Paper, taped 2-oxetanone, a sizing agent obtained from normal and branched fatty acids
(57) Abstract:The method relates to the production of printing paper containing precipitated calcium carbonate as a filler, in neutral or alkaline conditions. In the cellulose pulp, add glue on the basis of 2-oxetanone to control the hydrophobicity of the sheet. It is prepared from more than one fatty acid with unbranched and branched chain to the main chain consisting of 6-22 carbon atoms, linked to each other saturated bonds. Moreover, the received paper using this method. The technical result is better quality paper to ensure high quality printing for black and color inks. 5 C.p. f-crystals, 8 PL. The invention relates to a method of manufacturing paper contains additives, which uses alkaline water adhesives for paper. These adhesives contain reactive functional group capable of forming covalent bonds with cellulose fiber, and such hydrophobic end groups, which are oriented outward from the specified fiber.The production of varieties of high-quality paper, which is produced in the alkaline is echeveste ageing and the best brilliance. It is also possible to fully implement the circulation of water in the paper machine.For common currently printing on high-quality paper grades is of particular importance sizing, examples of such methods are unaccented printing (NIP), and especially ink jet printing. Normal office paper grades, for which it is assumed the versatility and suitability for use in different types of photocopiers and printers, including inkjet printers, are not able to meet the requirements of the so-called "multipurpose" grades of office paper. It is expected that this paper will be to show a good ability to print to the printers in two different types - inkjet and laser printers as well as copiers (see Malmstrom, O., Maier, K. H., Leimungsstrateien fur PCC-haltige Buropapiere, Wochenblatt fuer Papierfabrikation, 10/1996).Ink jet printing can be carried out in two main variants: in printers with a constant stream and in impact (dot-on-de mand) printers. Currently, the use of inkjet printers covers a wide range of uses - from monochrome office printers to four-color printers, providing qualities which will be about the format or rolls. Compared with other methods unaccented printing (NIP) inkjet printing has the greatest number of different applications. The specific advantages of inkjet printing are its multicolor and print speed. The cost of this printing method are also relatively low.In inkjet printing, the printing process can easily be controlled by a computer system, are easily accessible to all amenities associated with the data processing system. For example, using the data processing system can be very simply controlled by the color run and adjusting the ratio of colors.According to the experiments, obtained from the results of the work in the field of inkjet printing, the print quality is affected by the composition of the fiber, and therefore, mainly, the ratio of coniferous and deciduous wood. As for the quality of the finished paper, the finished sheet are crucial structure and topography then responsible for the result of the printing process in the present method. In terms of quality paper the printing process is determined by the incompressible grains sheet and other parameters characterizing the ability of the sheet to the adsorption of the ink, the optimal bumaby the ink to dry high speed before than ink may flow along the fiber or inside pores in the leaf structure. Therefore, when inkjet printing is an emphasis on chemical surface interactions of the sheet and ink.In addition to the basic factors related to the structure of the paper, the quality of inkjet printing can be modified by additives used in the manufacture of paper, such as compounds waterproofing agents as it remains internal adhesives and surface adhesives, surface glutinous starch and pigments with a large surface area.In the art compositions for sizing paper was created with the purpose of changing the chemical properties of the surface of the paper and improve the quality of black-and-white monochrome printing by increasing the hydrophobicity of the paper. With increasing hydrophobicity of the paper, it becomes possible to achieve the best results when printing on the sheet in black ink, with improved control over the adsorption of ink, which is in the structure of the sheet under the action of capillary forces in the two directions of the sheet in the longitudinal and transverse. This approach has led to an exceptionally relief image printing, and to eliminate splashing (spreading) of black ink on the sheet.Bo is alkaline conditions, based anhydrides alkenylamine acid (AA) and dimers of alkylation (AAA). Both of these glues contain reactive functional group, capable of forming a covalent bond with the fiber, cellulose and hydrophobic end groups, oriented in the direction from the fiber. The nature and orientation of these hydrophobic end groups forms a water-repellent fiber. Adhesives based on AAA and AA received portions in the form of an emulsion in the pipe-humidifier paper machine and sizing ability is