steam with simultaneous UV irradiation, followed by carbonization at 280-340oWith up to full emission of volatile components and re-grinding with simultaneous addition of aerosol and surface-active substances.

4. The method according to p. 3, otlichayusta.

5. The method according to p. 3, wherein the coal is treated with superheated steam and ultraviolet irradiation for 30 minutes

6. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that brown coal is first crushed to a particle size less than 1 mm, and secondarily to the dispersion of 0.5-100 μm.

7. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the surface-active substances used OP-7 and/or OP-4.

8. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that brown coal, surfactants and Aerosil taken in the following ratio of components, wt.%:

Brown coal - 70-85

SURFACTANT - 0,1-0,2

Aerosil - 3-20$

 

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