The method of producing pate poultry diet

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to meat and poultry processing industry, namely the preparation of pate poultry diet food of high biological value. The method includes the preliminary heat treatment and grinding of chicken offal - liver chicken blanshirovannuyu, heart boiled chicken, chicken gizzards cooked. Then the preparation of the stuffing them with making pastyou a lot of chicken broth, chicken fat ghee and spices according to the recipe. Then hold the mixing of meat, filling shells, boiling and cooling. Additionally, make the stuffing meat mechanically separated chicken, boiled carrots, onions and food hydrolysate obtained from the heads and feet of birds subjected to heat treatment at 110-120oAnd 105PA within 2-3 hours, crushed to the size of the pieces of 2-3 mm and subjected to treatment with a solution of a proteolytic enzyme preparation steps by collagenase concentration 0,048-0.05 g/g of protein at 37-40oWith a pH of 6.8 to 7.0, the water ratio of 1:1 within 120-130 min at certain ratios. The way to obtain a paste can reduce raw material costs, obog is to balance the ratio of fat: protein and calcium: phosphorus, to enrich the product in minerals and vitamins. In addition, the invention provides increasing dietary properties of the functional and organoleptic properties of the paste, and also allows efficient use of raw materials, to expand the range and improve the sustainability of production through the rational use of secondary products. 5 Il., 6 table.

The invention relates to meat and poultry processing industry, namely the preparation of pate poultry diet food of high biological value.

A method of obtaining meat product consisting of poultry, mechanically deboned, pork Giovanni fat, beef Giovanni first grade, liver, chicken, egg melange and sodium Caseinate [Łobzów K. I. and other Processing of poultry meat and eggs. - M.: Agropromizdat, - 1987, - 240 C.].

Thus obtained product has the following disadvantages: chicken offal boil, mince includes pieces of liver in different sizes, texture soft, Kraslava, non-monolithic, which reduces the organoleptic characteristics of the product. The product is not balanced for protein and fat, which reduces its nutritional properties.

523 L 1/315, AND 22 WITH 11/00. Meat composition for the preparation of dietary chicken sausages/ N. In. Pike, G., Belsky, N. I. Usov (USSR) - 4819644/13. Declared 03.90 12. Publ. 30.01.92. Bull. 4, - 9 C.], containing the stomach and heart boiled chicken, chicken liver blanshirovannuyu, melted chicken fat, chicken skin blanshirovannuyu, chicken broth, flour. The thus prepared offal are crushed, mixed with other components according to the recipe, the stuffing to fill the shell and subjected to heat treatment until tender.

The disadvantage of this method is high calorie, unbalanced ratio of protein and fat, a high proportion of proteinoids fraction, low digestibility, irrational use of primary and secondary raw materials poultry slaughtering.

An object of the invention is to obtain pate poultry with improved organoleptic characteristics, high dietary properties, ensuring the rational use of raw materials and the expansion of the range.

This object is achieved in that in the method of producing pate poultry diet for petairways, heart boiled chicken, chicken gizzards cooked, making them stuffing making in pastyou a lot of chicken broth, chicken fat ghee and spices according to the recipe, mixing, filling shells, boiling and cooling, new is the fact that when preparing meat pastyou mass also add meat, mechanically deboned chicken, boiled carrots, onions, food hydrolysate obtained from the heads and feet of birds subjected to heat treatment at 110-120oAnd 105PA within 2-3 hours, crushed to the size of the pieces of 2-3 mm and subjected to treatment with a solution of a proteolytic enzyme preparation steps by collagenase concentration 0,048-0.05 g/g of protein at 37-40oWith a pH of 6.8 to 7.0, the water ratio of 1:1 within 120-130 min, in the following ratio, wt.%:

Meat mechanically separated chicken - 25 - 30

The blanched chicken liver - 8 - 12

Heart boiled chicken - 8 - 12

Stomachs chicken boiled - 8 - 12

Food hydrolysate - 8 - 12

Chicken fat melted - 2 - 6

Carrots - 6 - 8

Onions - 4 - 6

Chicken bouillon - Rest

The technical result is expressed not only in achieving its objectives, but also to improve the functional properties of hydrocarbons in the company, a balanced ratio of fat:protein = 1:1, more environmentally friendly production.