manifested in the dryer section and rotating the reel of the paper machine.Commercial brands of adhesives based on dimer of alkylbetaine containing one beta-lactone cycle, obtained by dimerization of the two anhydrides of saturated fatty acids with normal chain of carbon atoms; the most commonly used adhesives based on dimer alkylbetaine derived from palmitic and/or stearic acid. Anhydrides alchemistry acids or AA-compounds are the reaction products of long chain olefins (C15-C20) with the anhydride of maleic acid.In order to achieve greater hydrophobicity of the paper in the process of its internal p that deteriorate the performance properties of the paper machine and in the production process increases the number of problems associated with different types of pollution.Unfortunately, the approach consisting in the use of a higher degree of hydrophobicity in order to control the properties of the black ink in the printing process, does not give the optimal result for color printing. In fact, this method can improve the ink, which results in improved density. However, in color printing to applicable rules of the ink is higher than for black and white printing, which, along with higher adsorption, usually causes a disturbance in the process associated with slow drying color inks used for printing, which leads to the spreading and mixing imposed by the ink on the sheet for printing (a phenomenon known as color flow).So, there were various attempts to improve the color quality inkjet printing, for example, by varying the amount of ink and the use of fillers with a larger surface area. Surface sizing is also one of the potential impact on the printing characteristics of paper.Although various approaches have been proposed to improve the adsorption capacity of sheet and balanced sposobov the production of high quality varieties of alkaline paper, optimized for multi-color ink jet printing.In the production of neutral or alkaline conditions, the kind of paper containing additives, in particular precipitated calcium carbonate as a filler, a good ink jet printing is achieved by the introduction of the paper glue, based on 2-oxetanone, which is obtained from one or more fatty acids, the primary circuit which includes 6-22 carbon atoms, linked together rich links, and named acid (acid) includes at least one branched carbon chain of about 0.05 to 0.25% by weight of the fibers in the pulp.The use of adhesives on the basis of 2-oxetanone in the manufacture of paper is well known already for a long time (see, for example, U.S. patent 2627477 and J. W. Davis et al.: A new sizing agent for paper-alkylketene dimers, Tappi 1956, vol. 39, 1, but in these literature data was not mentioned using 2-oxetanone derived from saturated fatty acids, of which at least one has a branched carbon chain.Similarly, conventional adhesives based AAA these fundamentally new adhesives can be derived from fatty acids, thus it is essential that at least one fatty acid soda is the source compounds, related to fatty acids may vary in the range from 6 to 22 carbon atoms.According to one aspect of the present invention, it was found that the mixture of fatty acids with normal and branched carbon chains (e.g., 50/50) leads to the sort of paper with optimal characteristics for inkjet printing, and thus suitable as a paper "multi-purpose" use. From the point of view of the paper production process in the present context it should be noted that the amount of glue needed for this new method to achieve the desired end result will be less than the number required in the conventional adhesive compositions that can reduce noise associated with contamination and adhesion of dirt particles, resulting in a paper machine.The invention also relates to the grade of paper, obtained by processing based on 2-oxetanone adhesive composition, which is obtained from the fatty acid, at least one of which has a branched carbon chain. The paper may contain alum and precipitated calcium carbonate (COC).A stable emulsion of new adhesives can be prepared the W is a rule glued thus, 1 ton of paper add at least 200 g of glue, preferably at least 600 g of the adhesive and most preferably at least 1 kg of glue. Thus obtained grade paper may be optimal for inkjet printing, it can also be used in copiers and laser printers (as "multi-purpose" paper).Need inkjet printing black and color ink to a significant extent may be provided by a variety of paper produced according to the present invention, without any of the problems commonly associated with inkjet printing. In particular, in grade paper in accordance with the present invention provided with such a balanced ratio of adsorption and hydrophobic characteristics of the paper, which provides high quality printing for both black and color ink (namely, positive characteristics include minimal transparency, high density print, no spreading, no leakage and minimal unevenness of printed circuits when printing in black ink or colour (when printing on a colored background). Moreover, such a balanced printing result can be achieved through osti by surface treatment or the use of large quantities of surface glutinous starch in