Method of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel (snf) and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to nuclear engineering and technology, mainly for processing spent nuclear fuel (SNF), as well as for fluoridation and chlorination. Method of reprocessing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) includes the reprocessing of spent fuel by chemical means. As initial reagents used chemically active gases. Recycled spent fuel in the form of, for example, spent fuel assemblies (FA) shift in the technological reactor towards each other along a common longitudinal axis to education between the end surfaces FA technological gap. In the specified gap creates a spark processes, initiating technical reaction. For additional initiate such reactions and simultaneous administration in the same technological reactor for the processing of any other radioactive materials and waste, including the formless, use a laser. Device for processing spent nuclear fuel contains outer protective casing and technology section, as well as the system supply source of chemicals and output the formed substances. Sealed enclosure transami counter supply recycled fuel assemblies. Each technology branch section includes: electrical power supply, cooling, docking welding FA and a gateway system with transport mechanisms. A reactor vessel equipped with nodes of the input laser radiation with ensuring their scan. In the lower part under the main production area building technological reactor equipped with a host of input containers. These containers are filled with any of processed radioactive materials and waste coming through the assembled additional gateway system of vertical type. The invention allows to create a more environmentally friendly processing technology FA, to improve the processing efficiency of the fuel assemblies and nuclear safety processes processing of spent nuclear fuel and other radioactive materials and waste. 2 C. and 8 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates to the field of nuclear engineering and technology, mainly for processing spent nuclear fuel (SNF), as well as for fluorination or chlorination any other radioactive and/or non-radioactive materials.

From the patent literature, there is a method of fluorination of nuclear materials and device for its implementation, including the processing of nuclear materials, the processing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) includes processing chemicals, characterized in that as starting reagents used chemically active gases, and the processed spent fuel in the form of, for example, spent fuel assemblies (FA) shift in the technological reactor towards each other along a common longitudinal axis to education between the end surfaces FA technological gap, which creates a spark processes, initiating chemical reactions, as well as for additional initiate such reactions and simultaneous, in the same technological reactor for the processing of any other radioactive materials and waste, including the formless, use a laser.

As the source gas of the reagents used fluorine, chlorine or other halides in a mixture thereof and/or a chemical compound, such as BrF3and ClF3, as well as hydrogen, carbon monoxide and other gaseous oxidants.

In the main production zone use spark discharges and/or smoldering electrical charge with a voltage of 100 volts or more depending on the size of the technological gap between the recycled fuel assemblies and the pressure inside the industrial reactor.

Scanning'lar> In the area of the scanning laser beams carry out the rotation of the containers with the material being processed.

Recycled fuel assemblies move towards each other continuously or alternately, with the compliance of their geometry end surfaces of the main production zone with possible while rotating the recycled fuel assemblies.

The original recycled fuel assemblies pre-weld similar ends with the formation of a single steel billet, and then carry out additional docking welding such paired FA already before they enter into the process reactor, ensuring the continuity of the main technological process as a whole.

Device for processing spent nuclear fuel contains outer protective casing and technology section, as well as the system supply source of chemicals and output the formed substances, characterized in that the housing of technological reactor is airtight and provided with two oppositely and coaxially spaced technological branches managed counter supply recycled fuel assemblies, with each technological branch section includes: electrical power supply, cooling, docking welding FA and the and laser radiation with providing them scan and at the bottom under the main production area building technological reactor equipped with a host of input containers, fill any processed radioactive materials and waste coming through the assembled additional gateway system vertical type.

Section connecting the welding recycled fuel assemblies are supplied nodes and technical support processes, for example, electrostically and/or ultrasound, or metallothermic welding.

Building technological reactor equipped with a tangential inlet of the main technological and/or auxiliary neutral gases in the vortex chamber.

Technical result achieved:

- improving the efficiency of processing the fuel assemblies through the use of chemically active gas reagents;

to create a more environmentally friendly processing technology FA;