When determining the overall chemical composition of secondary raw materials (gizzards, liver, heart, head, feet) used the following methods to define the mass fraction of moisture in accordance with [GOST 9793-74. Meat products. Methods for moisture determination], the mass fraction of fat - method soxlet [V Rossii N. To. and other Research and quality control of meat and meat products. 1985]; mass fraction of the protein [V Rossii N. To. and other Research and quality control of meat and meat products. 1985], the fractional composition of proteins was determined by sequential extraction of water-, salt - and dilaceration protein fractions, respectively, distilled water, a solution of potassium chloride, with a mass fraction of 5% and sodium hydroxide solution with a mass fraction of 10% with subsequent quantification of protein with biuret reagent, determination of proteolytic activity was performed in accordance with [GOST 20264.2-88. The enzyme preparations. Methods for the determination of proteolytic activity].

In addition, it was determined the functional properties of meat: the associated moisture by the method of Grau and Hamm, shirodaria ability, stability of the products. 1985], amino acid composition - chromatographic method for the automatic amino acid analyzer AAA-T 339 (Czech Republic), fatty acid composition by gas chromatography on a gas chromatograph WITH-14V (Japan).

Poultry meat has high nutritional and biological value and can be recommended for production of dietary purposes. It has a high percentage of protein (22%), balanced amino acid composition, a high proportion of fat with the prevalence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, include a wide range of vitamins and minerals. Meat, mechanically deboned has finely ground structure, enriched with fat and vitamins bone marrow, mineral substances. The biological value of the proteins of mechanically separated meat meets meat value manual boning. The increase in the share of hydroxyproline may be associated with the presence of skin in boning. In mechanically separated meat contains 4 times more calcium in comparison with manual deboning. Mass fraction of calcium is 0,016-0,024% by weight of raw materials. However, the presence of unstable phospholipid compounds significantly reduces the stability of mechanically separated meat during storage. When produced by the

At slaughter and primary processing of poultry receive a considerable amount of secondary products - muscular gizzard, liver, heart, head, legs (30%) that are currently used very poorly. At the same time, these products have a high biological value.

Muscular gizzard, liver, heart, characterized by a high mass fraction of protein (20%) with the prevalence of water and solarstorm factions that approaches the performance of the muscle tissue (table. 1). Prevails significant proportion of interchangeable taste and aromatherapeutic amino acids. A small proportion of methionine and tryptophan demonstrate the feasibility of using by-products in products in combination with other proteins, rich in essential amino acids. Secondary products enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamins.

Add chicken broth to the stuffing improves rheological properties and provides reliable and robust indicators. Cooled after the heat treatment the product is solid, keeps its shape well. The broth contains a water-soluble substances, valuable proteins (polypeptides, amino acids, water soluble vitamins, which puusa ability easy active action of digestive lipases, is better absorbed that allows you to appreciate its biological and functional and technological properties.

Use chicken broth and chicken fat melted promotes balanced protein-fat ratio of the product (the ratio of protein: fat = 1:1).

Enrichment pate dietary B vitamins in the product input boiled carrots, shredded to pieces the size of 4-5 mm

Introduction passerovannogo onion helps to partially balance the product content of carbohydrates, which increases the nutritional value of pate. In addition, when passerovannye in the reaction of malonodinitrile formed aromatic substances involved in the formation of taste and aroma of the product and improves the quality of the latter.

The head and legs of the birds currently are carried out together with fowl or soup set. They have low demand and low shelf life. At the same time, the head and legs are characterized by high mass fractions of the protein. For more rational use of these secondary products is necessary is TBA and raising their biological value.

For the destruction of hardened protein structures of the connective tissue, the appropriate use of enzyme preparations, complexes which are characterized by high activity levels of raw materials and are mainly associated with high substrate specificity for the hydrolysis of protein fractions, the maximum activity in the neutral zone pH and moderate temperature range.

Range of proteases composed of industrial enzyme preparations of animal and microbial origin.

The initial selection of enzyme preparations was carried out by assessing the level of General and specific proteolysis on the relevant protein substrates in neutral zone pH.

Requirements satisfy the enzyme preparations, it GH, megateen, collagenase, with the required specificity and high levels of specific activity.

The it GH (STF 100-02-88, with an introd. 23.03.88) and Megatron (Twap 00479942-002-94, with an introd. 01.01.94) are produced on an industrial scale Medok plant enzyme preparations (named Zelenogorsk Tver region).