comparison with the usual rules supplements. Hence, the paper type of the present invention can respond to the sum of the requirements for the grade used to print office paper, and, in addition, suitable as a "multi-purpose" paper.Moreover, the adhesive compositions of the present invention is able to provide the desired end result in inkjet printing with the dispensing of smaller quantities of glue than the dosage required for conventional adhesives on the basis of AAA, you can avoid the problems associated with paper machine contamination and adhesion of dirt particles, as well as erosion of the adhesives on drums (rollers), then there's trouble when using regular AAA-adhesives.One type of adhesive compositions according to the present invention is an adhesive based on 2-oxetanone obtained from ezoterikovou acid or mixture of fatty acids containing predominantly at least 40% ezoterikovou acid or other fatty acids with branched carbon chain.Example 1
For the evaluation of this method were first of all prepared the test sheets, the basic weight of 80 g/m2standardized test method Swedish peo drum. Cellulose pulp obtained with the use of birch-pine pulp with a ratio of 60/40, internal sizing starch brand Raisamyl 135 (ESP of the company Raisio Chemicals Oy) in the amount of 3% by weight of the fiber, PCC filler in the amount of 22% by weight of the sheet and retaining agents in the amount of 0.16% of the total number of fibers. Adhesives for internal sizing portions were added to the pulp slurry in the amount of 0.06, 0.12 and 0.20 per cent by weight of the fiber.Ready for test sheets were tested immediately after drying using test adsorption of water Cobb60and test Schroeder on the penetration of ink the next day, before the curing process and after drying and curing. Curing was carried out by keeping the test sheets for 10 min at 105oIn the heating chamber.In this example, the adhesive composition comparison was normal AAA-glue (Raisafob 5105). AAA-based adhesive ezoterikovou acid was dispersed in the same way as ordinary AAA-glue, which is used cationic starch.From the data of table 1 it is obvious that the AAA-based adhesive ezoterikovou acid (the ratio of branched to unbranched carbon chain composition in a mixture of palmitic and stearic acids.Example 2
Different types of AAA-adhesives also have passed the evaluation in the experimental paper machine type speed speed 60 m/min (4.1 kg/min) and the performance of high-quality paper with a basis weight of 80 g/m2.Ingredients cellulose pulp in a paper mill experimental type were as follows: birch-pine pulp pulp, mixed in the ratio of 75/25 and crushed to the consistency of grind in the 25oSR (scale shopper-Rigler). Filler was precipitated calcium carbonate (COC) in the amount of 22% of the paper pulp. Was taken starch for internal sizing of the brand Raisamyl 135 (from company Raisio Chemicals) in the amount of 0.5% by weight of fiber and have been used by agents holding, the total number of which amounted to 0.22% of the total weight of the cellulose fibers.Adhesives for internal sizing was desirables in the pulp slurry in amounts of from 0.15 to 0.20% by weight of the fiber. Was taken adhesive for gluing surface marks Raisio Chemicals Raisamyl 408 SP starch for sizing the surface, and it was used in the amount of 8% of the core dry weight.The hydrophobicity of the sheet obtained in experimental paper machine of the type tested is as Pop and aged before the test within 10 minutes In addition, the hydrophobicity of the sheet obtained in experimental paper machine type was determined using samples solidified in the mill, as based on the Cobb60the adsorption test, and based on the HST-test and the leakage of ink. HST-test is based on the penetration of ink into the sheet that is controlled by the reflection spots of ink in a given time; for example, consider the time during which the reflection drops to 80% of its initial value. The compatibility of the samples of paper with inkjet printing was tested using an inkjet printer commercial type (Hewlett-Packard). The characteristics of the spreading and infiltration as a result of the print was evaluated based on the printed test sheets both visually and using equipment for image analysis and by calculating the optical density of the printed colored surfaces.From the results shown in table 2, there is evidence that by using the AAA-based adhesives ezoterikovou acid (ratio of branched and unbranched carbon chains 50/50) is achieved as hydrophobicity comparable to that which is inherent in conventional AAA-adhesives.Example 3