- enhancing nuclear security processing of spent fuel and other radioactive materials and waste.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where

in Fig.1 shows a General view of the device along section A-A;

in Fig.2 is a cross section along B-B in Fig.3;

in Fig.3 is a section along b-b In Fig.1;

in Fig.4 - széchenyi the cluster of fuel (SNF) contains the following design elements: case 1 the process reactor; left branch 2 recycled fuel Assembly (FA); the Central node 3 input laser radiation; the main technological area 4; the right branch 5 recycled fuel assemblies; the protective coating 6 (e.g., PTFE) inner surface of the process reactor; insulating layer 7; current lead 8 to the recycled fuel Assembly; fitting 9 inlet and outlet of the cooler; case 10 cooling sections; the nodes 11 technical support butt welding FA; area 12 butt welding FA; rollers 13 infeed FA; actuator 14 infeed FA; case 15 of the reception chamber for recycled fuel Assembly; the end part 16 of FA; the plunger 17 FA; the stem 18 of the pusher FA; a hydraulic actuator 19 telescopic type; a body 20 of the end section with the hydraulic actuator; a plunger 21 of the container (extended position); container 22 with the material being processed (PM); 23 of the plunger 21 in the initial position; the actuator 24 of the pusher container; fitting 25 of the feed and output the process gas; side node 26 of the laser radiation; conditionally show the direction 27 of the scanning laser beam; a movable seal 28, for example of the type of bellows; protective channel 29 of the output laser beam; fitting 30 tangential feed technology and/or the; container 32 PM in the working position (in the processing zone); container 33 PM in preparatory position; the plunger 34 of the supply container with the material being processed in working position (in the processing zone); the actuator 35 of the pusher 34; actuator 36; conditionally shows the feed mechanism 37 containers with PM in the lock chamber; the plunger 38 of the container with the PW within the gateway system (in upper position); conditionally shows the end face 39 of the recycled fuel Assembly; a rotary shutter 40; conditionally showing the boundary of the 41 zone scanning laser beams; seal 42 sealing glass of the locking system; conventionally shown vertical movement 43 of the container with PM; sealing glass 44 of the locking system; conventionally shown rotational movement 45 of the container with PM; starting position 46 of the container with the PM before locking; position 47 of the plunger of the container with PM in the intermediate shluzova position; the plunger 48 of the sealing glass in the upper position; the actuator plunger 49 of the container with the PW system sluicing; drive pusher 48 in the extreme upper position 50; the plunger of the container with the PW in the initial position 51; sealing glass 44 in the lower position 52; the plunger 48 in the lower position 53; actuator 54 of the pusher 48; Khawaja part 57 FA at the entrance to the gateway system; receiving chamber 58 lock system of the left branch processing FA; the plunger 59 FA in the working position; the end part 60 fuel assemblies in the initial position prior to submitting for processing; the plunger 59 of the fuel assemblies in the initial position 61; receiving chamber 62 of the lock system of the right branch processing FA; the annular portion 63 of FA in the receiving chamber of the locking system; input rotary shutter 64 right branch processing FA; the location of the end portion 65 of FA in the cell sluicing; output rotary shutter 66 right branch processing FA; lateral pusher 67 infeed FA at the entrance to the right branch processing; the stem 68 of the pusher 67; ring portion 69 of the fuel Assembly in the release position of the locking system; the drive of the pusher 67.

The implementation of the method and operation of the device.

Recycled fuel assemblies are served in technological reactor 1 with two opposite sides of the counter along the common axis from the left 2 and right 5 branches technological digestion process to form between the ends of the fuel assemblies of the gap in the main production zone 4. The source gas reagents, such as fluorine and/or other active gaseous oxidants, served in zone 4 through fitting 25 and 30. In further processed to FA through the current lead 8 to the topic it is in zone 4 of the necessary chemical processes, in particular fluorination all substances included in the composition of recycled fuel assemblies. At the same time to ensure uniformity of chemical processes on the ends of the recycled fuel assemblies, in addition to using electric spark discharge is entered, the influence of the laser beams 27, thereby providing them the scan of the chemical cutting" any possible projections on the end surfaces of the fuel assemblies in region 4. Simultaneously scanning the laser beams are appropriate intensification of chemical processing of materials supplied from the lower part of the technological reactor in special containers 32, 46, about which more will be reported below.

To accomplish the aforementioned processing FA their pre sostakovic pairs, for example, by welding the same end parts with the formation of the source, the processed workpiece is now with the same type of integral parts. This coupled harvesting their two original FA later for multiplicity will be referred to simply as recycled fuel assemblies.

Recycled fuel assemblies at the exit of the locking system (the description of which is given below) enters the housing inlet chamber 15 in the floor of the actuator 14 further supply of fuel to the end section of the weld 12, equipped with nodes 11 technical support butt welding with the previous FA to ensure continuity of processing technology in General. Then FA is moved into the housing 10 of the cooling sections with fittings 9 inlet and outlet of the cooler and then into the zone 4 implementation the main production process. A similar sequence of technological operations and in the opposite left branches of the processing assemblies. At the same time to ensure continuity of the main technological process in zone 4 (for the period of implementation of additional welding FA in the right branch and the corresponding stopping her movements FA) perform only one-way movement of fuel assemblies in the left branch and Vice versa.