Collagenase obtained by extraction from the liver of the far East crab and produced at JSC "Bioprogress" , Shchyolkovo (Pasca activity possesses the enzyme collagenase (252,9 u/g), with more and specific effect on collagen, which has a positive effect on increasing the biological value of the product.

Obtained by enzymatic processing of food hydrolyzate of heads and legs is characterized by high mass fractions of water and solarstorm proteins, free amino acids (Fig. 1), the prevalence of taste and aromatherapeutic nonessential amino acids. Limiting amino acid is tryptophan. Amino acid near by lysine and phenylalanine is 110-120%.

Food hydrolysate contains the hydration products of collagen, which helps to enrich the pate dietary fiber.

In the technology of production of meat products of particular importance is given to the assessment of the functional and technological properties. The study of the functional properties of the paste with edible hydrolysate showed the increase in the share of bound moisture, due to the specificity of the protein composition. The product has a low Vlasovites and high gerogerigegege ability (table. 2).

The findings characterize plastic-viscous structure, due to the presence of dissolved protein in the continuous phase.

The way to obtain a paste of meat PT is e muscular stomachs and hearts are cooked, and chicken liver bensonetta. To obtain the chicken broth used chicken gizzards and heart boiled.

Boiled and blanched giblets (gizzards, heart, liver) are ground to the top with a hole diameter of the lattice 8-12 mm.

The head and legs of the bird washed, remove mechanical impurities and subjected to heat treatment at 110-120oAnd 105PA within 2-3 hours Cooled head and legs are crushed to the size of the pieces of 2-3 mm and treated with a solution of a proteolytic enzyme preparation steps by collagenase concentration 0,048-0.05 g/g of protein at 37-40oWith a pH of 6.8 to 7.0, the water ratio of 1:1 within 120-130 minutes From the prepared raw materials are minced to paste.

With the aim of forming fine patterns for cooking meat suspended components according to the recipe, put in a bowl in the following order: stomach, heart, liver, meat, mechanically deboned, food hydrolysate, melted chicken fat, chicken broth and spices. At the last stage of cutting at slow rotation is added to the browned onions and carrots. Mixing is carried out within 3-5 minutes

Intestinal or artificial membranes fill gotovnosti from diameter to achieve in the heart of baton temperature 72o, Then cooled.

The recipe of pate poultry includes the following components, wt%:

Meat mechanically separated chicken - 25 - 30

The blanched chicken liver - 8 - 12

Heart boiled chicken - 8 - 12

Stomachs chicken boiled - 8 - 12

Food hydrolysate - 8 - 12

Chicken fat melted - 2 - 6

Carrots - 6 - 8

Onions - 4 - 6

Chicken bouillon - Rest

In addition, the formulation includes flavorings (spices), wt.%: salt - 2,0; sugar - 0.1; black pepper - 0,7, coriander powder and 0.5.

Thus prepared for the specified recipe and technology pate has a pleasant taste and aroma, spotting consistency. Evaluation of biological value and mineral composition are presented in table. 3 and 4. Overall organoleptic evaluation on a five-point system of 4.9 points.

The method of producing pate poultry diet is illustrated by concrete examples.

Example 1. Boiled and blanched giblets (gizzards, heart, liver) are ground to the top with a hole diameter of the lattice 8-12 mm.

The head and legs of the bird washed, remove mechanical impurities and subjected to heat treatment at 115oAnd 105PA in the enzyme preparation proteolytic action of the collagenase concentration of 0.05 g/g of protein at 37oC, pH 7.0, the water ratio of 1:1 for 120 minutes

With the aim of forming fine patterns for cooking meat suspended components according to the recipe, put in the bowl. Mixing is carried out within 3-5 minutes to Fill the shell and conduct heat treatment until tender.

The formulation of the paste includes the following components, wt%:

Meat mechanically separated chicken - 28

Chicken liver-blanched - 10

Heart boiled chicken - 10

Stomachs chicken boiled - 10

Food hydrolysate - 10

Chicken fat melted - 4

Carrots - 7

Onions - 5

Chicken bouillon - 16

Prepared according to specified recipes and technologies pate has a pleasant taste and aroma, spotting consistency. Overall organoleptic evaluation on a five-point system - 5.0.