Glue to the inner ring, according to the present invention, in particular the AAA-based adhesive ezoterikovou acid with a ratio of branched carbon chains to unbranched 50/50, best proven, it has been found that in laboratory tests and in tests on pilot plant was then tested in a paper machine that produces high-quality paper on an industrial scale. The comparison samples for this test were obtained using conventional AAA-glue. The composition obtained on an industrial scale paper was the same as that of the regular of high-quality paper containing precipitated calcium carbonate (COC), are suitable, therefore, for use in inkjet printing. The basic weight of the paper, obtained when the test run was 70 g/m2. The number is (rollers) of the machine and is obtained in a test run, were analyzed, starting from the top of the sheet, on the hydrophobicity (Cobb60and HST-tests) and on the parameters (flow, infiltration, and optical density), characterizing the compatibility with inkjet printing.From a comparison of the compatibility with inkjet printing sheet, glued using the AAA-based adhesives ezoterikovou acid with a sheet, glued commonly used AAA-glue (according to the results given in table 4), it is obvious that the AAA-based adhesive ezoterikovou acid gives, obviously, the best printing result, both the black and color ink. Paper which is coated with glue on the basis ezoterikovou acid, gives them no penetration of ink through the sheet, or any bleeding or seepage. Moreover, the density of the printing ink was significantly better than in the samples of paper, taped AAA-adhesive trademarks. In addition, it should be noted that high-quality printing on the test sheet was achieved without any need for the hydrophobization of the surface of the sheet.And finally, on the basis of a complete set of production tests it was proved that the paper produced during the test run is the requirements requirements for "multipurpose paper, such as a satisfactory degree of hydrophobicity for the production of photocopiers and laser printers. During tests of the operating parameters of the papermaking machine remained excellent and there was found no adhesion of dirt or any contamination on the surfaces of the parts of the paper machine.Example 4
In this example, the grade of paper was subjected to a surface treatment in which process the paper, already with a certain degree of hydrophobicity, were subjected to the process of internal paper sizing during its production on the stage of the cellulose pulp. Hydrophobic effect according to Cobb60test was at the level of 30 g/m2. Surface sizing of paper were carried out using Helicor-device, on which the processed paper sheet is located on the rotating cylinder and in which the surface sizing starch together with added surface water-repellent agent is served with the selected pressure in the blade device for coating.Starch for sizing the surface used in this example was an oxidized edge is Ala with 10% concentration was mixed with the adhesive surface additives in different proportions, calculated on the basis of the content of active agent in a dry starch substance. As the surface of the adhesive additives were tested of isostearic stearin acid AAA, a copolymer of styrene and acrylate and surface-adhesive additive on the basis of a copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride (SMA). The ratio ezoterikova/stearic acid (i.e., branched/unbranched chain) in AAA-Klee was 1:1. As the styrene-acrylate was used glue brand Raisafob P400 (Raisio Chemicals Oy). Used MCA was a copolymer of styrene and maleic anhydride, manufactured by Raisio Chemicals and marketed under the name Raisafob D100.The results of the tests are shown in table 5, where the results are given sizing in Cobb60and S-values.The values are given in table 5, show that the AAA-adhesive prepared from fatty acids containing isostearoyl acid, exhibits the best properties already adding in the smallest quantities and leads to higher hydrophobicity according to the values and Cobb60and HST-test.The test results used to estimate the black-and-white printing, are shown in the following table 6. Paper samples were printed with use>The results of table 6 indicate that this black and white print gives even better results printing than in the case of conventional compounds used for surface sizing of paper.Example 5
Surface adhesive additives were also tested on a pilot paper installation on which type of paper without prior surface sizing was taped using basin adhesive media and film adhesive press. Paper composition consisted of high quality paper with a weight of 80 g/m2and contained 20% of precipitated calcium carbonate as filler paper composition (conventional multipurpose office paper). Used adhesive surface was an oxidized cationic surface adhesive (Raisamyl 405 SP, Raisio Chemicals Oy) with 8% of the density of the solution. Surface glutinous starch was mixed with various gidrofobiziruyuschimi surface adhesive additives: standard AAA (palmitic/stearic acid, 60/40%); AAA-based ezoterikovou-stearic acid (branched chain/non-branched chain, 50/50%), a copolymer of styrene with acrylate (Raisafob P400, Raisio Chemicals Oy) and on the basis of SMA (styrene with maleeni on a pilot paper installation where used adhesive film press.The following table 8 contains the results obtained on the paper samples in the process of inkjet printing using print HP printer 560 C. the printing Results are analyzed through waterless method of evaluation.The results are shown in tables 7 and 8 show that the standard AAA-adhesive showed for the assessed samples very good results in hydrophobicity. However, the high hydrophobicity can result in too low drying paints with results in unevenness in color in color printing. These results indicate that the best balance in the flow of glue, black-and-white printing and color printing can be achieved using an AAA-based adhesives ezoterikovou-stearic acids consisting of branched and unbranched carbon chains. 