The process of locking fuel chamber 15 is as follows. Conventionally shown by the feeder 56 FA (57) served in the receiving chamber 58 of lock system to capture the rollers 13 of the unit to supply fuel Assembly with the actuator 14 so that the end part FA is set to 63 in front of the entrance gateway shutter 64. Next, the process of sluicing FA is carried out by known methods with the final submission of FA in the 69 position. Then the lateral pusher 67, provided with a drive 70, recyclable FA podares reactor 1 is mounted gateway system vertical type for submission to the appropriate recycling container 46 with a variety of materials, including shapeless.

The process of sluicing container 46 is as follows. In the initial position represented by the feed mechanism 37, the container is moved to a position above the pusher 51. Next, the actuator 54 of the container together with a sealing glass 44 is moved to its upper position before docking with the seal 42. Then opens a rotary shutter 40 and the actuator 49 of the container is introduced into the upper position in the system of sluicing. From this position 22, the container is moved by the pusher 21 in the horizontal direction prior to its installation on the plunger 34. Then drive 35 original container 46 with the processed material is fed directly into the area of technological processing. After chemical processing and the container and its contents up to a certain minimum amount he fixed node 31 in a fixed position, and the push rod 34 is lowered to receive the next container from the system sluicing, and then the cycle repeats.

For uniform processing of materials in the specified container 32 rotate (45) using the actuators 35 and 36 and thereby provide the appropriate uniform laser radiation impact on the entire face sweat), including its processing by chemical means, characterized in that as starting reagents used chemically active gases, and the processed spent fuel in the form of, for example, spent fuel assemblies (FA), a shift in the technological reactor towards each other along a common longitudinal axis to education between the end surfaces FA technological gap, which creates a spark processes, initiating chemical reactions, as well as for additional initiate such reactions and simultaneous administration in the same technological reactor for the processing of any other radioactive materials and waste, including the formless, use a laser.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as the source gas of the reagents used fluorine, chlorine or other halides in a mixture thereof and/or a chemical compound, for example, BrF3and lF3, as well as hydrogen, carbon monoxide and other gaseous oxidants.

3. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the main production zone use spark discharges and/or glow discharge with a voltage of 100 V or more, depending on the size of technology>/P>4. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that carry out the scanning of the laser beams within the outer dimensions of the containers with the material being processed.

5. The method according to PP.1, 2 and 4, characterized in that in the area of the scanning laser beams carry out the rotation of the containers with the material being processed.

6. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the recycled fuel assemblies move towards each other continuously or alternately, with the compliance of their geometry end surfaces in the main production area possible while rotating the recycled fuel assemblies.

7. The method according to PP.1, 2 and 6, characterized in that the source of recycled fuel assemblies pre-weld similar ends with the formation of a single steel billet, and then carry out additional docking welding such paired FA already before they enter into the process reactor, ensuring the continuity of the main technological process as a whole.

8. Device for processing spent nuclear fuel containing outer protective casing and technology section, as well as the system supply source of chemicals and output the formed substances, characterized themeanime technological branches managed counter supply recycled fuel assemblies, with each technological branch section includes: electrical power supply, cooling, docking welding FA and a gateway system with transport mechanisms, in this case technological reactor equipped with nodes of the input laser radiation with ensuring their scan, and at the bottom under the main production area building technological reactor equipped with a host of input containers, fill any processed radioactive materials and waste coming through the assembled additional gateway system vertical type.

9. The device under item 8, characterized in that the connecting section welding recycled fuel assemblies are supplied nodes and technical support processes, for example, electrostically and/or ultrasonic or metallothermic welding.

10. The device under item 8, characterized in that the housing of technological reactor equipped with a tangential inlet of the main technological and/or auxiliary neutral gases in the vortex chamber.

 

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SUBSTANCE: the mode of processing irradiated nuclear fuel is in thermal oxidation of uranium dioxide on air and regeneration of received uranium protoxide in surroundings of hydrogen contents. At that oxidation-regeneration stages are conducted repeatedly. The oxidation is carried on at temperature 700-800°C and regeneration- at temperature 600-700°C. After that annealing of uranium dioxide is conducted at temperature 1000-1300°C with simultaneous vacuum distillation of volatile products of fission particular of caesium.

EFFECT: the advantages of the invention is in effective withdrawal of products of fission and in the reduction of the activity of fuel.

4 cl,1 dwg, 1 ex

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