Example 2. Composition of formulations and technology of preparation of the paste is similar to example 1. The temperature of pre-heat treatment of heads and legs of the bird 130oWith the pressure of 104PA duration: 4 hours

Example 3. Composition of formulations and technology of preparation of the paste is similar to example 1. The temperature of pre-heat treatment of heads and legs of the bird 100o

Example 5. Composition of formulations and technology of preparation of the paste is similar to example 1. Pre-prepared head and legs are thin grinding less than 2 mm

Example 6. Composition of formulations and technology of preparation of the paste is similar to example 1. Crushed heads and feet of the birds treated with a solution of collagenase concentration of 0.04 g/g of protein.

Example 7. Composition of formulations and technology of preparation of the paste is similar to example 1. Crushed heads and feet of the birds treated with a solution of collagenase concentration of 0.06 g/g of protein.

Example 8. Composition of formulations and technology of preparation of the paste is similar to example 1. Crushed heads and legs of the bird is subjected to enzymatic treatment at 20oC.

Example 9. Composition of formulations and technology of preparation of the paste is similar to example 1. Crushed heads and legs of the bird is subjected to enzymatic treatment at 45oC.

Example 10. Composition of formulations and technology of preparation of the paste is similar to example 1. Crushed heads and feet of birds are subjected to enzymatic training 1. Crushed heads and legs of the bird is subjected to enzymatic treatment at pH 8.

Example 12. Composition of formulations and technology of preparation of the paste is similar to example 1. The duration of enzyme treatment of heads and legs of the bird 90 minutes

Example 13. Composition of formulations and technology of preparation of the paste is similar to example 1. The duration of enzyme treatment of heads and legs of the bird 150 minutes

Example 14. Technology of preparation of the paste is similar to example 1. The formulation of the product includes the following components, wt%:

Meat mechanically separated chicken - 30

Chicken liver-blanched - 12

Heart boiled chicken - 8

Stomachs chicken boiled - 8

Food hydrolysate - 12

Chicken fat melted - 2

Carrots - 8

Onions - 6

Chicken broth - 14

The resulting product has a pleasant taste and aroma, but krasivuyu consistency and increase the share of bone inclusions taste. Overall organoleptic evaluation on a five-point system - 4.4 points.

Example 15. Technology of preparation of the paste is similar to example 1. The formulation of the product includes the following components, wt%:

Meat mechanically separated chicken - 25

Liver hydrolysate - 8

Chicken fat melted - 6

Carrots - 8

Onions - 4

Chicken bouillon - 17

Preparation of the product as in example 1. The resulting product has a low flavoring properties and low biological value. Overall organoleptic evaluation on a five-point system - 4.0.

Data for examples 1-15 are shown in table. 5.

Heat treatment of heads and legs is carried out with the aim of preserving the properties of the chemical components of raw materials under the effect of a weakening of the structure of solid proteins.

The temperature of the heat treatment of heads and legs less than 110oC, a pressure of less than 105PA and a duration of less than 2 hours (example 3) are not sufficient to change the structural-mechanical properties of raw materials, further complicating the grinding and reduces the impact of the enzyme.

Increasing the temperature of heat treatment above 120oWith pressure above 105PA and duration above 3 hours (example 2) leads to a deep breakdown of proteins and fats and extra energy and heat consumption.

Grinding heads and legs into pieces larger than 3 mm (example 4) leads to a high enough degree of hydrolysis of raw materials and increase the flow of fermentatio protein fractions, increase the proportion of free amino acids, including essential, which has a positive effect on the increase in food and biological value of pate.

For each enzyme characteristic of a certain region of optimal pH values at which its maximum activity (examples 1, 10, 11). In Fig.2 shows the dependence of the activity of collagenase from changes in pH.

For collagenase optimum pH equal to 7. When shifting the pH from the interval of 6.8-7.0-area alkaline or acidic values proteolytic activity is sharply reduced, which affects the degree of protein hydrolysis and does not reduce the strength of the structure of raw materials.

The dependence of the activity of collagenase temperature (examples 1, 8, 9) is shown in Fig. 3. In this case, the activity of the enzyme to a temperature of 37oWith continuously increasing, due to the increase in the speed of thermal motion of molecules. Then starts to decrease and at 60oWith reaches its minimum, which is due to denaturation and coagulation changes in the structure of the enzyme. The process of enzymatic hydrolysis of heads and legs is useful to 37-40oWith the activity of the enzyme and the degree of hydrolysis of raw materials is quite high.

the t necessary degree of hydrolysis and increases the duration of the technological cycle.