1. Method for the production of printing paper containing additives, in particular precipitated calcium carbonate as a filler, in neutral or alkaline conditions, in which the paper under the cellulose pulp, add glue, based on 2-oxetanone, to control the hydrophobicity of the sheet, characterized in that the possibilities inkjet PNA 2-oxetanone, which are derived from more than one fatty acid with the main chain of 6-22 carbon atoms, linked to each other saturated bonds, and these acids include at least one branched carbon chain.2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the cellulose pulp is added 2-oxetanone adhesive obtained from a mixture of fatty acids with normal and branched chain.3. The method according to p. 2, wherein the cellulose pulp is added 2-oxetanone adhesive obtained from a mixture of fatty acids, in which the ratio of unbranched and branched fatty acids is approximately 50:50.4. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-3, wherein the cellulose pulp is added 2-oxetanone adhesive in an amount of about 0.05 to 0.25% by weight of the fibers in the pulp.5. The method according to any of paragraphs.1-4, characterized in that in addition to the internal sizing of paper glued surface using the adhesive containing hydrophobic adhesive defined in the characterizing portion p. 1.6. Grade paper, obtained using the method according to any of paragraphs.1-5.
FIELD: mining industry and mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with methods of production of a paper, in particular, with its smoothing. The water suspension containing cellulose fibers and optional fillers (i) add the sizing dispersion containing a sizing agent and a polymer including one or several aromatic groups and (ii) a sizing promoter containing a polymer intercalating one or several aromatic groups. Mould and dry the produced suspension. The sizing dispersion and sizing promoter are added to the water suspension separately. The invention ensures improvement of the process of sizing the cellulose fibers having a high conductivity.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improvement of the process of sizing the cellulose fibers having a high conductivity.
41 cl, 6 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: stabilized dispersions.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to emulsification and colloidal stabilization of emulsions and dispersions of hydrophobic phases in aqueous phases using a coacervate. In particular, stable emulsified or dispersed composition of invention, including hydrophobic and aqueous phases, is stabilized by cationic colloidal coacervate stabilizer including anionic and cationic components in a proportion ensuring zeta potential of the composition to be at least 20 mV. Preferred hydrophobic phase is non-colophony reactive or non-reactive sizing substance, although employment of coacervate allows stable emulsions or dispersions of mixtures of colophony and non-colophony sizing substances to be obtained. Furthermore, methods of obtaining and using stable emulsions or dispersions as well as sized paper made using emulsified or dispersed coacervate-stabilized sizing substance are described.
EFFECT: enhanced stabilization of emulsions and dispersions.
139 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 16 ex
FIELD: gluing and sizing compositions.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the essentially anhydrous sizing composition and an aqueous sizing composition used in sizing paper and cardboard. Essentially anhydrous and an aqueous sizing compositions comprise gluing substance, non-ionogenic surface-active substance, an anionic surface-active substance and a monohydric alcohol. Method for preparing an aqueous composition involves homogenization of gluing substance in the presence of surface-active substances and monohydric alcohol. Invention provides preparing sizing compositions that can be homogenized easily, i. e. they represent dispersions or emulsions formed by application of insignificant shearing forces, for example, such as stirring and provides preparing sizing compositions that are stable in storage.
EFFECT: improved preparing method, improved and valuable properties of compositions.
15 cl, 6 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: pulp-and-paper industry, in particular, sizing of paper with the use of aqueous composition.
SUBSTANCE: method involves producing aqueous composition of cellulose filaments and dehydrating paper web; adding aqueous composition to cellulose suspension, said aqueous composition comprising sizing substance aggregates; producing aqueous composition by mixing in any order before adding into aqueous suspension of aqueous solution containing at least one coagulant and aqueous dispersion containing sizing substance. Zeta-potential of composition is below 20 mV.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified method.
26 cl, 5 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: method for inner sizing of cardboard for packing of liquid products, water-repellent adhesive substance for inner sizing, cardboard for packing of liquid products, package for liquid products and use of adhesive substance for inner sizing.
SUBSTANCE: the adhesive substance for inner sizing includes the derivative of oxytanon of formula (1), typically 2-oxytanon of formula (II). Formulae (I), (II) are given in the invention description. In the derivative of oxytanon of formula (I) n has the value from 0 to 6. In formulas (I) and (II) R represents hydrogen or linear hydrocarbon chain, and R`, R``, R``` represent hydrocarbon chains: R` and R`` are mainly obtained from non-branched linear fatty acids, R```-linear or branched alcyl chain or acyclic alcyl chain.
EFFECT: provided improved method for inner sizing of cardboard for packing of liquid products, improved cardboard for packing of liquid products, package for liquid products manufactured from such a cardboard.
21 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: manufacture of a tub-sized paper or board sheet, applicable in wood-pulp and paper industry.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in application at least on one side of the sheet of an aqueous compound of adhesive substance in amounts not exceeding 5 g/cu.m. The content of the solid substance in the applied adhesive compound makes up at least 15%. The aqueous compound is applied on one side of the sheet after its drying in a drying section of the machine for manufacture of paper or board. After that the adhesive compound is embedded in the sheet surface.
EFFECT: reduced power of the drying section of the machine for manufacture of paper or board and provided reduction of investments and reduction of the length of the paper-making line.
FIELD: pulp-and-paper industry, in particular paper or board production.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes providing of slurry containing cellulose fiber and at least sizing agent interacting with cellulose. Sizing agent is selected from group containing ketene dimmers and acid anhydrides. Cationic vinyl polymer obtained by additional polymerization, containing aromatic units and anionic vinyl polymer obtained by additional polymerization and having molecular mass from 6000-100000 are introduced into slurry. Then obtained slurry is dehydrated and paper leaf is formed.
EFFECT: increased effectiveness of sizing, dehydration and retention.
11 cl, 3 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: food industry; packing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to packing material containing base paper or cardboard layer for packing container formed by bending and welding the sheet, or flat blank of packing material. Laminated packing material has base paper or cardboard layer and outer coatings from both sides of base layer made of thermoweldable polymer impermeable to liquids. Said paper or cardboard base layer is made water-repelling by sizing the mass by water dispersoid solution or emulsion of alkylketene dimer or mixture of alkylketene dimers so that content of alkylketene dimer (dimers)in base layer is from 0.25 to 0.4 by dry weight, weight %. Invention contains description of method of manufacture of laminated material and packing container to be sterilized.
EFFECT: provision of laminated packing material protected from penetration of hot steam or liquid designed for packing food products and capable of withstanding heat treatment in autoclave at high humidity and temperature without separation of packing material into layers.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: paper-and-pulp industry.
SUBSTANCE: cellulose product contains clay having stacking of atomic planes 2R2. Product represents paper of fibrous pulp, while clay has cationic nature. Preparation of product comprises: providing aqueous suspension containing cellulose fibers and optionally filler; adding clay having stacking of atomic planes 2R2.to suspension; and dehydrating thus prepared suspension. Another method of preparing cellulose product comprises: providing aqueous suspension containing cellulose fibers and optionally filler; adding cationic clay to suspension; adding one or several draining auxiliary substances enhancing retention of filler and containing at least one cationic polymer; and dehydrating thus prepared suspension.
EFFECT: reduced interfering and harmful substance in cellulose suspension and enhanced retention of filler, dehydrating agents, and sizing agents.
27 cl, 14 tbl, 13 ex
FIELD: polymer materials in paper-and-pulp industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacturing cellulose-polymer composites that can be, in particular, used in production paper or cardboard. Method according to invention providing a composition and manufacturing sheet therefrom followed by drying. In the method of invention, aqueous nanodispersion of polyorganosiloxanes is utilized, which can be introduced into composition or can be deposited onto sheet before drying on size press or after drying of sheet to moisture content not less than 12°.
EFFECT: improved waterproofness, increased inflammation temperature, and improved physicochemical characteristics of material.