Temperatures above 40oWith associated with a low degree of protein hydrolysis and early development of coagulation and denaturation processes, which negatively affects the quality of the product.

Study of the effect of concentration of enzyme on the degree of hydrolysis (examples 1, 6, 7) showed that the maximum effect is observed when the concentration of the enzyme, equal 0.048-0.05 g/g of protein. Further increase in the share of the enzyme does not affect the increase in the degree of hydrolysis and leads to unnecessary consumption of enzyme preparation. The degree of hydrolysis of protein materials from the concentration of the enzyme is shown in Fig.4.

When the concentration of the enzyme less 0,048 g/g of protein is not achieved the necessary degree of hydrolysis, which reduces the biological value and increases the duration of the production process.

A necessary condition for achieving the maximum degree of hydrolysis is the selection of the optimal duration of fermentation (examples 1, 12, 13). It is evident from Fig. 5 shows that the optimal duration of enzyme treatment 120-130 min, with a decrease fermentation time is not reached the maximum decay of the substrate, and the increase is impractical because not happening any who provide treatment.

As can be seen from examples 1-15 and table. 5, pate poultry diet for examples 2-5 is characterized by low organoleptic assessment (insufficient razmorennost raw materials, the presence of large pieces of bone or partial hydrolysis of proteins and fat). The deviation of the modes of the parameters pre-treatment of raw materials can not provide further effect when processing enzyme preparation.

The way to obtain a paste in examples 6-13 deviation modes of enzyme treatment from the optimum is characterized by a low degree of hydrolysis of the raw material, which reduces the biological value of the finished product (nutritional properties) (examples 8-12), unreasonably high or low consumption of enzyme preparation (examples 6-7), a significant increase in the duration of the process (example 13).

The paste obtained according to example 14, characterized by a high mass fraction of protein (20.5%), and fat (14.5 percent), has a high energy value - to 220.1 kcal. However, the presence of bone inclusions exceeds the permitted limit (over 0.5%) and the increase in bone content of fat reduces the storage time due to the development of oxidative processes in the product. In addition, the paste for this recipe is crosly the config in example 15, characterized by a decrease in the mass fraction of protein (14,3%), fat (10.5%) and energy value (157,1 kcal). The resulting product has a low flavoring properties and low biological value. Overall organoleptic evaluation on a five-point system - 4.0.

The paste obtained according to example 1 has the optimal parameters and enzymatic pre-treatment, balanced by biological indicators recipe.

The finished product has a pleasant taste and aroma, spotting consistency. Overall organoleptic evaluation on a five-point system - 5.0.

The advantages of the proposed solution compared to the prototype are presented in table. 6.

The proposed method of producing the paste can reduce raw material costs, to enrich the product a high proportion of salt - and water-soluble protein fractions, a significant share of free amino acids to balance the ratio of fat: protein and calcium: phosphorus, to enrich the product with minerals and vitamins to increase dietary properties, to improve the functional and organoleptic properties, rational use of raw materials, to expand the range and improve the environmental friendliness of proizvodstva for dietary, including preliminary heat treatment and grinding of chicken offal: liver chicken blanshirovannuyu, heart boiled chicken, chicken gizzards cooked, making them stuffing making in pastyou a lot of chicken broth, chicken fat ghee and spices according to the recipe, mixing, filling shells, boiling and cooling, characterized in that, when preparing meat pastyou mass also add meat, mechanically deboned chicken, boiled carrots, onions, food hydrolysate obtained from the heads and feet of birds subjected to heat treatment at 110-120oAnd 105PA within 2-3 hours, crushed to the size of the pieces of 2-3 mm and subjected to treatment with a solution of a proteolytic enzyme preparation steps by collagenase concentration 0,048-0.05 g/g of protein at 37-40oWith a pH of 6.8 to 7.0, the water ratio of 1: 1 within 120-130 min, in the following ratio, wt.%:

Meat mechanically separated chicken - 25-30

Chicken liver-blanched - 8-12

Heart boiled chicken - 8-12

The stomachs of boiled chicken - 8-12

Food hydrolysate - 8-12

Chicken fat melted - 2-6

Carrots boiled - 6-8

Onion 4-6

Chicken broth and spices - otherc documents

 

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